Conference 11705

Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers XX

Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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  • OPTO Plenary Session
  • 1: Mode-Locking: Combs
  • 2: Cavity and Feedback / Injection Effects
  • 3: Material and Device Development
  • 4: III-V on Silicon Lasers
  • 5: High Brightness / Narrow Linewidth
  • 6: QCL Frequency Combs
  • 7: THz QCLs: Modulation, Mode Locking, and Frequency Combs
  • 8: Modeling of QCLs and their Frequency Combs
  • 9: Mid-infrared QCLs: New Materials, High Performance
  • 10: Mid-infrared and THz Lasers: New Designs I
  • 11: Mid-infrared and THz Lasers: New Designs II
  • Poster Session
OPTO Plenary Session
11691-201
Silicon photonics breaks new ground (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Graham T. Reed, Optoelectronics Research Ctr. (United Kingdom)
9 March 2021 • 12:05 PM - 12:35 PM PST
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Silicon photonics has emerged as a game-changing technology for data communications in recent years. However, the technology is also applicable to an increasing number of other applications. Even in the data-comm application, the relentless demand for more data requires the performance of silicon photonics to continue to improve. In this presentation I will discuss our work in three aspects of Silicon Photonics technology. The first is high-speed optical transmitters. Our approach of co-design of the photonic and electronic components of systems has enabled us to demonstrate 100Gb/s OOK from a single silicon modulator without any equalisation. Secondly, I will discuss a technology that we have developed that allows comprehensive wafer scale testing of silicon photonics circuits, as well as trimming of individual devices, and a non-volatile method of programming silicon photonics circuits without the need for large power consumption to maintain the state of the programmed circuit. Finally, I will discuss our work with Pointcloud Inc., on 3D imaging via an integrated LIDAR system, which has demonstrated millimeter accuracy for measurements made at distances beyond 70m.
11689-202
Author(s): Kerry J. Vahala, Caltech (United States)
9 March 2021 • 12:45 PM - 1:15 PM PST
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Electronics and photonics have long had a complementary coexistence across multiple application areas. Nonetheless, an ideal partnership of these two realms was made challenging in large part by the enormous frequencies of lightwaves. About two decades ago, this limitation was overcome with the invention of the laser frequency comb. Combs provide a coherent link between electronics and photonics, and because the link is bidirectional, performance attributes previously unique to each can now be shared. Their implementation has been transformative for time keeping, frequency metrology, precision spectroscopy, microwave-generation, ranging and other technologies. More recently still, high-Q nonlinear optical microresonators, have enabled chip-scale frequency combs. I will review efforts to fully integrate comb systems around these new ‘microcombs,’ along with the physical principles of the devices themselves. Finally, I will consider the revolutionary impact this chip-scale unification of the optoelectronic spectrum can have on photonic instrumentation and consumer products.
11709-203
Author(s): Kohji Mitani, NHK Japan Broadcasting Corp. (Japan)
9 March 2021 • 1:25 PM - 1:55 PM PST
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Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) Science & Technology Research Laboratories (STRL) has long been consistently opening up new horizons for broadcasting. Its recent R&D on 8K ultra-high-definition television―the ultimate two-dimensional television―came to fruition as a regular satellite broadcasting service in Japan in December 2018, with 8K gradually penetrating media and other industries globally. The 8K specifications were determined based on psychophysical experiments to effectively produce an immersive and realistic experience with a two-dimensional screen. STRL is continuing to enhance user experiences. Aside from two-dimensional displays, today there are media devices such as head-mounted displays, augmented reality glasses, three-dimensional displays, and haptic devices. STRL is researching these devices to enhance their performance from the perspective of visual psychology and cognitive science. It is also developing three-dimensional information processing technologies and artificial intelligence aiming for new content presentations with new immersive devices. Conveying sensations other than sight and sound will create innovative sensory experiences that provide unprecedented immersion. A new media scheme that utilizes various delivery platforms such as broadcasting, the internet, and 5G is also being studied to produce new viewing experiences.
