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Spie Press Book

Infrared Fiber Optics
Editor(s): Paul Klocek; George H. Sigel Jr.
Format Member Price Non-Member Price

Book Details

Date Published: 1 January 1989
Pages: 164
ISBN: 9780819402295
Volume: TT02

Table of Contents
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1 Introduction
1.1 Need for Infrared (IR) Fiber Optics
1.2 IR Versus Visible Fiber Optics
1.3 Fundamentals of IR Fiber Optics
1.3.1 Propagation
1.3.2 Attenuation
1.3.3 Dispersion
1.4 References
2 IR Materials and Fibers
2.1 Halide Glasses
2.1.1 Composition
2.1.2 Material Preparation
2.1.3 Physical Properties
2.1.4 Waveguide Fabrication
2.1.5 Waveguide Properties of Fluoride Fibers
2.1.6 Mechanical Properties of Fluoride Fibers
2.1.7 Durability and Toughness
2.2 Chalcogenide Glasses
2.2.1 Composition
2.2.2 Materials Preparation
2.2.3 Physical Properties
2.2.4 Waveguide Fabrication
2.2.5 Waveguide Properties
2.3 Crystalline Materials
2.3.1 Composition
2.3.2 Materials Preparation
2.3.3 Physical Properties
2.3.4 Waveguide Fabrication
2.3.5 Waveguide Properties
2.4 IR Oxide Glasses
2.5 Hollow Waveguides
2.6 Summary
2.7 References
2.7.1 Subsection 2.1
2.7.2 Subsection 2.2
2.7.3 Subsection 2.3
2.7.4 Subsection 2.4
2.7.5 Subsection 2.5
2.7.6 Subsection 2.6
3 Applications of IR Fiber Optics
3.1 Overview
3.1.1 General Areas of Application for IR Fiber
3. 1.2 IR Laser Propagation
3.1.3 IR Imaging
3.1.4 Active Components-Fiber Lasers
3.1.5 Sensors
3.1.6 Radiation-Hardened Links
3.1.7 Medical Uses
3.1.8 Nonlinear Optics
3.2 Telecommunications
3.3 IR Fiber Bundles Applications
3.3.1 Image Bundle
3.3.2 Tapered Bundle
3.3.3 IR Fiber Optic Reformatter
3.4 Single IR Fiber Applications
3.4.1 Temperature Sensor
3.4.2 Pressure Sensor
3.4.3 Remote Location of Detector or Source
3.5 References

