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Field Guide to Infrared Optical Materials
Author(s): Alan Symmons; Mark Lifshotz
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Book Description

Today’s SWIR, MWIR, LWIR and multispectral technologies cover a wide range of commercial and military applications and continue to rapidly expand in almost every aspect of our lives. This Field Guide focuses on the most common infrared crystals and glasses used in these systems, from their manufacturing methods through modern optical fabrication technologies to the end-use applications. Detailed optical, crystallographic, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties of the most popular infrared materials are reviewed in detail along with process flows and relative comparisons. Field Guide to Infrared Optical Materials provides a concise and convenient resource for those interested in the materials used in infrared optical systems.


Book Details

Date Published: 31 August 2021
Pages: 210
ISBN: 9781510640658
Volume: FG49

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents

Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

Introduction
Infrared Optics
Applications of Infrared Optics

Material Properties
Index of Refraction
Index of Refraction Measurement
Temperature Coefficient of the Refractive Index
Dispersion
Birefringence
Transmission
Absorption
Atmospheric Absorption
Infrared Atmospheric Windows
SWIR
SWIR Images
MWIR
MWIR Images
LWIR
LWIR Images
Transmission of Infrared Optical Materials
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Solubility
Thermal Properties
Thermal Runaway
Crystal versus Glass
Crystallographic Properties
Periodic Table
Material Classifications
Material Legend

Semiconductors
Semiconductors
Cadmium Telluride, CdTe
Gallium Arsenide, GaAs
Germanium, Ge
Silicon, Si

II-VI Crystalline Compounds
II-VI Crystalline Compounds
Zinc Selenide, ZnSe
Zinc Sulfide, ZnS
Zinc Sulfide, ZnS, Clear Grade

Alkaline Earth Halides or Fluorides
Alkaline Earth Halides or Fluorides
Barium Fluoride, BaF2
Calcium Fluoride, CaF2
Lithium Flouride, LiF
Magnesium Fluoride, MgF2

Oxides
Oxides
Fused Silica, IR Grade
Magnesium Oxide, MgO
Sapphire, Al2O3

Alkali Halides
Alkali Halides
Cesium Iodide, CsI
Potassium Bromide, KBr
Potassium Chloride, KCl
Sodium Chloride, NaCl
Thallium Bromoiodide, KRS-5

Other Materials
Irtran Materials
Other Materials

Amorphous Materials
Chalcogenide Glasses
Chalcogenide Glass Overview
As40Se60
Ge10Se50As40
Ge28Sb12Se60
Ge33Se55As12
Chalcogenide Trade Names
Custom Chalcogenide Glasses

Material Fabrication
Crystal Growth
Bridgman–Stockbarger Technique
Czochralski Technique
Kyropoulos Technique
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Sintering and Hot Pressing
Hot Isostatic Pressing
Float Zone
Sapphire Growth Techniques
Sapphire Growth Techniques – GSM
Sapphire Growth Techniques – HDSM
Sapphire Growth Techniques – HEM
Chalcogenide Glass Melting

Process Chains for the Manufacture of Infrared Optics
Optical Fabrication
Conventional Grinding and Polishing
Double-Side Polishing
Continuous Polishing
CNC Grinding and Polishing
Grind and Polish Process Chain
Single-Point Diamond Turning
SPDT Process Chain
Precision Glass Molding
PGM Process Chain
Manufacturing Process Chain Comparison
Thin Film Coating
Single-Layer Antireflective IR Coatings
Multilayer Antireflective IR Coatings
Diamond-Like Carbon / Hard Carbon Coatings
Infrared Material Pricing

Applications
Applications: Pressure Windows
Applications: Commercial Thermal Imaging
Applications: FTIR Spectrophotometry
Applications: Athermalized IR Lens Assemblies
Applications: Quantum Cascade Lasers

Appendix A: Material Property Comparisons
Density
Melting Point
Modulus of Rupture
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Linear Expansion
Young's Modulus
Knoop Hardness
Refractive Index at 3 μm
Refractive Index at 10.6 μm

Appendix B: General References by Topic

Appendix C: Chalcogenide Glasses

Equation Summary

Bibliography of Further Reading
Index

The authors' purpose in writing the Field Guide to Infrared Optical Materials was to create a concise, efficient reference for the quick analysis of commonly used infrared optical materials to aid in their review for selection. The emphasis has been placed on practicality. The collection of materials is based on the authors' experience of which materials, processes, and procedures are commonly used in the industry today. There are certainly many other infrared optical materials available on the market and there are much more detailed and comprehensive references for this sort of information. The authors would suggest the excellent references by Klocek, Weber, and Wolfe or any of the other books listed in the bibliography. It is also highly recommended that, prior to final selection of a material, a detailed study is undertaken and direct contact is made with the specific material manufacturer for any required material properties (see disclaimer).

The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their assistance in writing this guide: Matthew Brown, Jacklyn Novak, Dr. Bill Moreshead, and Erik Stover at M3 Measurement Solutions and John Burnett at NIST for assistance with the page on measurement of the index of refraction. A special thanks to Jeff Richling and Myeong Nam for their substantial help with the coating section and to Pavel Reshidko and Ran Carmeli at RP Optical for the excellent images. This work would not have been possible without the support of the exceptional team at LightPath Technologies and ISP Optics.

This guide is dedicated to my family: Lauren, Carter, Cooper, and Holden. I could never have imagined to be so lucky to have a family like this! A.S.

This guide is dedicated to my family: Erenn, Donna, Boris, David, and Daniel. Love you all. M.L.

Alan Symmons
Mark Lifshotz

July 2021


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