Session 1: Mode-Locking: Combs
11705-1
Author(s): Zhenguo Lu, Jiaren Liu, Linda Mao, Philip Poole, Eric Liu, John Weber, Chunying Song, Pedro Barrios, Martin Vachon, Shurui Wang, Daniel Poitras, National Research Council Canada (Canada)
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We report the design, growth, and fabrication of InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) gain materials. By using those QDs, we developed a QD coherent comb laser (CCL) module with the optical design, electronic hardware and software controlling, and mechanical packaging designs. We measured their optical and RF beating spectra, relative intensity noise and optical phase noise of each individual channel, as well as timing jitters. Data bandwidth transmission capacity of 5.376 Tbit/s and 10.8 Tbit/s in PAM-4 and 16-QAM modulation formats are demonstrated by using a single 34.2-GHz QD CCL after 25 km and 100 km of single-mode fiber transmission lines.
11705-2
Author(s): Jan Lautenschläger, Dominik Auth, Christoph Weber, Leonhard Wegert, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Dmitry Kazakov, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Andreas Klehr, Andrea Knigge, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany); Johannes Hillbrand, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Benedikt Schwarz, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria), Harvard Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Stefan Breuer, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
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An amplitude-modulated optical frequency comb generated by a passively mode-locked InGaAs double quantum well semiconductor laser is optically injected into a laser emitting a single optical mode continuous wave output in solitary operation. Optical frequency comb generation in the injected laser is experimentally demonstrated and regimes of injection locking are analyzed.
11705-3
Author(s): Paolo Bardella, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Marcus Ossiander, Dmitry Kazakov, Harvard Univ. (United States); Dominik Auth, Leonhard Wegert, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Lorenzo L. Columbo, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Luke F. Lester, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard Univ. (United States); Stefan Breuer, Harvard Univ. (United States), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
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Inter-mode beat frequency agility and beat note line width stabilization of a near-infrared emitting InAs/InGaAs quantum dot comb laser are studied both experimentally and numerically. Delay-differential equation modeling elucidates the responsible carrier and photon dynamics, gain and absorption dynamics, confirms the beat frequency agility and phase noise reduction as predicted by a stochastic time-domain model and quantitatively verifies the experimental findings.
11705-4
Author(s): Lukas Drzewietzki, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Dmitry Kazakov, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Dominik Auth, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Luke F. Lester, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Stefan Breuer, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
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Non-resonant delay optical self-injection of an amplitude-modulated InAs/InGaAs quantum dot frequency comb is presented both experimentally and numerically. Novel timing jitter and repetition rate dependencies are presented and quantitatively verified by a stochastic time-domain model.
11705-5
Author(s): Leonard Wegert, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Dmitry Kazakov, Marcus Ossiander, Harvard Univ. (United States); Dominik Auth, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Hillbrand, Technische Universität Wien (Austria), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Artem V. Savelyev, St. Petersburg Academic Univ. (Russian Federation); Mikhail V. Maximov, Alferov University RAS (Russian Federation); Alexey E. Zhukov, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russian Federation); Benedikt Schwarz, Technische Universität Wien (Austria), Harvard Univ. (United States); Luke F. Lester, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard Univ. (United States); Stefan Breuer, Harvard Univ. (United States), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
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The transition from frequency-modulated to amplitude-modulated frequency comb operation is studied experimentally in a multi-section InAs/InGaAs quantum dot frequency comb laser. Temporally and spectrally-resolved intensity and phase as well as time and frequency domain analysis allow to identify frequency-modulated and amplitude-modulated comb operation regimes in dependence on the laser gain current and absorber reverse bias voltage.
11705-48
Author(s): Hubertus Bastiaens, Govert Neijts, Anzal Memon, Youwen Fan, Jesse Mak, University of Twente (Netherlands); Dimitri Geskus, Marcel Hoekman, LioniX International BV (Netherlands); Valentina Moskalenko, Erwin Bente, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Klaus Boller, University of Twente (Netherlands)
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We demonstrate the first on-chip laser frequency comb based on hybrid integration with low-loss Si3N4 waveguide circuits. The laser comprises an InP diode amplifier of which a small fraction is reverse biased for passive locking, while a Si3N4 feedback waveguide extends the optical cavity to a roundtrip length of 15 cm. The generated comb densely covers a 25 nm broad spectrum, at a 3 dB level, with more than 1600 comb-lines at 2 GHz spacing. With such properties, hybrid integrated diode lasers show great promise for widespread use in applications such as integrated microwave photonics or metrology.
