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Oxides are remarkable multifunctional materials with a huge range of emerging applications spanning domains as diverse as solid-state lighting, photovoltaics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, capacitors, transparent electronics, next-generation memories, sensors, and spintronics. A number of breakthroughs over the past few years have driven an exponential surge in research activity in the field. This interdisciplinary conference is intended to cover (but not be limited to) oxide materials for use as transparent conductors, opto-semiconductors, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, dielectrics, multiferroics, superconductors, magnetic oxides, metamaterials, and various electrical/optical components. We would like to encourage you to take part in this conference and submit an abstract. Presentations are solicited on the following topics: Building on the last two years of excellent contributions, we are again calling for special focus sessions on Ga2O3 and perovskite solar cells.;
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Conference 12002

Oxide-based Materials and Devices XIII

In person: 24 - 26 January 2022
View Session ∨
  • OPTO Plenary Session
  • 1: Plasmonics
  • 2: Ga2O3: Keynote Session
  • 3: Ga2O3: Atomic Scale Defects, Deep Levels/Doping, and Growth I
  • 4: Ga2O3: Atomic Scale Defects, Deep Levels/Doping, and Growth II
  • 5: Ga2O3: Toward Applications
  • 6: Ga2O3: Modeling and Theoretical Studies
  • 7: Functional Oxides
  • 8: Solar Cells
  • 9: Novel Approach for Growth
  • 10: ZnO and MgZnO
  • 11: PZT
  • Posters-Wednesday
Information

POST-DEADLINE ABSTRACT SUBMISSIONS

  • Submissions are accepted through 06-December
  • Notification of acceptance by 20-December

View Call for Papers PDF Flyer
OPTO Plenary Session
In person: 24 January 2022 • 8:00 AM - 10:10 AM
8:00 AM: Welcome and Opening Remarks
Sonia M. García-Blanco, Univ. Twente (Netherlands); Bernd Witzigmann, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany)

8:05 AM: Announcement of the IBM-SPIE HBCU Faculty Accelerator Award in Quantum Optics and Photonics
Kayla Lee, IBM Research (USA)
12001-501
Author(s): Hiroshi Amano, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
In person: 24 January 2022 • 8:10 AM - 8:50 AM
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ISAMU AKASAKI, special distinguished professor of Meijo University, and distinguished university professor and emeritus professor of Nagoya University, the pioneer of blue LEDs, and the Nobel Laureate in physics, passed away from pneumonia on Thursday, April 1, 2021 at the age of 92. He was always a real pioneer. He started nitride research in 1967. At that time, blue LED research was an undeveloped area. When he moved from Matsushita Giken Co., Ltd. to Nagoya University in 1981, almost no other organizations attempted to continue with the topic. At that time, the majority of researchers determined that it was very difficult to grow single crystals, and that realizing p-type GaN was impossible. Therefore, many abandoned GaN. According to him, his situation at that time was like “going alone in the wilderness.” Today, the wilderness pioneered by Professor Isamu Akasaki is now a prosperous and fruitful field where many researchers all over the world are gathering and bringing happiness to the people. He liked the term “Frontier Electronics.” In this presentation, in addition to his memorial, today’s frontier electronics will be discussed.
12004-502
Inverse designed integrated photonics (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Jelena Vuckovic, Stanford Univ. (United States)
In person: 24 January 2022 • 8:50 AM - 9:30 AM
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Despite a great progress in photonics over the past few decades, we are nowhere near the level of integration and complexity in photonic systems that would be comparable to those of electronic circuits, which prevents use of photonics in many applications. This lag in integration scale is in big part a result of how we traditionally design photonics: by combining building blocks from a limited library of known designs, and by manual tuning a few parameters. Unfortunately, the resulting photonic circuits are very sensitive to errors in manufacturing and to environmental instabilities, bulky, and often inefficient. We show how a departure from this old fashioned approach can lead to optimal photonic designs that are much better than state of the art on many metrics (smaller, more efficient, more robust). This departure is enabled by development of inverse design approach and computer software which designs photonic systems by searching through all possible combinations of realistic parameters and geometries. We also show how this inverse design approach can enable new functionalities for photonics, including compact particle accelerators on chip which are 10 thousand times smaller than traditional accelerators, chip-to-chip on on-chip optical interconnects with error free terabit per second communication rates, and quantum technologies.
12017-503
Author(s): Andrea Blanco-Redondo, Nokia Bell Labs. (United States)
In person: 24 January 2022 • 9:30 AM - 10:10 AM
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In this talk we will discuss how to engineer the dispersion relation of photonic platforms to provide robust propagation of classical and quantum states of light. In the first part, we will unveil how to leverage the interaction of nonlinearity with higher orders of dispersion to create novel types of solitons, wave packets that propagate unperturbed for long distances. These objects have advantageous energy-width scaling laws with respect to conventional nonlinear Schrodinger solitons and show promise for applications in ultrafast lasers and integrated frequency combs. Subsequently, we will cover recent developments in topological quantum photonics. Topological photonics studies topological phases of light and leverages the appearance of robust topological edge states. We will emphasize our experimental demonstration of nonlinearly generated and topologically protected photon pairs and path-entangled biphoton states in silicon waveguide arrays. Further, we will detail our latest experiments demonstrating entanglement between topologically distinct modes, highlighting topology as an entanglement degree of freedom.
Session 1: Plasmonics
Session Chairs: Philippe Bove, Nanovation (France), Adrián Hierro, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain)
12002-1
Author(s): Thierry Taliercio, Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes (France)
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We will demonstrate that it is possible to employ III-V semiconductors for plasmonics from the THz up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The perfect absorbers (PA) fabricated with doped semiconductors (chemical doping) demonstrate a strong coupling effect between the Fabry-Perot and localized plasmon modes. PA can either enhance the absorption of rotavibrational modes of molecules with surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy or enhance the thermal emission of molecules with surface-enhanced thermal emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, by photo-generating free carriers in semiconductors, a semiconductor in the dielectric regime can become metallic. In this case, plasmonic behavior is possible in the THz range.