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1	Attenuation Versus Wavelength for SiO2
2	Attenuation Versus Wavelength for Oxides, Halides, and Chalcogenides
3	Diagram of Light Propagation in Stepped-Index, Graded-Index, 
	and Single-Mode Optical Fibers
4	Hollow, Rectangular, Combination Metal-Dielectric Waveguide, TE10
5	TE10 Mode in Hollow, Cylindrical, Metal Waveguide
6	Optical Attenuation Versus Wavelength
7	Band-Gap Absorption
8	Absorption Plots for Various Materials Classes
9	Water Absorption
10	Rare-Earth and Transition-Metal Absorption
11	V-Plot
12	Optical Fiber Attenuation Mechanisms
13	Intramodal Dispersion, Multimode Fibers Only
14	Intramodal Dispersion, Multimode and Single-Mode Fibers
15	Thermal Analysis
16	Fluoride Glass Fiber Materials , Thermal Analysis
17	Spectral Attenuation of Fluoride Glass Fiber (NTT)
18	Effect of REDOX Melting Conditions on the Optical Absorption in 
	Fluoride Glasses
19	OH Absorption
20	Comparison of Optical Transmission of Fluoride Glasses with Silica
21	Scattering Loss Spectra for Bulk Fluoride Glasses
22	Light Scattering in Fluoride Glass and Silica
23	Refractive Index Spectra of Fluorozirconate Glasses
24	IR Edge for Various Fluoride Glass Compositions and Fiber
25	Material Dispersion of Fluoride Glasses
26	Absorption Spectra of Irradiated Fluorozirconate Glass
27	Fiber Drawing
28	Adding Core Glass To Create Solid Preform
29	Rotational Casting Process
30	Index of Refraction Across Preform
31	Reactive Vapor Transport Fluoride Glass Fiber
32	Refractive Index Versus Tube Wall Thickness for RVT Fibers
33	Localized Heat Zone Furnace for Drawing Fluoride Glass Fibers
34	Attenuation of Fluoride Glass Fibers
35	Loss Spectrum of a Fluoride Glass Fiber Produced at NRL
36	Transmission Loss Spectra for Step-Index Multimode Fibers
37	Comparison of Losses for Various Fluoride Glass Fibers
38	Breakdown of Total Loss in Fluoride Fiber
39	Measured Scatter Loss of Fluoride Fiber
40	IR Fiber Spectral Loss Measurement System
4 1	Strength of Fluoride Glass Fibers
42	Strength of ZBLA Fibers in Water
43	Leach Rates of ZBLA Glass with Pyrex
44	Water Absorption of Coated Fluoride Glasses
45	Glass-Forming Compositions of GeSbSe
46	Glass-Forming Composition Region of Systems SiSbS, SiSbSe, and GeAsSe
47	GeAsTe Composition Diagram
48	Composition Diagram for GePS Glass System
49	Fabrication of Chalcogenide Glasses
50	Distillation Process Schematic Diagram
51	IR Transmissions of Purified Sulfide Glasses in Atomics Percent 
	(Dashed curves show impurity bands)
52	IR Spectra of As2Se3 (R = reflection coefficient)
53	IR Spectra of As2SeTe2 (R = reflection coefficient)
54	IR Spectra of Ge10As50Te40 (R = reflection coefficient)
55	IR Spectra of Ge15As10Se75 (R = reflection coefficient)
56	IR Spectra of Ge28Sb12Se60 and Ge25Se75
57	Optical Transmittance of 2-mm-Thick Disk of GeSeTe Glass, Showing 
	(Solid Curve) Removal of Absorption Band at 13.0 �m by Heating 
	Glass in Hydrogen
58	IR Transmission of Some GePTe Glasses Atomic Ratio
59	Apparatus for Fiber Drawing and Typical Data for Temperature 
	Gradient at Neck-Down Region of Glass Rod
60	Preforms: (A) Square Extruded (B) Cast Cylindrical
61	Various Fibers
62	Drawing Apparatus of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers
63	Pyrex Glass Double Crucible Assembly for Preparing Arsenic-Sulfur 
	Glass Fibers
64	Fiber Pulling Setup
65	Theoretical Attenuation in GeS Glasses
66	Spectral Dependence of Material Dispersion M(l) of Glassy AS2S3 
	and Region of Minimum Optical Losses in Glassy AS2S3 (1) 
	and As2Se3 (2)
67	Material Dispersion Versus Wavelength for Ge28Sbl2Se60
68	Intrinsic Attenuation Coefficient Versus Wavelength for Ge25Se75 
	and Ge28Sb12Se60
69	Chalcogenide Glass Fiber Attenuation
70	Chalcogenide Glass Fiber Attenuation
71	IR Fiber Absorption Versus Wavelength
72	Transmission Loss Spectrum for Ge20Se80 Chalcogenide Glass Fiber
73	Chalcogenide Glass Fiber Attenuation (� = diameter)
74	Transmission Loss Spectrum Around 10.6 �m for a Ge22Se20Te58 
	Glass Optical Fiber
75	Spectra of the Optical Losses in Fibers Made of Chalcogenide Glasses
76	Drawing Process for Chalcogenide Fiber Bundles
77	Cross-Sectional Picture of IR Fiber Bundle, 2.0 mm in Diameter 
	Including 200 AsS Glass Fiber Cores, Each 90 �m in Diameter
78	Coherent Image Bundle. 25-�m-Diameter Chalcogenide Glass Fibers, 
	Shown in a Transmission IR Microscope
79	IR Fiber Optic Prototypes
80	Crystalline Fiber Extrusion
81	Schematic of Fiber Crystal-Growing Apparatus
82	Schematic Diagram of Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth System
83	Crystal Fiber Growth
84	Extruded KCI, 0.25 Inch in Diameter, 8X
85	KRS-5 Fiber From Laser Pedestal Growth Method
86	Demonstration of Flexibility of a 150-�m C-Axis Sapphire Fiber 
	(Ruler is marked in inches.)
87	Projected Transmission in IR Fibers
88	Projected Transmission in Crystalline IR Fibers
89	Projected Transmission Loss in IR Fibers
90	IR Loss Spectra for CaBr Fibers Grown in Different Atmospheres
91	Total Loss Spectrum of KRS-5 Fiber Measured by Cut-Back Method
92	Extruded Crystalline Fiber of KRS-5/KRS-6 Core/Clad
93	Refractive Index Variation with Wavelength for Five Glasses 
	of Table 29
94	IR Transmission Spectrum of Germanate Glasses Prepared by Crucible 
	Method and by VAD Method
95	Schematics of Porous Preform Preparation and Sintering Method
96	Calculated Theoretical Loss Spectrum of Germanate Glass Fiber
97	Measured Loss Spectrum of Germanate Glass Fibers with Silicone 
	Resin Coating(Dashed Line) and without Any Coating (Solid Line)
98	Complex Index and Reflection Coefficient for SiO2 and Pb-Glass
99	Experimental Result for Transmission of Pb-Glass Hollow-Core Fiber 
	for CO2 Laser Light (940 cm-1) (Inner diameter is 1.0 mm; measured 
	loss is for multimode transmission)
100	Transmission of Hollow Metallic Waveguide of Cylindrical Cross Section 
	as Function of Inverse Bend Radius
101	Experimental and Theoretical Bending Losses of Nickel Cylindrical 
	Waveguides Uncoated and Coated by Ge and PbF2 Where X and O 
	Correspond to Measured E||, and En , Respectively
102	Experimental Arrangement for Measuring 2.7-�um Power Transmission 
	Properties (X-Y plotter and minicomputer were used for laser printer)
103	Coherent IR Fiber Optic Bundles
104	IR Fiber Optic Bundle Allowing Simultaneous Imaging at Two Different 
	Wavelength Regions
105	Flexible Coherent Image Bundle (Detectors and cryogenics can be remoted, 
	allowing more unobstructed image)
106	IR Image Bundle Configurations
107	IR Fiber Bundle, Field Flattener
108	Taper IR Fiber Bundle
109	Nonuniform Magnifying IR Bundle
110	IR Fiber Optic Image Reformation (Coherent)
111	Operation of Spectrometer Having IR Fiber Optic Reformatter
112	Temperature Sensor Diagram
113	Simplified Diagram of Pressure Sensor
114	IR Threat-Warning Receiver Diagram
115	CO2 Laser Guide
116	FLIR Boresighting
117	Remote CO2 Gas Analyzer/Remote Radiometry