Session 2: Cavity and Feedback / Injection Effects
11705-6
Author(s): Ali Alloush, Navina Kleemann, Lukas Braun, Carsten Brenner, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany); Marlene Zander, Wolfgang Rehbein, Martin Moehrle, Fraunhofer-Institut für Nachrichtentechnik, Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, HHI (Germany); Martin R. Hofmann, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)
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In this work, we compare ultrashort pulse generation in a monolithic two-section diode laser chip based on passive- and self- mode-locking (PML and SML) regimes at 1550 nm. In PML, we apply a forward current into the gain segment and a reverse voltage into the absorber segment. For SML operation, both segments are operated by applying a forward current. Strongly chirped pulses with an autocorrelation-width of roughly 7-8 picoseconds are obtained for both cases. We analyze the potential for fiber-based compression of the pulse widths down to the sub-picosecond range.
11705-7
Author(s): Stefan Meinecke, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Dominik Auth, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Marcus Ossiander, Dmitry Kazakov, Harvard Univ. (United States); Christoph Weber, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Lina Jaurigue, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Andreas Klehr, Andrea Knigge, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany); Federico Capasso, Harvard Univ. (United States); Kathy Lüdge, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Stefan Breuer, Harvard Univ. (United States), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
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Optical self-injection stabilization of a passively mode-locked InGaAs double quantum well semiconductor laser is reported. Time-domain, frequency-domain and spectral domain measurement results in dependence on feedback strength and feedback delay demonstrate pulse width and higher harmonic mode-locking control. Traveling-wave equation simulations allow to explain the measured sequence of harmonic mode-locking orders in dependence on the feedback strength and delay.
11705-9
Author(s): Wanwoo Noh, Hadiseh Nasari, Hwi-Min Kim, Quynh Le-Van, Zhetao Jia, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Chi-Hsin Huang, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States); Boubacar Kante, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
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Topology plays a fundamental role in contemporary physics and enables new information processing schemes and wave device physics with built-in robustness. However, the creation of photonic topological phases usually requires complex geometries that limit the prospect for miniaturization and integration, and, dispossess designers of additional degrees of freedom needed to control topological modes on-chip. By controlling the degree of asymmetry (DoA) in a photonic crystal with broken inversion symmetry, we report single-mode lasing of valley-Hall ring cavities at telecommunication wavelength. Our results open the door to novel optoelectronic devices and systems based on compact topological integrated circuits.
Session 3: Material and Device Development
11705-10
Author(s): Josh D. Brown, Satya Barik, Qian Gao, Brad Siskavich, Marie Wintrebert-Fouquet, Alanna Fernandes, Patrick Chen, Brad Zadrozny, Oliver Pitman, Ian Mann, BluGlass, Ltd. (Australia)
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InAlGaN-based laser diodes (LDs) can be designed to emit across a wide range of wavelengths spanning UV to green. A common challenge across all wavelengths lies in the difficulty in producing low resistance p-type InAlGaN layers. For shorter wavelength devices, the requirement of high aluminium containing p-AlGaN leads to high device series resistance. For the longer wavelength devices approaching the green wavelengths, the thermal degradation of the indium-rich quantum wells during the growth of the p-GaN and p-AlGaN cladding layers reduces the device efficiency. In this paper we discuss how BluGlass’s remote plasma chemical vapour deposition (RPCVD) technology can address these challenges through improvements to intrinsic material properties as well as enabling novel design architectures.
11705-11
Author(s): Jens W. Tomm, Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (Germany); Jan Ruschel, Johannes Glaab, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany); Felix Mahler, Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (Germany); Tim Kolbe, Sven Einfeldt, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany)
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We characterize aging processes in Al(In)GaN quantum well structures by analyzing the luminescence generated by two different mechanisms, namely current injection and short-pulse optical excitation. This allows the in-situ quantification of changes in recombination kinetics during operation with unprecedented precision. We observe a reduction of the luminescence decay time from 340 to 290 ps within the first 42 hours of current stress. This is due to the generation of defects in the active region. The defect concentrations before and after operation are estimated. Furthermore, we found that the recombination kinetics after optical excitation can be controlled by a direct current.