12002-2
Author(s): Adrian Hierro, Eduardo Martinez Castellano, Jose M. Ulloa, Univ Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Oleksii Klymov, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Elias Muñoz, Univ Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vicente Muñoz-Sanjose, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Miguel Montes Bajo, Univ Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)
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We show here that Cd(Zn)O can be deposited on GaAs by MOCVD forming nanoparticles with a hemispherical shape. These nanoparticles maintain the key characteristics from a CdO film: very high plasma frequency and very low losses, hence retaining the strong plasmonic character. As a result of this, when illuminated with infrared light, two localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes are excited at 2.7 and 5.3 microns, and the electric field is heavily amplified in the underlying GaAs substrate. Moreover, their hemispherical geometry allows them to partially change the orientation of the field, creating a component perpendicular to the surface. We prove the coupling between the CdO LSPs and the intersubband transitions from a multiple QW structure, where the absorption is largely enhanced for p-polarized electric fields, and it is observed even under normal incidence conditions.
12002-3
Author(s): Yina Wu, Andrea Konecná, ICFO - Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (Spain), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (Spain); Jordan A. Hachtel, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States); F. Javier García de Abajo, ICFO - Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (Spain), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (Spain), Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (Spain)
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Fluorine-doped indium oxide (IO) nanocubes separated by nanometric gaps constitute a versatile system hosting high-quality mid-infrared plasmons with potential application in optoelectronics and light harvesting. In this theory-experiment combined work, we predict large tunability of these hybridized plasmon modes by controlling the gap size and the dimensionality of the gap region. We confirm this prediction through electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Our theorical-experimental results elucidate the influence of gap geometry on the coupled plasmons and field concentration in doped IO nanostructures, and further suggest exciting applications in plasmonic sensing and surface-enhanced spectroscopies.
12002-4
Author(s): Eric Hopmann, Brett N. Carnio, Basem Y. Shahriar, Curtis J. Firby, Abdulhakem Y. Elezzabi, Univ. of Alberta (Canada)
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Electrochromic (EC) oxides, such as WO3, have transcended far beyond their traditional scope of transmission modulation in smart windows. WO3 changes its refractive index from n = 1.9 to 2.3, and its extinction by \Delta k=0.5 in the near infrared (NIR). Here, we introduce a plasmonic, EC (‘plasmochromic’) nanowaveguide modulator, for ultrahigh modulation depth. WO3 is integrated into a waveguide structure with a dual-function waveguide core containing amorphous LiNbO3 (LN). Measured values show up to 2.5 dB/µm modulation with switching times of a few seconds. The waveguide platform further allows very low operating voltages with a figure of merit of 8 dB/V.
Session 2: Ga2O3: Keynote Session
Session Chair: David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France)
12002-5
Author(s): Manijeh Razeghi, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Session 3: Ga2O3: Atomic Scale Defects, Deep Levels/Doping, and Growth I
Session Chairs: David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France), Chris G. Van de Walle, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
12002-6
Author(s): Jinwoo Hwang, Ohio State Univ (United States)
12002-7
Author(s): Andrej Kuznetsov, University of Oslo (Norway)
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Ion bombardment provides an opportunity to study basic properties of intrinsic defects in materials since the radiation-induced disorder accumulation depends on the balance between defect generation and migration rates. In particular, variation of such parameters as irradiation temperature and ion flux, known in the literature as dose-rate effect, interconnects the macroscopically measured lattice disorder with the migration barrier of the dominating defects. In this work, we measured the dose-rate effect in monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) and extracted its activation energy of 0.8 ± 0.1 eV in the range of 25–250 °C. Taking into account that the measurements were performed in the Ga-sublattice and considering 0.8 ± 0.1 eV in the context of theoretical data, we interpreted it as the migration barrier for Ga vacancies in β-Ga2O3, limiting the process.
12002-8
Author(s): Martin Albrecht, Leibniz Institue für Kristallzüchtung (Germany); Robert Schewski, Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung (Germany); Joel B. Varley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Rebecca L. Peterson, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan (United States)
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In this paper we study of the atomic motion of single Ga interstitials (Gai) in β Ga2O3 by in situ electron microscopy. Beta-phase gallium oxide, an ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor that crystallizes in the monoclinic structure recently s widely investigated for high voltage and high power electronics as well as solar blind photodetectors18. We observe the presence of Ga interstitials in two distinct crystallographic sites, and follow the migration of these defects using real-time imaging. By comparison of experiment with first-principles theory and simulated high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images, we identify the experimentally-observed migration process as an interstitial-driven mechanism involving a divacancy spanning a tetrahedrally-bonded Ga and adjacent oxygen site. The activation energy barrier we derive from the measured Gai dwell time over a statistically significant number of measured events agrees with the theoretically-predicted energy barrier.
12002-9
Author(s): Mathias Schubert, Rafal Korlacki, Matthew Hilfiker, Ufuk Kilic, Univ of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Zbigniew Galazka, Klaus Irmscher, Leibniz-Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung (Germany); Petr Neugebauer, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); Akhil Mauze, Yuewei Zhang, James Speck, University of California Santa Barbara (United States); Huili Xing, Debdeep Jena, Cornell University (United States)
12002-10
Author(s): John S. McCloy, Jani Jesenovec, Benjamin Dutton, Christopher Pansegrau, Cassandra Remple, Marc H. Weber, Santosh Swain, Matthew McCluskey, Washington State Univ. (United States)
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Much excitement has surrounded β-Ga2O3 for electronics due to its ultrawide band gap, high breakdown voltage, compatibility with many dopants, and comparative ease of producing large substrates via melt-growth techniques. Our research uses our Czochralski grown single crystals produced with various dopants, including donors (Zr, Hf, Cr), acceptors (Mg, Zn, Fe, Ni), and alloying elements (Al). We have also explored the creation of gallium vacancies (VGa) through annealing, by using positron annihilation spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. Insights from our work to date are offered, in terms of their applicability to devices of various kinds.
