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Field Guide to Optoelectronics and Photonics
Author(s): Juan Hernández-Cordero; Mathieu Hautefeuille
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Book Description

This Field Guide covers the physics of semiconductors, from the materials used in optoelectronics and photonics to charge statistics and transport to p–n junctions and their applications. It then addresses the physics of the interactions between radiation and matter at different levels—macroscopic, microscopic, and quantum level—and includes the fundamental concepts of waveguides, fiber optics, and photonics devices such as light modulators. It finally highlights important applications of the field in engineering and applied physics. The guide summarizes the scientific and engineering foundations of optoelectronics and photonics and thus can be used as a textbook for college students, although it could be useful for practicing scientists and engineers as well.

Book Details

Estimated Publication Date: 22 November 2021
Pages: 124
ISBN: 9781510644144
Volume: FG50

Table of Contents
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Preface
Glossary of Symbols

Semiconductor Optics and Optoelectronics I: Fundamentals
Maxwell's Equations
Electromagnetic Radiation in Vacuum
Electromagnetic Radiation in Matter
Band Theory: Origin of Energy Bands
Band Theory: Classification of Materials
Crystallographic Considerations
Dispersion Relations
Definition of the Photon
Common Examples of Semiconductors in Optoelectronics
Temperature Dependency

Semiconductor Optics and Optoelectronics II: Charge Carrier Statistics
Electron Configuration
Hund's Rule and Pauli's Exclusion Principle
Klechkowsky's Rule (Madelung’s Rule)
Semiconductor Charge Carriers: Energy Bands
Fermi–Dirac Distribution Function
Fermi Level and Band Theory
Density of States
Occupation Probabilities
n-Doped and p-Doped Semiconductors
Example of Doping: Silicon

Semiconductor Optics and Optoelectronics III: Transport Properties
Mobility
Conduction
Diffusion
Total Current
Generation and Recombination: Radiative and Nonradiative
Continuity Equations for Carriers

p–n Junction
Homogeneous Semiconductor
Nonhomogeneous Semiconductor
Thermodynamic Equilibrium in p–n Junctions: Bands and Carriers
Diffusion Voltage and Potential Barrier
p–n Junction Bias: Diode
Forward and Reverse Bias
I-V Characteristics
Heterojunctions

Macroscopic Light–Matter Interaction
Boundary Conditions
Reflection and Refraction
Noether's Theorem
Conservation Laws
Fresnel Formulae: Interfaces
Extinction and Absorption of Light
Transmission
Birefringence
Dichroism
Filters
Thin Film Filters
Fabry–Pérot Modes

Microscopic and Quantum Light–Matter Interaction
Absorption
Scattering
Scales in MIE and Rayleigh Scattering
Spontaneous Emission
Stimulated Emission
Plasmons
Quantum Dots

Optical Waveguides
Light-Guiding Mechanisms
Planar Waveguides
Waveguide Coupling
Diffractive Elements in Waveguides
Optical Fibers
Light Propagation in Optical Fibers: Multimode, Few-Mode, and Single-Mode
Microstructured Optical Fibers: Hollow-Core and Photonic Bandgap Fibers
Fiber Bundles
Diffractive Elements in Optical Fibers

Optoelectronic Devices
Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
LED Efficiency
Semiconductor Laser Diodes
Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers (DPSSLs)
Fiber Lasers
Photodiodes
Avalanche Photodiodes
Photomultiplier Tubes

Photonics and Its Applications: Devices
Solar Cells
Practical Use of Solar Cells
Organic Photovoltaic Devices and Organic LEDs
Optical Modulators: Acousto-optic and Electro-optic
Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs)
Optical Fiber Devices
Optical Fiber Sensors
Photonic Lanterns

Photonics: Applications of Its Physical Properties
Photonic Crystals
Parametric Conversion
UV–VIS Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Raman Spectroscopy
Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (OTDR)
Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors
Laser Micromachining I: Ablation
Laser Micromachining II: Photopolymerization
Laser Micromachining III: Two-Photon

Equation Summary

Bibliography of Further Reading
Index

The material in this Field Guide to Optoelectronics and Photonics derives from the notes gathered and created for the lectures taught by the authors at both undergraduate and graduate levels at the School of Sciences and the School of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The topics included in the Field Guide are covered in curricular courses such as Biomedical Applications of Optoelectronics (Undergraduate level, School of Engineering), Introduction to Photonics and Radiation–Matter Interaction (School of Sciences, Physics Department), Introduction to Photonics (Graduate level, Graduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering), and in the lectures of Optical Waveguides and Photonic Devices (Graduate level, Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering).

This volume covers the physics of semiconductors, from the materials used in optoelectronics and photonics to charge statistics and transport to p–n junctions and their applications. It then addresses the physics of the interactions between radiation and matter at different levels—macroscopic, microscopic, and quantum—and includes the fundamentals concepts of waveguides and fiber optics and photonics devices such as light modulators. It finally highlights important applications of the field in engineering and applied physics.

The text summarizes the scientific and engineering foundations of optoelectronics and photonics and thus can be used as a textbook for college students, although it could be useful for practicing scientists and engineers as well. As with any other text aimed at covering a broad range of topics, some practical details had to be left out due to space constraints. Issues regarding operation of photonic and optoelectronic devices, such as power supply and control, are not covered in the text. The readers are thus left with the task of investigating these aspects that are relevant for practical purposes but in some cases can be very specific to a particular application.

Juan Hernández-Cordero would like to thank Amado Velázquez-Benítez for his support in teaching the photonics courses, particularly those covering topics on waveguides and devices. Mathieu Hautefeuille would like to give a special acknowledgement to Edwige Bano for her initial introduction to the field of physics of semiconductors (and her precious material) in Grenoble and to Reinher Pimentel for his support as a Teaching Assistant dating back to the initial stages of the courses.

Finally, we both appreciate our interaction with all of the motivated students who have attended our lectures, especially those who stayed longer to experiment with us in our labs. They greatly motivated us to assemble this Field Guide, which we hope will become a useful and handy compendium of some of the most relevant topics related to the myriad of applications of optoelectronics and photonics.

JHC lovingly dedicates this book to Margo and daughters, Lía, Siena, and Katya, who have always been and will remain his source of inspiration. The book is also dedicated to the memory of his mother.

MH dedicates this book to Jimena and sons, Noah and Teo, who patiently support him and whose curiosity always stimulates his will to learn.

Juan A. Hernández-Cordero
Mathieu Hautefeuille

October 2021


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