LIST OF TABLES

1	Comparison of Silica-Based Versus IR Optical Material Compositions 
	for Fiber Optics
2	General Comparison Between Silica-Based 
	and IR Fiber Optics Technologies
3	Comparison Between Silica-Based and IR Fiber Optics 
	in Terms of Attenuation, Dispersion and Propagation
4	Summary of Specific Absorption Coefficients
5	Wavelengths at Which Vibrational Absorptions of Various Impurities 
	Are Active
6	Typical Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses Used in the Fabrication 
	of IR Fibers
7	Glass-Forming Systems Not Containing ZrF4 or HfF4 and Guide to 
	Available Data
8	Compositions of Heavy-Metal Fluoride Glasses and Their Acronyms
 	as Used in the Text
9	Purification Requirements in Fluoride Glasses Impurity Levels (PPB) 
	Causing 0.01 dB/km Loss
10	Optical Properties of Fluoride Glasses
11	Mechanical Properties of Fluorizirconate Glasses
12	Elastic Properties of Fluorides Compared With Oxides
13	Physical and Thermal Properties of Fluorides
14	Promising Methods for Further Toughening Fluoride Glasses
15	Chalcogenide Glass Compositions; Various Atomic Ratios
16	Absorption Coefficients in Bulk Chalcogenide Glasses
17	Physical Properties of Chalcogenide Glasses
18	Comparison of Attenuation Minima and Material Dispersion Zeros 
	in Chalcogenide Glasses
19	Laser Power Transfer in Chalcogenide Glass Optical Fibers
20	Strength of Chalcogenide Glass Optical Fibers
21	Materials for Infrared Fibers
22	IR Transmission in Crystalline Materials for Fibers
23	Absorption Coefficients of IR Crystalline Materials for Fibers
24	Physical Properties of IR Crystalline Materials for Fibers
25	Fabrication Parameters of IR Crystalline Fibers
26	Material Dispersion Zeros and Theoretical Attenuation Minimum 
	in Crystalline IR Fibers
27	Attenuation in Crystalline IR Fibers
28	Composition and Some Properties of IR Oxide Glasses
29	Optical Properties of Glasses in Table 28
30	Hollow Waveguide Transmission
31	Summary of IR Optical Fibers
32	Applications of Infrared Fibers
33	Most Promising Candidates for Ultralong Link, Underwater Mid-IR 
	Fiber Optics Systems
34	Proposed 2- to 5-�m Semiconductor Lasers: Important Features
35	Performance of Color Center Lasers
36	Potential Detectors for Mid-IR Fiber Optics
37	Criteria for Fiber Optic Image Bundle
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