12002-11
Author(s): Carlo De Santi, Manuel Fregolent, Matteo Buffolo, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Masataka Higashiwaki, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan); Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Enrico Zanoni, Matteo Meneghini, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)
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In this paper, we analyze the electrical behavior and the deep levels present in nitrogen-implanted gallium oxide Schottky barrier diodes annealed at increasing temperature from 800 to 1200 C. The experimental data show the presence of three different intrinsic and extrinsic deep levels, and their concentration correlates with the annealing temperature. Based on the deep level data and on the current and capacitance isothermal transient spectroscopy measurements, a full model able to interpret the charge trapping process occurring in the various samples was developed.
12002-12
Author(s): Saulius Marcinkevicius, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); James S. Speck, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
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Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy was applied to measure several fundamental material parameters in β-Ga2O3. These include times for the hole self-trapping into a polaron state, electron-phonon scattering, and energy of the lowest conduction band side valley. These different parameters were assessed by using spectrally tuneable pump and probe pulses at proper wavelengths. The obtained 300 K scattering times are 0.5 ps for the hole self-trapping, 4.5 fs for the electron-polar optical phonon scattering, and 80 fs for scattering to and from the side valley. The energy of the lowest side valley in the conduction band is 2.6 eV.
Session 4: Ga2O3: Atomic Scale Defects, Deep Levels/Doping, and Growth II
Session Chairs: Chris G. Van de Walle, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States), David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France)
12002-13
Author(s): Norbert H. Nickel, K. Geilert, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany)
12002-14
Author(s): Debdeep Jena, Cornell Univ (United States)
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Homoepitaxial growth and physical properties of 5.4-8.6 eV bandgap alpha-phase Aluminum Gallium Oxide on Sapphire
12002-15
Author(s): Marius Grundmann, Univ. Leipzig (Germany)
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We investigate the specifics of trigonal materials and their heterostructures, in particular alpha-phase (corundum phase) alumina and gallia and their alloy alpha-(Al,Ga)2O3. Compared to more common hexagonal semiconductor materials (like group-III nitrides), the symmetry is reduced. Regarding the elastic properties, this leads to the occurrence of shear strains in heteroepitaxy and a difference between a- and m-planes. Particular care must be taken when evaluating Raman scattering for the determination of the Raman tensor; for thin films, also the thickness must be taken into account. Also results on electrical properties will be given.
12002-16
Author(s): Manuel Fregolent, Enrico Brusaterra, Carlo De Santi, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Kornelius Tetzner, Joachim Würfl, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (Germany); Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Enrico Zanoni, Matteo Meneghini, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)
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In this paper we analyze the conduction properties, charge trapping and threshold voltage instability of high-power β-Ga2O3 lateral MOSFETs. We characterized by means of threshold voltage transient and fast-CV the charge capture and emission processes. We propose a model (generalized inhibition model) to explain the logarithmic capture and emission kinetics of charge. We also present an extensive analysis of the gate conduction mechanism in a wide temperature range and time dynamics.
12002-17
Author(s): Markus R. Wagner, Benjamin M. Janzen, TU Berlin (Germany); Piero Mazzolini, Università degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Roland Gillen, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany); Andreas Falkenstein, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Hans Tornatzky, TU Berlin (Germany); Manfred Martin, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Janina Maultzsch, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany); Roberto Fornari, Università degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Oliver Bierwagen, Paul Drude Institute (Germany)
12002-18
Author(s): Curtis Irvine, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Cuong Ton-That, Matthew Phillips, University of Technology (Australia)
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β-Ga2O3 single crystals were exposed to high energy neutron irradiation. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a red shift in the emission spectrum resulting from an enhancement of blue luminescence (BL) associated with gallium vacancies. BL in the irradiated β-Ga2O3 is shown to be originated from donor-acceptor-pair recombination, where the donor is Ge as a result of the decay of Ga isotopes after neutron absorption. Investigation into the recombination kinetics of the UV and blue bands in the neutron-irradiated Ga2O3 reveal they are identical and controlled by the Ge donors with an activation energy of 97 ± 10 meV.
12002-19
Author(s): James S. Speck, Univ of California Santa Barbara (United States)
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In this work we highlight recent work in our group on the growth of beta-Ga2O3 by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Key work includes: (i) a detailed study of the bulk diffusion of Mg-doped beta-Ga2O3 where we demonstrate appreciable bulk diffusion at temperatures >~900 C; (ii) development of the homoepitaxial growth of (110) beta-Ga2O3 where we show that despite the apparently stable facet orientation, a similar striated surface morphology to (010) growth; (iii) development of coherent (AlxGa1-x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterostructures on (100) and (001) orientations including a complete analysis of the composition determination from high resolution x-ray diffraction.
Session 5: Ga2O3: Toward Applications
Session Chairs: Norbert H. Nickel, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany), David C. Look, Wright State Univ. (United States)
12002-56
Author(s): Elaheh Ahmadi, University of Michigan (United States)
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The need for efficient power generation, distribution, and delivery is quickly expanding in different sectors of industry. Power electronics is the heart of this industrial revolution, which can be found in various applications. The power electronics market as a whole was about $20 billion in 2012 and is expected to increase to $41.7 billion by 2022. β-Ga2O3 has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its wide bandgap of ~4.8 eV, and availability of melt growth techniques to produce high quality substrates cost-effectively. In my talk, I will give an overview of our current efforts in this field.
12002-20
Author(s): Xiaoli Liu, Muhammad Ishfaq, Chee-Keong Tan, Clarkson Univ. (United States)
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Electronic, optical and structural properties of GaSe and Ga2O3 alloys are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Properties such as band gaps, carrier effective mass, lattice constant and refractive index are studies. Electronic band alignment between GaSe and Ga2O3 is also examined. Our preliminary findings indicate the possibility of type-II band alignment of GaSe / Ga2O3 structures. Ga2O3 of both corundum and monoclinic structures are investigated and the properties difference between GaSe / Ga2O3 of both structures will be compared and discussed.
