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Spie Press Book

Electronic Imaging Technology
Editor(s): Edward R. Dougherty
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Book Description

This book provides an overview of electronic imaging systems, technology, and practical applications. Written by industry experts, its 11 chapters explore a variety of systems and applications, ranging from video compression and handwritten word recognition to color science and hardware architectures. The text is intended for readers interested in applied, industrial electronic imaging.

Book Details

Date Published: 21 January 1999
Pages: 448
ISBN: 9780819430373
Volume: PM60

Table of Contents
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Chapter 1. Introduction
Arthur Robert Weeks
1.1 Historical Background
1.2 Applications of Image Processing
1.3 Image Formation
1.4 Sampling and Quantization
1.5 Image Neighbors and Distances
Chapter 2. Video Compression Standards
Ferran Marques and Philippe Salembier
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Algorithms for Video Compression
2.2.1 Predictive techniques for video compression
2.2.2 Transform techniques for video compression
2.2.3 Hybrid predictive-transform techniques for video compression General scheme of a hybrid encoder-decoder Image prediction for video compression using motion information Block matching approach for motion estimation and compensation Fast algorithms Motion information coding Prediction error coding Frame interpolation using motion information Frame coding using bi-directional prediction
2.3 Current Video Compression Standards
2.3.1 H.261: A standard for videophone applications
2.3.2 MPEG-1: A generic standard for coding of moving pictures for media up to about 1.5 Mbits/s
2.3.3 MPEG-2: Generic coding of moving pictures
2.3.4 H.263: Video codec for narrow channels (< 64 kbits/s)
2.4 MPEG-4: A Standard Under Development
2.4.1 MPEG-4: A new set of functionalities
2.4.2 MPEG-4 natural video
2.4.3 Video object plane information coding
2.4.4 Combined mode and separate mode
2.5 Discussion
Chapter 3. Multimedia Systems
Irek Defee
3.1 Multimedia Systems in General
3.2 Multimedia Applications
3.3 Multimedia Technology Taxonomy
3.4 Multimedia System Requirements
3.5 Personal Computers and Multimedia
3.5.1 Multimedia extensions to microprocessors
3.5.2 Architecture of the PC mainboard
3.6 Multimedia Terminals
3.7 Operating Systems for Multimedia
3.8 Storage Devices
3.9 Media Servers
3.10 Multimedia Networking
3.11 Software and Standards
3.12 System Integration
3.13 Future Developments
Chapter 4 Vision and Visualization
Robert Moorhead and Penny Rheingans
4.1 Vision
4.1.1 Physiology of the human visual system The eye The brain
4.1.2 Characteristics of human visual perception
4.1.3 Cognitive influences on perception
4.2 Visualization
4.2.1 Types of visualization
4.2.2 Types of data
4.2.3 Mappings Color mapping or pseudo coloring Contouring Isosurfaces Volume rendering Vector visualization
4.2.4 Viewing Softcopy viewing Hardcopy viewing
4.3 Perceptual Principles for Visualization Design
4.3.1 Avoiding unwanted interactions
4.3.2 Designing effective colormaps
4.4 Summary
Chapter 5 Color Image Processing
Arthur Robert Weeks
5.1 Color Fundamentals
5.2 Color Models
5.3 Examples of Color Image Processing
5.4 Pseudocoloring and Color Displays
Chapter 6 Enhancement of Digital Documents
Robert P. Loce and Edward R. Dougherty
6.1 The Field of Spatial Resolution Conversion and Enhancement
6.1.1 Other image quality issues
6.2 Document Enhancement
6.2.1 Inferential and noninferential image enhancement
6.2.2 Enhancement by quantization range conversion and redefinition. The contour restoration problem
6.2.3 Methods of writing enhanced pixels
6.3 Binary Image Filters
6.4 Basic Document Processing Operations
6.4.1 Thickening character strokes that are too thin
6.4.2 Thinning character strokes that are too thick
6.4.3 Characters with holes or breaks
6.4.4 Black point noise removal
6.5 Spatial Resolution Conversion and Enhancement
6.5.1 Categories of resolution conversion
6.5.2 Resolution conversion by multiple parallel filters Integer conversion Noninteger conversion
6.5.3 Resolution conversion by filtering in the resampled space
