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Field Guide to Laser Cooling Methods
Author(s): Galina Nemova
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Book Description

This Field Guide provides an overview of the basic principles of laser cooling of atoms, ions, nanoparticles, and solids, including Doppler cooling, polarization gradient cooling, different sub-recoil schemes of laser cooling, forced evaporation, laser cooing with anti-Stokes fluorescence, hybrid laser cooling, and Raman and Brillouin cooling. It also covers radiation-balanced lasers and Raman lasers with heat mitigation, and considers the basic principles of optical dipole traps, magnetic traps, and magneto-optical traps.


Book Details

Estimated Publication Date: 28 October 2019
Pages: 160
ISBN: 9781510630574
Volume: FG45

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols

Introduction
Brief History of Laser Cooling
Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms and Ions
Methods of Laser Cooling
Potential and Kinetic Energy
Conservation Laws
Gases, Liquids, Solids, and Plasma
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Temperature and Thermometers
Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution
Thermal Physics

Matter and Light
Angular Momentum of Atoms
Multi-electron Atoms
Density Matrix
Interaction of Light with a Two-Energy-Level System
Rabi Frequency
Dressed Atom
The Doppler Effect
The Stark Effect
The Zeeman Effect
Emission-Broadening Processes
Homogeneous (Collisional) Broadening
Inhomogeneous Broadenings
Electric Susceptibility
Radiative Force

Doppler Cooling
Doppler Cooling
Semi-classical Treatment of Doppler Cooling: Force
Semi-classical Treatment of Doppler Cooling: Temperature

Sisyphus Cooling
Motivation for Sisyphus Cooling
Sisyphus Cooling

Traps
Earnshaw's Theorem
Traps
High-Field and Low-Field Seekers

Optical Dipole Trap
Optical Dipole Trap
Heating Mechanism
Optical Lattices
Optical Lattice versus Solid State Crystal Lattice

Magnetic Trap
Magnetic Fields of Circular Current Loop
Landau–Zener Problem
Majorana's Spin-Flip Transitions
Magnetic Trap
Quadrupole Trap
Time-Orbiting-Potential Trap
Ioffe–Pritchard Trap
Comparison of TOP, Quadrupole, and Ioffe–Pritchard Traps

Magneto-optical Trap
Magneto-optical Trap
Magneto-optical Trap Loading
Loading Cooling Methods
Cooling-Free Loading Methods

Collisions
Collisions
Scattering Amplitude
Cross Sections
Radial Potentials and Partial Wave Expansion
Scattering of Identical Particles
Pseudo-potential

Evaporative Cooling

Trapping of Charged Particles
Trapping of Charged Particles
Paul Traps
Paul's Discovery
Potentials in Quadrupole 3D and 2D Paul Traps
The Mathieu Equation
Cyclotron Motion
Penning Traps
Penning Trap Frequencies
Other Designs of Ion Traps
Quantum Jumps
Trapped Ions and Their Applications

Sub-recoil Cooling
Motivation for Sub-recoil Cooling
Spin-Polarized Atoms
Optical Pumping and Selection Rules
Dark States and Coherent Population Trapping
Random Walk
Velocity-Selective Coherent Population Trapping
Free-Space Raman Cooling
Interaction with a Trapped Atom
Lamb–Dicke Regime
Weak and Strong Confinement
Motional Sideband Excitation
Raman Sideband Cooling
Degenerate Raman Sideband Cooling
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Cooling
Trapped Ions and Their Applications

Bose–Einstein Condensate
Thermal Distribution Functions
Matter Waves
Bosons and Fermions
Bose–Einstein Condensate
Alkali Atoms

Diagnostics
Atom–Light Interactions
Fluorescence Imaging
Absorption Imaging
Fourier-Filtering Techniques
Dispersive Dark-Ground Imaging
Phase-Contrast Imaging
Time-of-Flight Method

Rare-Earth–Doped Solids
Rare-Earth Ions
Ions in Solids
Judd–Ofelt Theory
Radiative Transitions
Einstein B Coefficient
Cross Sections

Phonons
Vibrations in 1D Periodic Systems
Phonons
Nonradiative Transitions

Ion–Ion Interaction
Resonant Radiative and Nonradiative Transfer
Another Energy Transfer Process

Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth–Doped Solids
Pringsheim's Cooling
Thermodynamics of Optical Cooling of Solids
Laser Cooling with ASF in Different Systems
Electrons in Stark Sublevels of Rare-Earth Ions
Two-Level Model of RE-Doped Solids
Laser Cooling in Two-Level RE-Doped Systems
Laser Cooling in Ideal RE-Doped Hosts
Laser Cooling in Real RE-Doped Hosts
Host Materials for Laser Cooling
Obstacles to Laser Cooling of RE-Doped Solids
Optimization of RE-Doped Samples for Laser Cooling
Achievements in Laser Cooling of RE–Doped Samples
Optical Cavities for Laser Cooling
Thermal Links

Radiation-Balanced Laser

Raman Cooling of Solids
Spontaneous Raman Scattering
Stimulated Raman Scattering
Raman Cooling of Solids

Raman Laser with Heat Mitigation

Laser Cooling with STIRAP
Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP)
Laser Cooling with STIRAP

Brillouin Cooling

Hybrid Laser Cooling

Equation Summary
Bibliography
Index

Cooling or refrigeration is based on heat removal and dates back thousands of years to when people tried to preserve their food using ice and snow. The laser—a groundbreaking scientific achievement of the 20th century—has revolutionized the cooling process. The advent of lasers brought laser cooling, also known as optical refrigeration, into existence. Today, laser cooling and its applications represent one of the major subfields of atomic, molecular, and solids state physics.

The primary objective of this Field Guide is to present an overview of the various concepts and methods of laser cooling, including Doppler cooling, polarization gradient cooling, different sub-recoil schemes of laser cooling, laser cooing with anti-Stokes fluorescence, etc. This Field Guide will serve both to introduce students, scientists, and engineers to this exciting field, and to provide a quick reference guide for the essential math and science.

I would like to thank SPIE Press Manager Timothy Lamkins and Series Editor John Greivenkamp for the opportunity to write a Field Guide for one of the most interesting areas of photonics, as well as SPIE Press Sr. Editor Dara Burrows for her help.

This book is dedicated to my mom, Albina.

Galina Nemova
September 2019


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