12002-21
Author(s): Luc Damé, Halima Ghorbel, Mustapha Meftah, Xavier Arrateig, Pierre Gilbert, Lab. Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (France); Pierre Maso, Univ. de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en Yvelines (France); David Bolsée, Nuno Pereira, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (Belgium); David Rogers, Philippe Bove, Vinod Sandana, Ferechteh Teherani, Nanovation (France)
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We present measurement protocols of performances, test and calibrations of new compact solid-state photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 oxides, and optimized for the UVC. They present reduced dark currents, permitting room temperature operation suppressing need for a cooling system (mass and power savings) and avoiding cold surfaces that traps environmental contamination. Detectors' response peak around 215-220 nm with a bandpass of 30 nm, allowing to observe the UVC wavelength band responsible of ozone creation in the stratosphere (Herzberg continuum, 200-242 nm) and to achieve solar-blindness for wavelengths above 250 nm. Other key assets of β-Ga2O3 detectors are their radiation hard properties (longer lifetime), and possible sensitivity (several hundreds mA/W at -5 V) that allows operation at lower voltages (reduced power), a key asset for Space applications. These detectors, evaluated, tested and calibrated, will be integrated on the INSPIRE-7 nanosatellite to be launched in 2023.
12002-22
Author(s): Anderson Janotti, University of Delaware (United States)
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First-principles calculations based on the density functional theory have emerged as a powerful tool to study defects in crystals. Besides serving as a guide in the interpretation of experimental results of materials characterization, these first-principles calculations can be used to predict novel properties and to provide information that are difficult to access experimentally. Recent developments in hybrid functionals and advances in supercomputer power have led to unprecedented accuracy in the description of point defects in semiconductors and insulators, and their impact on materials properties. In this presentation we describe a few recent examples of how hybrid DFT calculations has shed light on puzzling experimental observations, such as long lasting persistent photoconductivity in SrTiO3, small-polaron-related emission in Ga2O3, and the limited impact of oxygen vacancies in controlling the conductivity in In2O3.
12002-23
Author(s): Esmat Farzana, University of California Santa Barbara (United States)
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β-Ga2O3 epitaxy from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has exhibited low background defects and high mobility which are promising for high-power devices. Vertical field-plate Schottky diodes have been fabricated using MOCVD β-Ga2O3 epitaxy that showed punch through breakdown with a specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) of 0.67 mΩ-cm2. This Ron,sp is among the lowest of comparable β-Ga2O3 drift layer thickness reports and can be contributed from the high-mobility MOCVD β-Ga2O3 epitaxy. Work is undergoing with MOCVD β-Ga2O3 using extreme permittivity dielectric (BaTiO3) to further reduce the surface electric field and achieve higher breakdown voltage, which will be reported at the conference.
12002-24
Author(s): Fikadu Alema, George Seryogin, Andrei Osinsky, Agnitron Technology, Inc. (United States)
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MOCVD growth of high purity β-Ga2O3 using trimethylgallium (TMGa) will be discussed and compared to films grown using triethylgallium (TEGa). With optimal process conditions, β-Ga2O3 films with record LT electron mobility >23,000 cm2/Vs and acceptor concentration of 2×1013 cm-3 were realized using TMGa. Demonstration of multi-kV class β-Ga2O3 MESFETs with a record lateral figure of merit >350 MW/cm2 using high quality MOCVD films will be presented. Low substrate temperature MOCVD selective area epitaxial growth process with heavy doping (ND>3×1020 cm-3) to minimize contact resistance will be discussed. We will also present on doping of Ga2O3 with Ge using MOCVD.
12002-25
Author(s): Nasir A. Alfaraj, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Kuang-Hui Li, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (Taiwan); Chun Hong Kang, Laurentiu Braic, King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia); Nicolae C. Zoita, Adrian E. Kiss, National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics (Romania); Tien Khee Ng, Boon S. Ooi, King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)
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A silicon integrated oxide–nitride deep-ultraviolet photodetector with remarkable photosensitivity is demonstrated. The proposed device topology is realized through the disordered nucleation of β-Ga2O3 crystals on monocrystalline TiN interlayers forming an oxide–nitride vertical heterostructure stack housed on a silicon substrate. Spectral responsivity levels of more than 240 A/W at illuminating power density levels of around 7.40 µW/cm2 were achieved.
12002-26
Author(s): Bianchi Méndez Martín, Manuel Alonso-Orts, Daniel Carrasco, Univ Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Jose San Juan, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Alicia de Andres, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC (Spain)
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In this work, we present our recent results on the applicability of optical microcavities based on Cr doped Ga2O3 wires to operate as a nanothermometer in a wide temperature range (at least from 150 up to 550 K) and achieving a temperature precision of around 1 K. To this purpose, DBR (distributed Bragg reflectors) have been used to enhance the reflectivity at the lateral ends of the wires. The transduction mechanism encompasses both the luminescence features of the characteristic R-lines of Cr ions in this host as well as the interferometric effects of the Fabry-Perot resonances within the cavity.
Session 6: Ga2O3: Modeling and Theoretical Studies
Session Chairs: David C. Look, Wright State Univ. (United States), James S. Speck, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
12002-27
Author(s): Michael Lorke, Peter Deak, Thomas Frauenheim, Univ. Bremen (Germany)
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We propose a novel exchange correlation potential[1] for DFT investigations of semiconductor materials, based on physical properties of the underlying microscopic screening. We demonstrate that it reproduces the low temperature band gap of several materials. Moreover, on the example of defects in semiconductors, it respects the required linearity condition of the total energy with the fractional occupation number, as expressed by the generalized Koopman’s theorem. It is shown, that alloys can be treated with a common choice of the functional. We also show that this novel functional can be used as a kernel in linear response TDDFT to reproduce excitonic effects in optical spectra.