Chapter 7 Digital Halftoning for Printing and Display of Electronic
Robert P. Loce, Paul G. Roetling, and Ying-wei Lin
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Historical Perspective and Overview
7.2.1 Analog screening
7.2.2 Template dots
7.2.3 Noise encoding
7.2.4 Ordered dither
7.2.5 Error diffusion
7.3 Visual Perception
7.4 Methods of Halftoning
7.4.1 Noise encoding
7.4.2 Ordered dither Implementation Dispersed-dot ordered dither Clustered-dot ordered dither Dot growth pattern and tone reproduction, and stability Schematic of analog screen generator for line screen halftoning Screen frequency vs. number of gray levels Halftoning, sampling, and aliasing
7.4.3 Error diffusion Fundamental algorithm Modifications of error diffusion Mathematical description of error diffusion and edge sharpening effects
Chapter 8 Document Recognition
John C. Handley
8.1 Document Image Analysis and Understanding
8.2 Runlength Smoothing Algorithm and Variants
8.3 Background Covering
8.4 Document Decoding
8.5 X-Y Trees
8.6 Table Recognition: Identification and Analysis
8.7 Form Recognition
8.8 Font Identification
8.8.1 Font extraction by morphological methods
8.8.2 Projection profiles
8.9 Conclusion
8.10 Appendix
Chapter 9 Lexicon-Driven Handwritten Word Recognition
Paul D. Gader
9.1 Background
9.1.1 What is lexicon-driven handwritten word recognition?
9.1.2 Why is handwritten word recognition difficult?
9.1.3 Overview of typical system
9.2 Segmentation Approaches
9.3 Character Level Processing
9.3.1 Features
9.3.2 Character confidence assignment
9.4 Word Level Processing
9.4.1 Dynamic programming matching to lexicons
9.4.2 Estimation of word-level confidence from character level confidence Baseline dynamic programming algorithm revisited Robust matching algorithm
9.5 Experimental Results
9.6 Conclusion
9.7 Acknowledgments
Chapter 10 Scanning
Ying-wei, Joseph P. Taillie, and Leon C. Williams
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Fundamentals of the Scanning and Digitization Process
10.2.1 Overview
10.2.2 Scanning and sampling
10.2.3 Quantization
10.3 Optical and Mechanical Systems
10.3.1 Paper original support
10.3.2 Illumination system Halogen lamp Fluorescent lamp LED array Power supply
10.3.3 Optical system Reduction system Full-page width systems Wide body systems
10.3.4 Mechanical system
10.4 Image Sensor
10.4.1 CCD sensors
10.4.2 Contact sensors
10.4.3 Color CCD sensors
10.4.4 Color separation
10.5 Electronics
10.5.1 A/D conversion
10.5.2 Non-uniformity correction
10.6 Factors Affecting Scanned Image Quality
10.6.1 Scanner MTF
10.6.2 Scanned image noise
10.6.3 Motion quality
10.6.4 Color accuracy Color filters Scanner color calibration
10.6.5 Other factors
10.7 Image Processing
10.7.1 Scaling
10.7.2 Background compensation
10.7.3 Edge enhancement
10.7.4 Descreening
10.7.5 Image segmentation
10.8 Conclusion
Chapter 11 Hardware Architecture for Image Processing
Divyendu Sinha and Edward R. Dougherty
11.1 Parallelism
11.1.1 Classification based on instruction and data streams
11.1.2 Classification based on instruction set
11.1.3 Cache
11.2 Pipelined Processors
11.2.1 General principles
11.2.2 Instruction pipelining
11.2.3 Case study: convolution
11.2.4 Case study: morphological gradient
11.2.5 Superpipelining
11.3 Multiple Processors
11.3.1 Program partitioning and scheduling
11.3.2 Case study: convolution
11.4 Massively Parallel Architectures
11.5 Performance Laws
11.6 AISI'S Ais Processors
11.6.1 Linear array processing system
11.6.2 Processing elements
11.6.3 Processor operation
11.6.4 Hit-or-miss transform
11.6.5 OCR application
11.7 ITI'S MVC 150/40 Processor
11.7.1 Image management
11.7.2 Computational acceleration modules


This book is composed of chapters covering different areas within electronic imaging, with the focus being on system overview, technology, and practical application. The book commences with an introductory chapter and after that each chapter is essentially self-contained. The authors have practical experience in the individual topics they cover and each chapter provides insight into its particular application domain and how the various system components contribute to problem solutions. Many of the authors are editors of the SPIE/IS&T Journal of Electronic Imaging.

