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Microscope Design, Volume 1: Principles
Author(s): Dmitry N. Frolov
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Book Description

This book traces the historical development of microscopy instruments from their invention to the current state of the art. New concepts and engineering solutions are presented for modern light microscopes, with a focus on the practical construction of optical systems. Real design parameters of dioptric objectives and other systems are provided to supply readers with basic information for independent designs. Full-color photomicrographs of real objects illustrate the quality of aberration correction that is required from optics.

Book Details

Estimated Publication Date: 28 February 2022
Pages: 600
ISBN: 9781510639935
Volume: PM328

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Non-modern Modern Microscopes
1.1 A Brief Excursion to History
1.2 Non-modern Modern Microscopes
     1.2.1 Objectives: Achromats
     1.2.2 Objectives: Apochromats
     1.2.3 Achromats and apochromats water immersion objectives
     1.2.4 Eyepieces, condensers and other components
     1.2.5 Reflective light equipment
     1.2.6 Old mass-produced Soviet microscopes and devices
     1.2.7 Set of interesting, old Zeiss objectives
     1.2.8 Old mass-produced American microscopes
1.3 Topical Reasoning

Chapter 2 Abstracts and Reviews
2.1 Group Design of Optical Instruments
     2.1.1 Basic design
     2.1.2 Aggregate-modular design
2.2 Design of Unified Systems of Optical Instruments and Functional Nodes
2.3 Brief Classification of Microscopic Objects
     2.3.1 Brief description of some special "microscopic" objects
2.4 Short Description of Image in the Microscope
2.5 Main Types of Microscopes and Components of the Light Microscope
2.6 On the Need to Change Some Norms and Standards for Light Microscopes
     2.6.1 On the current level of technology
2.7 Optical System of a Modern Microscope
     2.7.1 Illumination system
     2.7.2 The visual observation system
     2.7.3 Objectives
     2.7.4 Eyepieces
     2.7.5 Recording system
2.8 Engineering Solutions of Optics for Visualization Systems of Light Microscopes
2.9 Examples of Principal Optical Designs of Some Kinds of Light Microscopes
2.10 Synthesis of the Optical Systems of Lens Objectives for Light Microscopes
     2.10.1 Designing the optical layouts of microscope objectives
     2.10.2 The simplest microscope objectives
     2.10.3 The simplest microscope objectives with corrected lateral color aberration
     2.10.4 The simplest microscope objectives with correction for two wavelengths or spectral regions "dualchromat" type
     2.10.5 Microscope objectives with increased numerical apertures
     2.10.6 Microscope objectives with planapochromatic correction
     2.10.7 Planachromats and planapochromats with increased working distances
     2.10.8 Plansuperapochromat microscope objectives
     2.10.9 "Microvideo" objectives
2.11 On Condensers of Microscopes of Transmitting Light
2.12 Conditions for Obtaining Uniform Light Distribution, Generated by Lighting Devices
2.13 Correction of Chromatic Aberration in the Optical Systems of Illumination in Microscopes
2.14 Features of the Construction of Lighting Devices of Microscopes for the Implementation of Methods of Contrasting
2.15 Examples of Phase Contrast Investigations using Different Producers of Devices
2.16 Several Photographs of Objects Taken Using Polarization and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopes
2.17 Investigation of the Possibility of using Leds as Light Sources in Microscopes
     2.17.1 LED optics
     2.17.2 LEDs in the illumination devices of microscopes
     2.17.3 Types of diffusers and their role in lighting devices of microscopes
     2.17.4 Led lines and matrixes in microscopes
     2.17.5 Practice and analysis of the experimental use of the LED in the microscope
2.18 Technique for Calculating the Designs of Filled-type Objectives
2.19 Estimation of Clearances in the Design and Adjustment of Barrel Type Lens Systems
2.20 Experience in Creating Elements of an Automated System for Testing the Quality of Microscope Objectives
     2.20.1 The use in the microscope of the "infinity" tube length - a step towards automating the assembly and control of microscope objectives
     2.20.2 "Virtual" quality and assembly – steps to automate the assembly and control of microscope objectives
     2.20.3 Elements of automation control optical-mechanical components
     2.20.4 Elements of automation of quality control microscope objectives
2.21 The Concept of an Automatic Assembly Line for Microscope Objectives, Based on Adaptive Selection of their Components
     2.21.1 Concept of an automatic assembly line for microscope objectives
     2.21.2 Standardization of microscope objective designs
     2.21.3 Technological errors of the elements that influence the target quality indices of microscope objectives
     2.21.4 Adaptive-selective assembly of microscope objectives
     2.21.5 Monitoring and ensuring the target quality indices of an microscope objective
     2.21.6 Structural composition of the assembly line
2.22 Providing Target Performance Indices when Automating the Assembly of Microscope Objectives
     2.22.1 Compensating spherical aberration by virtual assembly
     2.22.2 Compensating coma during virtual assembly
2.23 False Birefringence in a Polarization Microscope
2.24 Interferometric Quality Control of Lenses and Objectives
     2.24.1 Interference pattern
     2.24.2 Control of flat surface
     2.24.3 Control of the spherical surface
     2.24.4 Analysis of errors of the interferometry method
     2.24.5 High-precision processing and interpretation of complex interferograms
2.25 Micro-interferometer MII-4
2.26 Light Section Microscope PSS-3
     2.26.1 Principle of operation
     2.26.2 Optical diagram
2.27 Analysis of the Problems of Optimizing the Parameters of a Microscope's Optical System
2.28 Development of "Micron Resolution Microscopes" for Reducing Photolithography
     2.28.1 Potential application of the micron photolithography system
     2.28.2 Key parameters of the reducing photolithography objects
     2.28.3 Concept of use microscope objective in reverse ray tracing
     2.28.4 Evolution not revolution of optical designs of lithography systems
     2.28.5 MgF2 (or LiF) and Lyman's source
2.29 Building Lithography Optics by Mirrors
2.30 Concentric Mirror Objective Plan Anastigmat
2.31 Anamorphic Optics of Lighting Devices