12002-28
Author(s): Chris G. Van de Walle, Univ of California Santa Barbara (United States)
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We have used first-principles calculations, based on advanced hybrid density functional theory, to accurately model diffusion of point defects and impurities in Ga2O3. Control of doping is crucial for devices: it should be possible to control the carrier concentrations all the way from semi-insulating to highly conductive n-type material. I will discuss impurities used for donor doping, deep acceptors, as well as unintentional contaminants such as carbon and hydrogen. The results provide important guidance for incorporating Ga2O3 into devices. Work performed in collaboration with J. L. Lyons, S. Mu, H. Peelaers, J. B. Varley, M. Wang, and D. Wickramaratne.
12002-29
Author(s): Joel B. Varley, Lawrence Livermore National Lab (United States)
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Gallium oxide and related alloys are rapidly developing as promising material platforms for next-generation power electronics owing to their large, tunable band gaps, controllable electrical conductivity, and commercially-available single-crystal substrates that can be grown via a number of industrially-scalable processes. Here we survey the current understanding of point defects in Ga2O3, focusing on their potential optical and electrical consequences from insights gained through first-principles-based calculations employing hybrid functionals. We discuss what is known about available donor and acceptor dopants, as well as their interactions with native defects and impurities incorporated through growth and processing steps. These results provide guidance for controlling the conductivity in Ga2O3 for facilitating next-generation power electronics based on this ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor.
Session 7: Functional Oxides
Session Chairs: David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France), Giti A. Khodaparast, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
12002-30
Author(s): Smagul Karazhanov, Department for Solar Energy, Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)
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Oxyhydrides: synthesis, characterization and applications Smagul Zh. Karazhanov Department for Solar Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, Norway Rare-earth metal oxyhydrides belong to the emerging class of mixed anion materials that exhibit UV-light induced reversible color change. The aim of the talk is to report overview of the results about materials properties and applications. UV light induced lattice breathing, lattice contraction, mechanism of the photochromic effect, the relationship of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films, phase diagram, the results on synchrotron measurements, protection of the films from environment by encapsulating with oxides and polymers, prototype photochromic windows, the results on indoor and outdoor testing, theoretical study of materials properties and defect chemistry will be presented. The films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and hydrogenation of metallic particles and oxidation.
12002-31
Author(s): Bharat Jalan, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (United States)
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In this talk, we will report the first demonstration of true modulation doping in a wider bandgap perovskite oxides without the use of STO. We show that the La-doped SrSnO3/BaSnO3 system precisely fulfills the theoretical criteria for electron doping in BaSnO3 using electrons from La-doped SrSnO3, and we demonstrate how rearrangement of electrons can be used to control the insulator-to-metal transition in these heterostructure. We further show the use of angle-resolved HAXPES as a non-destructive approach to not only determine the location of electrons at the interface but also to quantify the width of electron distribution in BaSnO3. The transport results are in good agreement with the results of self-consistent solution to one-dimensional Poisson and Schrödinger equations.
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The Cu-Fe-O and Cu-Cr-O system has a great technological interest in the copper industry, photocatalysis and transparent devices. In these systems, Delafossite phases CuMO2 exhibit remarkable electrical, thermoelectric, optical and optoelectrical properties. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the stability of this phase becomes of particular interest for fundamental and applied researches. Thermostructural analysis were first used to provide a better understanding of the stability of CuMO2 with M = {Fe, Cr} with a substantial degree of cationic non-stoichiometry. Thanks to this guide, the deposition of thin films by rf sputtering was carried out at temperature compatible with the use of cheap transparent substrates. Conventional thermal treatment as well as rapid post laser annealing using a photolithography machine were used to optimize the p-type TCO properties, opening up exciting prospects for fast and low cost making the most of these materials.
12002-32
Author(s): Yuning Zhang, Yang Qu, Yang Sun, Jiayang Wu, Baohua Jia, David J. Moss, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia)
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We report enhanced nonlinear optics in in nanowires and microring resonators (MRRs) integrated with graphene oxide (GO) films. We report experimental results as well as full theoretical optimizations. For four-wave mixing (FWM) in MRRs we achieve up to ≈7.3 dB and ≈10.3 dB conversion efficiency (CE) enhancement for a uniformly and patterned device, respectively. Based on the measurements, we further optimize the performance by adjusting the GO film parameters and MRR coupling strengths on the FWM CE of the hybrid MRRs, achieving a CE enhancement of ≈18.6 dB. These results reveal the strong potential of GO films to improve the FWM performance in MRRs.
12002-33
Author(s): Jeffrey K. Wuenschell, Youngseok Jee, National Energy Technology Lab. (United States); Paul Ohodnicki, Univ. of Pittsburgh (United States); Michael Buric, Benjamin Chorpening, National Energy Technology Lab. (United States)
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Perovskite oxides are discussed as sensing layers on fiber-optic based sensor devices. Both pointwise and distributed (spatially resolved) sensors are considered for real-time oxygen monitoring at high temperature (>500°C). Results for Fe-doped SrTiO3 and LSCF (LaxSr1-xCoyFe1-yO3) are shown, in humid operational environments with 1-20 atm pO2. The optical, electronic, and ionic properties of these systems are discussed in the context of sensor performance, response time, and cross-sensitivity. To help guide sensor design, computational modeling is utilized that connects defect chemistry within the oxide to optical / electronic material parameters, and finally to ray-based modeling of transmission through the optical fiber-based sensor.