The introductory chapter provides a brief history of the subject and an overview of applications. It goes on to provide some basic material regarding digital imaging that is meant to give a backdrop to those reading the book who are not necessarily familiar with the basic structure of digital images.

The second chapter treats an extremely important topic in electronic imaging, video compression. Owing to the need to move vast amounts of image data, compression is an absolutely necessity. The authors introduce a number of coding algorithms and then turn their attention to video compression standards. Four current standards are covered: H.261, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and H.263. The chapter also discusses the development of MPEG-4, in particular, the functionalities important to MPEG-4.

The third chapter defines multimedia in a wide sense as, "a new technology merging computer, communication, and consumer electronics with content provided by the media industry." The general concept of a multimedia system is introduced, along with applications, overall system requirements, and sections on various system components and their integration.

Chapter four discusses visualization, the creation of images from data. The task is to produce imagery that is compatible with the human visual system so that understanding is facilitated. This can only be accomplished with an understanding of the human visual system, and the chapter begins by covering basic aspects of that system. It then discusses different types of visualization and mappings. It concludes with perceptual principles for visualization design.

Color is becoming increasingly important for electronic image processing systems and there are a number of attributes of image processing that are unique to color. The fifth chapter begins by introducing some basic principles of color science and then discussing color models. It provides examples of color image processing and finishes with some remarks on color displays.

Digital document processing is a field within electronic image processing that has developed special methods to address its own unique problems. The human eye is particularly sensitive to certain effects created by digitally sampling binary and low-bit images. Therefore it is common to enhance digital documents prior to display or printing. Chapter six discusses the construction of binary digital filters for document enhancement. Its major focus is on resolution conversion.

The seventh chapter covers halftoning, which consists of various coding methods to reduce the number of quantization levels per pixel without too greatly impacting the appearance to a human observer. The chapter gives a history of halftoning and then reviews the relevant aspects of visual perception. A number of halftoning methods are discussed, including noise encoding, ordered dither, and error diffusion.

Chapter eight discusses document recognition. Upon scanning a document, characters and other objects need to be transformed from image data to symbolic representation for further processing. A document is segmented into blocks and the blocks are then classified into text, graphics, etc. A number of topics are treated, including runlength smoothing, background covering, document decoding, table recognition, form recognition, and font identification.

Handwriting recognition is quite different than recognition of machine fonts. It is often true in pattern recognition that segmentation and recognition are not fully separable, and this is particularly valid in handwriting recognition. The approach taken in the ninth chapter is to consider recognition at the word level, utilize a lexicon from which each word must be chosen, and rate an observed word relative to words in the lexicon. The chapter explains the overall structure of lexicon-driven, segmentation-based handwritten word recognition. It treats segmentation approaches, character level processing, and word level processing, with its focus being at the word level.

Given a hardcopy image that one wishes to process, that hardcopy needs to be scanned into a digital format. Chapter ten covers image scanning, beginning with the basics of digitization and going on to explain, in detail, optical and mechanical systems, sensors (including color CCD sensors), and electronics. Owing to the importance of image quality, significant attention is paid to factors affecting the quality of scanned images, such as the scanner modulation transfer function and color filtering and calibration. The chapter concludes with brief coverage of some image processing tasks typically applied to a scanned image prior to printing.

Ultimately, practical digital image processing depends on a computer system. Successful implementation often requires an appropriate computational environment. This is especially true for meeting real-time requirements. The last chapter of the book treats hardware architecture for image processing. It introduces the general concept of parallel processing and then discusses pipelining and the use of multiple processors, with application to convolution and morphological filtering. There are two sections giving detailed accounts of commercial image processing systems: AISI's AIS processors and ITI's MVC 150/40 processor.

The book is meant for the general body of people interested in applied, industrial electronic imaging technology. Hopefully, one whose specialty is in one domain can read various chapters to obtain a broader view of the general subject. Those desiring a more in-depth account of a particular topic can proceed to a full text, or to the research literature. It is my hope that the book proves useful to a wide range of practitioners within the electronic imaging industry and to those people who are just becoming involved with the field.

Edward R. Dougherty December 1998

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