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Review of Optical Manufacturing 2000 to 2020
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Book Description

This book summarizes some of the critical changes that have impacted optical system manufacturing from 2000 to 2020. It evaluates new manufacturing techniques with growing popularity and identifies future trends. The chapters provide a snapshot of the field that conveys the basics of current manufacturing capabilities and promising new techniques. Other topics reviewed include optical materials, optical fabrication, metrology, optical coatings, infrared optical systems, polymer optics, fiber optics, diffractive- and micro-structured optics, and illumination optics. This book is suitable for beginner optical engineers learning about the optics industry and for advanced professionals staying up-to-date with various subfields of optics.

Book Details

Date Published: 24 September 2021
Pages: 388
ISBN: 9781510645363
Volume: PM334
Errata

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Preface

1 Introduction
Aizhong Zhang and Richard N. Youngworth
References

2 Optical Materials
Ralf Jedamzik, Uwe Petzold, Frank Nürnberg, Bodo Kühn, and Gordon von der Gönna
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Optical Glass Production
     2.2.1 What is optical glass?
     2.2.2 Raw materials
     2.2.3 Melting and coarse annealing
     2.2.4 Fine annealing
     2.2.5 Refractive index measurement
     2.2.6 Refractive index homogeneity measurement
     2.2.7 Refractive index homogeneity: striae
     2.2.8 Transmittance measurement
     2.2.9 Stress birefringence measurement
     2.2.10 Bubble and inclusion measurement
     2.2.11 Other properties
2.3 Fused Silica Production
     2.3.1 Properties of fused silica
     2.3.2 Making of fused quartz and fused silica
     2.3.3 Homogenization of quartz glass
     2.3.4 Shaping and forming of quartz glass
     2.3.5 Doping quartz glass
     2.3.6 Quartz glass for applications in the near-infrared
     2.3.7 Laser-induced damage threshold of quartz glass
     2.3.8 Applications
2.4 Crystalline Materials Production
     2.4.1 History
     2.4.2 The crystalline state
     2.4.3 Crystal growth
     2.4.4 Optical ceramics
     2.4.5 Post-growth heat treatment
     2.4.6 Properties and qualities
2.5 Optical Material Trends
References

3 Optical Fabrication
Jessica DeGroote Nelson
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Traditional Fabrication Methods
     3.2.1 Cast iron lapping
     3.2.2 Conventional or pitch polishing
3.3 CNC Optics Manufacturing
     3.3.1 Spherical CNC generation
     3.3.2 Deterministic small tool polishers
     3.3.3 Mid-spatial frequency smoothing methods
3.4 Special Considerations for Aspheres and Freeforms
     3.4.1 Aspheres
     3.4.2 Freeforms
3.5 Concluding Remarks
References

4 Metrology
Daewook Kim, Isaac Trumper, and Logan R. Graves
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Standard Opto-Mechanical Metrology
     4.2.1 Coordinate measuring machines
     4.2.2 Machine vision
     4.2.3 Structured light projection
     4.2.4 Laser tracker
     4.2.5 Infrared scanning system
4.3 Precision Process Guiding Metrology
     4.3.1 Contact stylus profilometry
     4.3.2 Non-contact slope sensor scanning
     4.3.3 On-machine metrology
4.4 High-Precision Quality Check or Verification Metrology
     4.4.1 Birefringence measurements
     4.4.2 Swing arm profilometry
     4.4.3 Deflectometry
     4.4.4 Null interferometry
     4.4.5 Instantaneous dynamic interferometry
     4.4.6 Microscopic white-light interferometry
4.5 Concluding Remarks
References

5 Optical Coatings
Ronald R. Willey
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The New Century
     5.2.1 Better understanding
     5.2.2 Design
     5.2.3 Materials
     5.2.4 Equipment
     5.2.5 Masking for uniformity
     5.2.6 Monitoring and control
     5.2.7 Processes
     5.2.8 Index versus thickness
5.3 Conclusions
References

6 Infrared Optical Systems
Adam Phenis and Jason Mudge
6.1 Introduction
6.2 New Applications
     6.2.1 Industrial imaging
     6.2.2 Defense
     6.2.3 Science
6.3 Component Development
     6.3.1 Infrared sensing
     6.3.2 Infrared sources
6.4 Acknowledgments
References