12002-35
Author(s): Aline D. Rougier, Institut de Chimie et de la Matière Condensée (France)
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Chromogenic materials exhibit tunable properties as a consequence of an external stimulus such as light (photochromism), temperature (thermochromism) or potential (electrochromism..). Those smart compounds find applications in buildings and automobile industry by controlling light and heat transfer through windows for transmissive devices while colour changes in reflective devices offer great interest in the field of displays and printed electronics. Among various oxides, vanadium oxides plays a peculiar role as they adopt a specific property in respect of their stoichiometry, namely thermochromism for VO2 and electrochromism for V2O5. Comparing thin films of few hundred nanometers by RF sputtering method or thick films of few micrometers, specific attention will be devoted to the role of dopants. For instance easy tuning of the transition temperature down to RT and up to 130°C will be reported for Nb and Fe doped VO2 respectively while Mo-doping improves EC properties.
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P type CuMO2 (M = Fe, Cr) delafossite thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and annealed under vacuum. The transport properties of thin films as : Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities and optical were characterized in the aim to determine the possible interrest for microelectronic transparent thermoelectric applications. The optimized annealed thin films showed a power factor of 85 µW.m-1.K-2. Moreover, due to their Seebeck coefficients which are independent of the temperature, these thin films are specifically well adapted for accurate temperature sensors. A transparent p type CuMO2 unileg TE module has been elaborated and generated with only 3 legs an electrical output power of 11 nW (with a Temperature of the hot side fixed at 225°C). These kind of devices with coupled properties could be very interresting for microelectronic applications.
12002-37
Author(s): Antonio Vázquez-López, Univ Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Javier García-Alonso, Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Javier Bartolomé, David Maestre Varea, Ana Cremades, Univ Complutense de Madrid (Spain)
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The advent of modern devices requires the development of multifunctional nanomaterials with improved performance, while involving low-cost and sustainable processing. In this frame semiconducting oxide nanoparticles and hybrid composites formed in combination with an organic matrix are gaining increasing attention based on their versatility and wide applications in many fields of technological research. In this work p-type and n-type oxide nanoparticles (SnO, SnO2, TiO2, Ni-Mn-O) and hybrid composites formed with the nanoparticles and Poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have been synthesized following diverse chemical routes, characterized by using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques and evaluated in gas sensing, thermoelectrics and energy-related applications. Improvements were achieved by the synergy between the counterparts of the hybrid composites.
12002-55
Author(s): Catherine Dubourdieu, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany)
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In this presentation, we discuss the integration of amorphous GaOx into back-gated transistors. The a-GaOx films (22 -100 nm) were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The conductivity of the films was tuned by changing the O2 plasma exposure time during the ALD cycles, which determines the content in oxygen vacancies. Back-gated transistors were fabricated with Al2O3 gate oxide on highly-doped Si substrate, with or without encapsulation of the top surface. The electrical properties of the devices will be discussed. Low sub-threshold swing (~150 mV/dec), on/off ratio >105 and operating drain voltage below 5V were obtained.
Session 8: Solar Cells
Session Chairs: David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France), Giovanni Fanchini, Western Univ. (Canada)
12002-38
Author(s): Giovanni Fanchini, Western Univ (Canada)
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Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are extensively investigated because of their applications as transparent electrodes in solar cells and light-emitting devices.There is strong interest in nickel oxide as TCO because of its versatility, in terms of nanostructures that can be obtained, as well as its use in multiple solar cell architectures. In this presentation, we will review the recent use of nickel oxide in different solar cell architectures. Here, we will focus on the use of NiO in hybrid inorganic/organic photovoltaics (HIOPVs). HIOPVs are made of oxidized n-type silicon wafers coated with a thin film of a conducting polymer, typically poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). They achieve >10% photoconversion efficiency with seamless fabrication processes. We will present a set of HIOPVs designed by replacing the native silicon oxide layer with nanostructured NiO, either with top organic layer of PEDOT:PSS or ad-hoc designed radical polymers.
12002-39
Author(s): Olivier Durand, Eugène Bertin, Institut FOTON (France); Nicolas Barreau, Univ Nantes, CNRS, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel IMN, UMR 6502 (France); Eric Gautron, Univ Nantes (France); Antoine Létoublon, Charles Cornet, Institut FOTON (France)
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We propose to explore tandem junctions associating single crystalline silicon bottom cell (Eg = 1.12 eV) and wide bandgap (1.7 eV) CuIn0.75Ga0.25S2 (pure-sulfide CIGSu) top cell, using GaP intermediate layer. Our purpose is to grow CIGSu films under epitaxial conditions on GaP/Si(001) to improve the top cell efficiency, thanks to a reduction of the structural defects density detrimental for the cell performance, so that CIGSu/Si tandem cells can emerge as cost competitive for the next generation of PV modules. Record efficiency on standard AZO/ZnMgO/CdS/CIGSu/Mo/Glass solar cell and epitaxy of CIGSsu on GaP/Si are demonstrated.
Session 9: Novel Approach for Growth
Session Chairs: Jean-Michel Chauveau, Ctr. de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (France), Philippe Bove, Nanovation (France)
12002-40
Author(s): Michael Schneider, VON ARDENNE GmbH (Germany); Stefan Bruns, Michael Vergöhl, Thomas Melzig, Tobias Zickenrott, Fraunhofer-Institut für Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST (Germany)
12002-41
Author(s): Leif Kochanneck, Andreas Tewes, Gerd-Albert Hoffmann, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany); Kalle Niiranen, Sami Sneck, Beneq Oy (Finland); Andreas Wienke, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany); Detlev Ristau, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany)
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Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been proven as an excellent method for coating high quality optical films. Unfortunately, batch ALD provides low deposition rates, limiting applications for coatings with large thickness. Overcoming batch ALD drawbacks, the utilization of rotary ALD for optical applications is investigated. Absorption below 3.1 ppm for 200 nm single layers of Ta2O5 and 6.0 ppm SiO2 on fused silica substrates and growth rates up to 0.12 nm/s comparable to conventional IBS are achieved. Uniformity of 1.55 % over 120 mm for Ta2O5 and 2.71 % over 120 mm for SiO2 is realized. The LZH broad band monitoring system will be installed for layer growth control.
