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Spie Press Book

Light in Flight or the Holodiagram: the Columbi Egg of Optics
Editor(s): Nils H. Abramson
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Book Description

This book introduces the holodiagram--a unique tool for visualizing many different fields in optics. The diagram provides a straightforward, non-mathematical way to explain many optical phenomena, such as reflection, diffraction, the fringes in classical and holographic interferometry, apparent distortions of wavefronts caused by the limited speed of light, and optical distortions caused by relativistic effects. The text presents moire patterns in a way so that readers can find solutions to problems by manipulating the diagram, rather than by solving complicated equations.

Book Details

Date Published: 28 October 1996
Pages: 452
Volume: PM27

Table of Contents
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Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 How the Holodiagram Developed 3
1.2 Operating Instructions 6
1.3 Coherence Length 15
1.4 Short-Pulse Lasers 28
1.5 Holography 29
2 THE HOLODIAGRAM
2.1 Application to Coherence 36
2.2 Application to Interferometry 40
2.3 The Moir� Analogy to the Holodiagram 56
3 DEFLECTION OF LIGHT
3.1 Resolution of a Lens 72
3.2 Reflection 74
3.3 Diffraction 79
3.4 Principle of Least Wave Change 94
3.4.1 Modification of Fermat's Principle 94
3.4.2 Examples of Equations 95
3.4.3 Test of Results 99
3.4.4 Conclusion 99
4 INTERFEROMETRY
4.1 One-Dimensional Interferometers 100
4.1.1 Measurement of Length 100
4.1.2 Measurement of Velocity 104
4.2 Two-Dimensional Interferometers 116
4.2.1 The Michelson Interferometer 116
4.2.2 The Interferoscope 123
4.2.3 Projected Fringes 136
5 HOLOGRAPHY
5.1 Image Formation 144
5.2 True and False Images 152
6 HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY
6.1 Moir� Pattern Analogy 164
6.2 Apparent Fringe Localization in Space 185
6.2.1 The Focusing Effect from Motion Trails 196
6.3 Table of Fringes 197
6.4 3D Evaluation of Fringes 207
7 SANDWICH HOLOGRAPHY
7.1 Basic Principles 213
7.2 Measurement of Deformation 224
7.3 Measurement of Dimension 230
8 LIGHT-IN-FLIGHT RECORDING BY HOLOGRAPHY
8.1 Basic Correlation Principle 239
8.2 Study of Wavefronts 247
8.2.1 Light Reflected by a Mirror 251
8.2.2 Light Focused by a Lens 256
8.3 Study of Pulses 261
8.3.1 Shutter Faster than Light 261
8.3.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 268
8.3.3 Visualizing the Coherence Function 273
8.4 Study of Refraction 292
8.4.1 Test of Optical Fiber 292
8.4.2 Single-Pulse Light-in-Flight Recording by Holography 298
8.4.3 Delay Caused by a Transparent Object 299
8.4.4 Looking through Tissue 299
8.4.5 Future Experiments 311
9 CONTOURING
9.1 Measuring the Shape of 3D Objects 317
9.2 Single-Pulse Contouring 328
9.3 Comparing the Shape of a Test Object to a Master 336
10 TIME RECONSTRUCTION IN LIF RECORDING
BY HOLOGRAPHY
10.1 The Apparent Pulse Front 341
10.2 Tilting the Pulse Front 347
10.3 The Light Shutter That Moves Faster Than Light 362
11 THE HOLOGRAM IN OUTER SPACE
11.1 Light Echoes from Supernova 367
11.2 More Superluminal Motions 370
11.3 The Hologram Modified into an Egg 373
12 RELATIVITY
12.1 The Modified Twin Paradox 380
12.2 Comparison of LIF Recording and Relativity 382
12.3 Time Dilation, Lorentz Contraction, Relativistic Aberration, and
Transverse Red Shift 387
12.4 Apparent Red Shift Even without the Big Bang 397
12.5 Complete Relativistic Diagram 400
12.5.1 Deformation of Space and Time 402
12.5.2 Example of Graphic Evaluation 403
12.5.3 Results 405
12.5.4 Conclusion 414
12.6 Minkowski Diagram in Relativity and Holography 415
13 LOOKING AT THE WORLD THROUGH A MIRROR 428
References 436

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