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Spie Press Book

Value Metrics for Better Lighting
Author(s): Mark S. Rea
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Book Description

We often do not fully understand what lighting can do for us. We know that we need lighting, but often that is as far as the thinking goes. We do a really good job, however, of conceptualizing the costs of those lighting systems because we can readily measure those costs. Reducing costs will certainly increase the value ratio for lighting if the benefits of the lighting system are held constant. Without a clear purpose for the lighting system, and no clear idea of benefits, there is little else that can be used in the value engineering process.

This book is dedicated to the notion that our society undervalues light because we do not properly measure the benefits of light, in terms of both the lighting system and how it is applied. Consequently, we unnecessarily waste our natural and capital resources. The problems associated with inadequate light-measurement systems are not hard to grasp or even to fix, and are the subject of Value Metrics for Better Lighting. This book was written as a starting point for thoughtful consideration, discussion, and action by those vested in better and more-sustainable lighting, including manufacturers, practitioners, regulators, advocates, educators, and, of course, users.

“It is a well-written review of the Lighting Research Center’s valuable contributions to the field of illumination engineering and architectural lighting design. Specifically, the overall organization, scope and argumentation of the manuscript are exemplary. It takes a premise -– '… we often do not fully understand what lighting can do for us' -– and presents a cohesive and detailed overview of the institution’s contributions to the field.”
--Ian Ashdown, byHeart Consultants Limited

“In my opinion, the topic is extremely exciting and the book might have a big impact on the lighting industry. I very much enjoyed reading it. I do not know of anybody else in this field who would be more qualified than Prof. Rea to write this book.”
--Dr. Klaus Streubel, OSRAM AG


Book Details

Date Published: 17 December 2012
Pages: 122
ISBN: 9780819493224
Volume: PM228

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Measurement
2.1 What is Light?
      2.1.1 The photopic luminous efficiency function
      2.1.2 Where does V(λ) apply and where doesn't it?
2.2 What Is Color?
      2.2.1 Color appearance
      2.2.2 Color matching
      2.2.3 Colorimetry
      2.2.4 Color rendering and tint of illumination
2.3 Color Rendering Index
2.4 Correlated Color Temperature

Chapter 3. Value Added from New Metrics
3.1 Beyond lm/W and lm/m2
      3.1.1 Mesopic vision
      3.1.2 Apparent brightness
3.2 Beyond "Light"
      3.2.1 Circadian light
3.3 Beyond CRI and CCT
      3.3.1 Color rendering
      3.3.2 Tint of illumination
3.4 Lighting Energy Efficiency
      3.4.1 Application efficacy in the temporal domain
      3.4.2 Application efficacy in the spatial domain
      3.4.3 Calculating lighting energy efficiency

Chapter 4. An Invitation
4.1 Unified Illuminance
4.2 Bright Illuminance
4.3 Circadian Illuminance
4.4 "Class A" Color
4.5 Lighting Energy Efficiency
4.6 What's Next?

Chapter 5. Conclusion
5.1 We Believe What We Hear
5.2 What to Talk About

Appendix 1 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Notation
Appendix 2 Determinations of Chromaticity
Appendix 3 Color Rendering Metric Calculations
Appendix 4 How to Optimize Illumination on a Residential Wall Display
Appendix 5 Relative SPDs of the Light Sources in Table 4.1
Appendix 6 Luminous Efficiency Functions for Different Benefit Metrics
Appendix 7 Resources for Maximizing the Value of Daylight Controls




The Lighting Research Center (LRC) is a great and influential place to work. Founded in 1988, it remains a close community of researchers, educators, and technical staff dedicated to our mission to "advance the effective use of light." Professor Russell Leslie, LRC Associate Director and cofounder of the LRC, has been as good a partner and collaborator in building and fostering the mission of the LRC as anyone could be or could hope to be. He was kind enough and more than capable enough to provide a complete edit of an early draft of the book. Dennis Guyon, who (fortunately or unfortunately for him) sits across the hall from my office, prepared all of the graphics for the book and helped organize the content in a way that I could efficiently write and rewrite its contents. I appreciate the technical input from Jeremy Snyder and Leora Radetsky, and both Ines Martinovic and Rebekah Mullaney were very helpful in organizing the book and in providing me with important, additional edits.

My greatest joys in writing this book and, indeed, in everyday professional interactions, were and are the continued collaborations with my former students who are still at the LRC. They continue to do amazing research and teaching and make a huge difference to our collective success. Jennifer Brons helped prepare one of the spatial application efficacy analyses. John Bullough did more of the analyses for spatial application efficacy and provided helpful input in preparing related sections of the book. Jean Paul Freyssinier helped with the color calculations. Andrew Bierman, who also (fortunately or unfortunately for him) sits across the hall from my office, deserves a great deal of credit for helping me prepare nearly all of the technical data presented here. Mariana Figueiro was my "value-added sounding board" and critic in conceptualizing and organizing the book. Our ongoing discussions were essential for framing the entire enterprise.

To everyone, thank you very much.

Finally, I wish to thank the LRC Partner organizations, listed below, who, through their continued support have enabled all of us to do what we love to do at the LRC—add value to lighting:

      • 3M
      • AES Latin America
      • GE Lighting
      • New York State Energy Research & Development Authority
      • OSRAM SYLVANIA, Inc.
      • Philips Lighting
      • Swedish Energy Agency
      • Xcel Energy

Mark S. Rea
January 2013

Mark Rea is Director of the LRC, which is celebrating its 25th year. Value Metrics for Better Lighting was written to help commemorate this milestone.

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