Chapter 3 Principles of Constructing Microscope Optics
3.1 Element Base and Principles of the Composition of the Optical Systems of the Microscope
     3.1.1 Aberrational properties of a spherical surface
     3.1.2 Optical scheme of a microscope
3.2 The Relationship of the Resolution of the Image Formed by the Optical System of the Microscope, with its Parameters
     3.2.1 The resolution of the optical system of the microscope and the useful magnification of the image formed by it
3.3 The Quality (Q-factor) of the Microscope Optical System
3.4 The System of Variable Magnification in the Scheme of the Illumination Device of the Microscope
     3.4.1 Basic schemes of optical systems with variable magnification
     3.4.2 The position of the optically conjugate points in variable magnification optical systems
     3.4.3 Optical system of variable magnification in the scheme of the illumination device of the microscope
3.5 The Construction of Frontal Components of Objectives for Microscope: Optical Design
     3.5.1 Lens objective for microscope: what is inside?
     3.5.2 Autocollimation method of centering lenses
     3.5.3 Calculation of the frontal lenses of objectives for microscopes
     3.5.4 Optical design of the frontal lenses of microscope objectives
     3.5.5 Mechanical design and methods of assembling the frontal lenses of microscope objectives
     3.5.6 Frontal components of the immersion objectives
3.6 Optical Design and Unification of Optical Systems of Objectives for Microscopes
     3.6.1 Basic components, unification of objective optical structures
     3.6.2 Unification of objectives for microscopes using a parametric series of focal lengths
     3.6.3 Unification of objectives for microscopes by variants of execution
3.7 An Example of the Optical and Mechanical Design of a Microscope Objective
     3.7.1 Terms of reference for the design
     3.7.2 Patent search
     3.7.3 Analysis of identified analogues
     3.7.4 Prototype selection
     3.7.5 Brief theory and practice of calculating objectives
     3.7.6 Aberration calculation of the prototype
     3.7.7 Dimensional and aberration calculation of a new objective
     3.7.8 Description of the optical scheme of the new objective
     3.7.9 Manufacturability of microscope objectives and the principle of assigning tolerances
     3.7.10 Image quality assessment of microscope objectives
     3.7.11 Assignment of tolerances for the manufacture of optical parts
     3.7.12 A brief description of the mechanical structures of microscope objectives
     3.7.13 Description of the design of the developed objective
3.8 An Example of the Design of a Stereo Microscope
     3.8.1 Physiological and Geometric Factors of Stereoscopic Vision
     3.8.2 Stereoscopic effect in microscopy
     3.8.3 Design of a stereo microscope head
3.9 Polarizing Stereo Microscope MPS-2
     3.9.1 Optical system of microscope
     3.9.2 Microscope design: MPS-2
     3.9.3 Work in transmitted light
     3.9.4 Work in reflected light
     3.9.5 Work in mixed lighting
     3.9.6 Work with counting grids
     3.9.7 Work with microconoscopes
     3.9.8 Some pictures of real objects
3.10 Comparison Microscopes
     3.10.1 MS-51 comparison microscope
     3.10.2 Comparison microscope for criminalists
3.11 Some Useful Options for Digital Imaging Systems
3.12 Some Examples of Digital Imaging Systems used for Metallography