7 Polymer Optics
Robert Parada, Jr., Douglas Axtell, and Dan Morgan
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Polymer Materials
7.3 Optical Design Considerations
7.4 Small-Volume Manufacturing
7.5 Large-Volume Manufacturing
7.6 Metrology Considerations
7.7 Ancillary Services
     7.7.1 Gate vestige removal
     7.7.2 Optical thin film coating
     7.7.3 Alignment and joining
     7.7.4 Stress reduction
7.8 Emerging Techniques and Applications
     7.8.1 Micro-optics
     7.8.2 Photonics
     7.8.3 Asymmetric form factors
     7.8.4 Novel materials
     7.8.5 Healthcare
References

8 Optical Fibers and Optical Fiber Assemblies
Devinder Saini, Kevin Farley, and Brian Westlund
8.1 Optical Fibers
     8.1.1 Preform manufacturing
     8.1.2 Fiber draw
     8.1.3 Fiber testing capabilities
     8.1.4 Advanced fibers
8.2 Optical Fiber Applications and Assemblies
     8.2.1 Applications
     8.2.2 Mode mixing and de-speckling
     8.2.3 Anti-reflection technologies
     8.2.4 Assembly design considerations
     8.2.5 1D and 2D arrays
     8.2.6 High-power design considerations
References

9 Diffractive- and Micro-structured Optics
Tasso R. M. Sales and G. Michael Morris
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Fabrication of Surface-Relief Masters
     9.2.1 Single-point diamond turning (SPDT)
     9.2.2 Optical and E-beam lithography
     9.2.3 Laser pattern generation
     9.2.4 Reactive ion etching
     9.2.5 Nickel electroform tooling
9.3 High-Volume Manufacturing Processes
     9.3.1 Polymer-on glass wafers
     9.3.2 Roll-to-roll manufacturing
9.4 Diffractive Lenses in Broadband Imaging Systems
     9.4.1 Diffractive lens fundamentals
     9.4.2 Diffractive/refractive (hybrid) achromatic lenses
     9.4.3 Multi-layer diffractive optical elements
     9.4.4 Multi-order diffractive lenses
     9.4.5 Multifocal diffractive ophthalmic lenses
9.5 Markets for Micro-Structured Optics
     9.5.1 Gesture recognition and 3D imaging/sensing systems
     9.5.2 Display and image projection systems
     9.5.3 Solid-state lighting
9.6 Summary
References

10 Illumination Optics
Henning Rehn and Julius Muschaweck
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Fields of Application
     10.2.1 Indoor lighting
     10.2.2 Outdoor lighting
     10.2.3 Automotive lighting
     10.2.4 Medical lighting
     10.2.5 Airfield lighting
     10.2.6 Entertainment lighting
     10.2.7 Data and video projection
     10.2.8 Flat panel displays
     10.2.9 Smartphones and smart watches
     10.2.10 Solar
     10.2.11 Freeform optics
     10.2.12 Trends after 2000
10.3 Light Sources and Their Fabrication
     10.3.1 Legacy light sources
     10.3.2 Rise of LED technology
10.4 Optical Components for Illumination and Their Fabrication
     10.4.1 Standard lenses
     10.4.2 TIR lenses and related collimators
     10.4.3 Fresnel lenses
     10.4.4 Compound concentrators
     10.4.5 Reflectors
     10.4.6 Light guides
     10.4.7 Homogenizers
     10.4.8 Sheets
10.5 Prototype Technologies
10.6 Outlook
References

Preface

This book summarizes some of the critical changes that have impacted optical system manufacturing from 2000 to 2020. It evaluates new manufacturing techniques with growing popularity and identifies future trends. The chapters provide a snapshot of the field that conveys the basics of current manufacturing capabilities and promising new techniques. Other topics reviewed include optical materials, optical fabrication, metrology, optical coatings, infrared optical systems, polymer optics, fiber optics, diffractive- and micro-structured optics, and illumination optics. This book is suitable for beginner optical engineers learning about the optics industry and for advanced professionals staying up-to-date with various subfields of optics.

Aizhong Zhang
Richard N. Youngworth
Editors
August 2021


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