Session 10: ZnO and MgZnO
Session Chairs: David J. Rogers, Nanovation (France), Henryk Teisseyre, Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
12002-42
Author(s): Henryk Teisseyre, Institute of Physics PAS (Poland)
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We report on the binding energy of a charged exciton (trion) confined in a single, epitaxially grown 1.7nm thick ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O quantum well as large as 22 meV or 27.6 meV when determined in micro-photoluminescence or transmission measurements, respectively. The attribution of the lines is further confirmed by the magnetic field dependences of the emission intensity. Charged exciton emission is found to persist up to near room temperature. The QW width was determined from high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. The binding energy comparable to thermal energy at room temperature is promising for trion based spintronic and optoelectronic applications.
12002-43
Author(s): Vishal Saravade, Zahra Manzoor, Purdue Univ. (United States); Chuanle Zhou, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States); Ian Ferguson, Kennesaw State Univ. (United States); Na Lu, Purdue Univ. (United States)
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Transition metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnTMO) has been an interesting material for various applications such as solar cells, LEDs, laser diodes, photodetectors, sensors, and spintronics. However, the optical properties of ZnTMO are still not well understood which hinder its practical investigations and applications. In this work, optical and structural properties of Mn-doped zinc oxide (ZnMnO) grown by MOCVD are investigated to understand the functionalities in ZnMnO for optical applications. Optical and structural characteristics can be controllably tuned with Mn-doping and growth conditions. Understanding of transition metal-doping in ZnO will expand its applicability in photovoltaics, solid-state lighting, sensing, electronics and biomedicine.
12002-44
Author(s): Lorenzo Rigutti, Angela Vella, University of Rouen Normandie (France)
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Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is a microscopy technique based on field ion emission allowing for the 3D reconstruction of the chemical composition of nanoscale specimens with a precision close to the atomic scale. As an evolution of this technique, the photonic atom probe (PAP) enables in-situ and operando detection of the photoluminescence signal. The optical signatures of the light-emitting centers can be correlated with the structural and chemical information obtained by the analysis of the evaporated ions. This makes it possible to perform super-resolution discrrimination of the optical signatures related to different quantum emitters as close as 20 nm, but also an original insight on the physics of field ion emission. These possibilities will be exemplified through the analysis of (Mg,Zn)O/ZnO quantum well heterostructures.
12002-45
Author(s): Jean-Michel Chauveau, Univ Cote d'Azur (France), Univ. Paris Saclay, Université Versailles Saint Quentin (France); N. Le Biavan, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); D. Lefebvre, Univ Cote d'Azur (France); A. Hierro, ISOM (Spain); B. Hinkov, G. Strasser, TU Wien (Austria); B Meng, J. Faist, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
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In the race towards THz devices operating at high temperatures, oxides could play a major role based on their unique phonon properties. We will present the advances in this field covering the design the growth the process and the characterization. We will show the different bottleneck that can be encountered and how our consortium has addressed them to achieved THz absorption and RT emission from quantum cascade structures. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 665107 (project ZOTERAC)
12002-46
Author(s): Marius Grundmann, Max Kneiß, Anna Reinhardt, Chris Sturm, Holger von Wenckstern, Daniel Splith, Lukas Trefflich, Univ Leipzig (Germany)
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We have fabricated a novel type of ultracompact spectrometer without dispersive element(s) suitable for the use in smartphones. It comprises a waveguide with a linear photodetector array on top. The photosensitive layer features a steep chemical concentration gradient, fabricated from (MgxZn1-x)O, allowing for spectral detection in the UV. The dimensions of the device make it ultracompact with a volume of less than 1 cubic millimeter.
Session 11: PZT
Session Chairs: Giti A. Khodaparast, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States), Philippe Bove, Nanovation (France)
12002-47
Author(s): Saeed Yousefi Sarraf, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Nelson Hua, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States); Jianheng Li, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Loïc Guillemot, Univ. Paris-Sud (France); Geoffery Rippy, Louie Zhong, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Richard Schaller, Argonne National Lab. (United States); Kristoffer Haldrup, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Sylvia Matzen, Univ. Paris-Sud (France); Roopali Kukreja, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
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Photorefractive effect plays an important role in light induced optical properties of ferroelectric materials due to their large Pockels effect. Broadband transient reflectivity has been performed on PZT thin films and heterostructures. Unexpected spectral features below the bandgap have been described by the photoinduced change in the refractive index and extinction coefficient of PZT due to the photorefractive effect. Considering a change in the refractive index and extinction coefficient, the spectral features have been reproduced, which are in good agreement with the experimental results. Time evolution investigation of the photorefractive effect indicates a three relaxation mechanism for this effect.
12002-48
Author(s): Giti A. Khodaparast, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
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Multiferroic BaTiO3- BiFeO3 (BTO-BFO) and Pb Zr TiO3 (PZT) heterostructures are promising candidates for new photonics applications. Our BTO-BFO structures exhibit enhanced coupling between electric, magnetic, optical, and structural orders parameters. Furthermore, our PZT nanorod arrays display ferroelectricity as well as enhanced switching response of their electrical polarization. In this study, we focused on probing ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear light-matter interactions in these structures. We have probed second harmonic generation, transient birefringence, and magneto-optical Kerr effects. In addition, in BTO-BFO heterostructures, we have generated and investigated coherent acoustic phonons. Our studies are important to gain a fundamental understanding of the dynamical processes in these newly developed structures. Collaborators: Rathsara R. H. H. Mudiyanselage, B. A. Magill, J. Holleman, H-B Kang, M. G. Kang, D. Maurya, S. Priya, S. McGill, C. J. Stanton.