This book is based on almost 40 years of practice in the field of optical instrument making, when there were regular working days, as well as heavy workloads and sleepless nights. It shares an approach, methodology and practice for designing microscope systems and other optical instruments. I consider this approach to be original and efficient. At each stage of the design,, we can follow "consistently by adding" for the theoretical level of quality of the image given both by individual elements (systems) and the instrument as a whole. In accordance with the traditional layout of the microscope, when the lighting, projection and "registering" system is connected in it, we can make engineering calculations of each of these systems separately and then the "cross-total" calculations when all systems are connected. For example, an approach to the design of the “observational” microscope system, when the objective system, visual head (including prisms) and the eyepiece are considered as a whole. Such "cross-total" calculations of the optical microscope scheme can give a lot of information about the real (albeit theoretical) image. Unfortunately, sometimes the objective is "good" (the visual head, too, and the eyepiece "likewise"), but a satisfactory image quality cannot be achieved. The ability to analyze system performance is vital. Some recommendations are also offered to achieve predicted high-quality characteristics.

Engineers and researchers "talk in different languages", so I made sure that in my new work I made microscope operation available for researchers in the lab. Typically, this requires special "certified" engineers, but they do not have access to the project documentation, as they are not developers. Direct communication with researchers not only presented me with very valuable experience operating microscopes but also gave me an opportunity to appreciate and optimize the "technical policy" in their design. I hope that this new vision is reflected in the book, where an attempt was made to "look at the microscope" through the eyes of engineers and researchers. It is my hope that the book will spark new discussions between those groups. Finally, this book could encourage dialogue between highly specialized engineers in the field of optical calculation and scientists and engineers working in the adjacent areas of instrument making.

The book also attempts to connect the "empirical" parameters of microscope systems (such as the objectives, condenser, eyepiece, registration system, etc.) with the "theoretical" image quality to compare the real quality of the image with the image that the microscope produces. Therefore, the chapters include many constructive parameters of real objectives and other microscope systems, as well as photographs of real microscopic objects obtained using these systems. For example, various objectives can be used that change the characteristics of the image quality and produce photographs with different details. The book discusses which systems and techniques can provide the desired level and depth of research. Moreover, this information should be sufficient strictly "for the object that is investigated under the microscope", since the system and the effective techniques may differ significantly for various types and kinds of microscopic objects.

As a rule, photographs of real microscopic objects given in the book were not subjected to any editing and are shown "as is" due to the requirements of the proposed microscope design methodology. However, readers can always improve the aesthetic qualities of the produced images by using modern digital methods and specialized software.

I confirm once again that in this text, all opinions and reasoning belong exclusively to me and do not reflect the point of view of any other organization or individual. All errors, inaccuracies, shortcomings and uncertainty are attributed to me exclusively as the author. Any feedback and discussions, including negative ones, I welcome, because I would like to improve the book. Also, all references, examples of designs and photos are not intended as propaganda or advertising.

I would be happy if the book was useful for professionals to expand their horizons. But also (and maybe even more) I would like to share information and experience with "non-professionals", for whom natural science and microscopy is a hobby, a fascinating journey into the world of knowledge and personal discoveries.

May the book encourage readers to continue their own research. I would like to express my gratitude to many people with whom I had the benefit of working and who, ultimately, helped me realize my need to write this book. First, the staff of the Russian Lomo factory, where I worked for more than 20 years: General Director A.M. Aronov, who was favorable to me and gave me opportunities for creative development; and co-workers, such as T.F. Kalinina, N.L. Freidberg, O.I. Litinskaya, O.V. Egorova, E.V. Lobacheva, O.N. Nemkova, E.N. Sergeev, E.N. Orlova, S.A. German, and I.R. Petruchenko. My colleagues and teachers shared the results of their research with me. For me, it was a great honor to become their co-author, and some results of such research became part of this book.

I extend my personal gratitude to my friend Dr. A.G. Tabachkov; my brother and co-author of some articles, Vladimir, and his wife, Svetlana; my brother, Alexey, and his wife, Natalia; as well as my son, Alexey, for their help while I was writing the manuscript. Thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their very valuable comments, which corrected my mistakes and gave me advice. Thanks also to the developers of the OSLO software for optical system design and their president, Dr. Edward R. Freniere, granted me a free license to use their program for one year; and Technical Specialist Dr. Richard Youngworth. Special thanks to SPIE Press for their offer to publish the manuscript and to my editor, Scott McNeill, for his professionalism and careful editing; I had an excellent experience working with him (if you remember the film Genius (2016), then everything "becomes clear") throughout the publication process.

I want to say a big thanks to the developers of the Translate.Google service. They were a huge help with translating the manuscript into English; moreover, this service is constantly developing and improving.

Dmitry N. Frolov
October 2021

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