12002-49
Author(s): Robin Lehmkau, InfraTec infrared LLC (United States)
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For the first time three-dimensional substrates with trench structures were applied for detectors to multiply the pyroelectric current responsivity of thin, doped hafnium oxide films resulting in a pyrocoefficient up to 1300 µC/m²/K. To improve the temperature responsivity micromechanical structuring of the silicon substrate was used. Integrated plasmonic absorbers for the spectral range 3 – 5 µm achieve an absorption > 80%. With a detector integrated low noise transimpedance amplifier the specific detectivity reaches D* > 1x10^7 cm√Hz/W (Black Body 1000 K) for the frequency range 1 – 10 Hz.
Posters-Wednesday
In person: 26 January 2022 • 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM
Conference attendees are invited to attend the OPTO poster session on Wednesday evening. Come view the posters, enjoy light refreshments, ask questions, and network with colleagues in your field.

Poster Setup: Wednesday 10:00 AM – 5:00 PM
View poster presentation guidelines and set-up instructions at
http://spie.org/PWPosterGuidelines
12002-34
Author(s): JuGyeong Lee, Mohammad Malik Afandi, Gyeongdo Baek, Jongsu Kim, Pukyong National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
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Both ultraviolet (UV) and ultrasound (US)-generating sterilizer based on electroluminescent (EL) film on a piezoelectric substrate have been demonstrated for the first time. The device was composed of the UV-transparent top electrode, 200 nm-thick self-activating oxide phosphor film (UVA at 360 nm peak), 100 μm-thick piezoelectric ceramic sheets, and bottom electrode. Under a high electric field (~ 1 MV/cm) with an ultrasonic frequency (~ 50 kHz), the UV EL is attributed to the undoped phosphor film layer due to impact excitation by hot electrons tunneled from deep traps, and simultaneously the US is generated from the thick piezoelectric sheet due to the piezoelectric effect. In addition, the oxide-based photocatalytic film was coated on the front side of the device. Finally, its sterilizing performance was compared with the single functional sterilizer-based reference.
12002-50
Author(s): Nadezhda P. Netesova, Sarkis R. Arakelyan, Ekaterina A. Arakelyan, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)
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Within oscillation electron model the superconducting crystal AB is considered consisting of two subsystems for phase separation. Free electrons couple to lower system energy. When molecules are formed from identical atoms, energy is released. The energy balance is carried out by the plasma mechanism [1]. It is necessary, that square electron energy in a local phase was essentially much less, than the one in an initial phase. This is the condition for the superconducting phase transition in the crystal AB. Model oxide-based silver crystal was calculated. Phase transition T* = 0.73104641 K is fixed within the model. [1] Netesova Nadezhda P. Oscillation electron model superconductors: phase diagram, temperature transition, isotopic shift, Proceedings of SPIE, 10533, 105330Z, 1-11 (2018).
12002-51
Author(s): Ishaq Ahmad, Abdul Khaleed, Po Shan Lo, Aleksandra Djurišic, Yanling He, The Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China); Alan Man Ching Ng, Southern Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China)
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We have synthesized mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) with controlled size (>100 nm) and porosity by using modified Stöber method. In this study, we address the synthesis parameters for obtaining controlled size (<10 nm) active metal oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) including SnO2, Fe2O3, ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles with dispersion stability, and incorporation of these MNPs in the pores of MSNs. These MNPs incorporated MSNs having large surface area are capable of adsorbing oxygen by physisorption thus can be incorporated into food packaging matrix as oxygen scavengers and oxygen detection to extend shelf life of the food products.
12002-52
Author(s): Jingyang Lin, Yanling He, The Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China); Wei Chen, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Alan Man Ching Ng, Southern Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China); Aleksandra B. Djurišić, The Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China)
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We investigated the properties of SnO2 electron transport layers for perovskite solar cells prepared by different methods: atomic layer deposition (ALD), sol-gel deposition, and nanoparticle spin-coating. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages, and no single method results in an ideal SnO2 ETL in terms of conformal coating, low surface roughness and low concentration of surface defects, and suitable energy level alignment across the interface with the perovskite to facilitate electron collection. Therefore, we investigated the use of SnO2 bilayers as ETLs, and obtained performance improvement for optimized bilayer structure. The reasons for improved performance are discussed
12002-53
Author(s): Nanda Kasani, Univ. of Missouri (United States)
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UV photodetectors are used widely in many applications like space-space communications, commercial UV sensing, military applications, environmental pollution monitoring, flame sensing etc. Most of the current hydrothermally grown ZnO-based UV sensors reported were grown directly on top of metal electrodes separated by few microns gap and the thin sub-micron level ZnO seed layer acts as a bridge to transfer the charge b/w two electrodes, this largely limits the photocurrent and the On/Off ratios. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach of utilizing multi-layered ZnO. It turned out to provide rapid charge transfer between electrodes and yielded an improved photocurrent up to 5 micro Amps for 1 V bias voltage applied and a high contrast I_Light/I_Dark ratio of 285. It also showed high photo responsivity and detectivity of 0.25 A/W and 2.67 X 10^12 Jones, respectively.
Conference Chair
Nanovation (France)
Conference Chair
Nanovation (France)
Program Committee
Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Nanovation (France)
Program Committee
Univ. de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en Yvelines (France)
Program Committee
James Connolly
Univ. Paris-Saclay (France)
Program Committee
Nicolas de France
Univ. de Lille (France)
Program Committee
The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Program Committee
Aleksandra B. Djurišic
The Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China)
Program Committee
U.S. Army Research Office (United States)
Program Committee
Michael A. Harper
CIV USN ONR GLOBAL (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain)
Program Committee
Seref Kalem
Bahçesehir Univ. (Turkey)
Program Committee
Wright State Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Purdue Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain)
Program Committee
Norbert H. Nickel
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany)
Program Committee
Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
Libera Univ. di Bolzano (Italy)
Program Committee
Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Nanovation (France)
Program Committee
Michael L. Schuette
Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia)
Program Committee
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Program Committee
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (France)
Program Committee
Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)
Program Committee
Magnus Willander
Linköping Univ. (Sweden)
Program Committee
Hideki Yamamoto
NTT Basic Research Labs. (Japan)