11705-12
Author(s): Hanlin Fu, Wei Sun, Justin C. Goodrich, Damir Borovac, Nelson Tansu, Lehigh Univ. (United States)
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The material gain and threshold current density properties of dilute-As InGaNAs-based quantum wells (QWs) are analyzed via a self-consistent 6-band k·p formulism. Amber emission is achieved by the implementation of dilute-As InGaNAs with low In-content. Significant threshold current density reduction and enhanced material gain are obtained by the employment of an In0.19Ga0.81N0.97As0.03 (Eg ~ 2.1 eV) alloy into the active region for red-emitting lasers, compared to a conventional high In-content InGaN-based QW emitting at the same wavelength (λ~600 nm). Our study reveals the excellent potential of the dilute-As InGaNAs for implementation as the active region for red-emitting lasers.
11705-13
Author(s): Dominic A. Duffy, Igor P. Marko, Timothy D. Eales, Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom); Christian Fuchs, Jannik Lehr, Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Wolfgang Stolz, Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany), NAsP III/V GmbH (Germany); Stephen J. Sweeney, Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom)
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Type-II GaInAs/GaAsSb “W” quantum well heterostructures on GaAs show strong potential for temperature-stable data communications lasers. Devices emitting at 1255 nm show promising lasing characteristics including room-temperature threshold current densities, Jth < 300 A/cm^2, pulsed output powers >1 W, and a reduced wavelength temperature dependence of 0.31 nm/C. Temperature- and pressure-dependent characterisation techniques are used to determine the roles of radiative and non-radiative recombination. Analysis of these characteristics suggest a reduced influence of non-radiative recombination on the thermal stability of type-II “W”-lasers compared to type-I devices, as will be discussed along with recommendations for future device development.
11705-14
Author(s): Adam Forrest, Heriot-Watt Univ. (United Kingdom); Pierluigi Antonaci, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Michel Krakowski, III-V Lab. (France); Maria Ana Cataluna, Heriot-Watt Univ. (United Kingdom); Paolo Bardella, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
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We validate against experimental measurements the Time-domain Traveling-Wave simulations of a tapered chirped QD based SOA under injection of external pulses, and discuss the advantages in terms of output power of the double-pass amplification with respect to the single-pass configuration.
Session 4: III-V on Silicon Lasers
11705-15
Author(s): Moustafa El Kurdi, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France); Anas Elbaz, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France), STMicroelectronics S.A. (France); Nils von den Driesch, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Gibraltar); Binbin Wang, Emilie Sakat, Etienne Herth, Gilles Patriarche, Konstantinos Pantzas, Isabelle Sagnes, Xavier Checoury, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France); Jérémie Chrétien, Nicolas Pauc, Vincent Calvo, CEA-DRF (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Frédéric Boeuf, STMicroelectronics S.A. (France); Philippe Boucaud, Ctr. de recherche sur l'hétéroepitaxie et ses applications, CNRS (France), Univ. Côte d'Azur (France); Alexei Chelnokov, Vincent Reboud, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Detlev Grützmacher, Dan Buca, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Jean-Michel Hartmann, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France)
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Direct band gap achievements in germanium by alloying with tin or by tensile strain engineering has enabled, in recent years, several demonstrations of laser emission in the 2-5µm wavelength range. This fast and promising emergence of CMOS-compatible laser technology in the Mid-IR faces, however, major issues, e.g. high threshold power densities, which limit the integration of GeSn as a gain media on a silicon chip for cost-efficient sensing and/or short-range Datacom devices. We show that combining tensile strain and Sn alloying enables one to effectively engineer the material band structure and its optical gain properties. We also evidence the importance of defects management on GeSn lasing characteristics, beyond the band-structure engineering. We discuss the potential of GeSnOI technology to address the above-mentionned aspects, which enabled to drastically reduce the lasing thresholds in microdisk laser cavities and reach continuous-wave operation in GeSn.
11705-16
Author(s): Jing Zhang, Camiel Op de Beeck, Bahawal Haq, Bart Kuyken, Dries Van Thourhout, Univ. Gent-imec (Belgium); Joris Van Campenhout, Guy Lepage, Peter Verheyen, imec (Belgium); Agnieszka Gocalinska, Tyndall National Institute (Ireland); Stijn Cuyvers, Univ. Gent-imec (Belgium); Emanuele Pelucchi, Brian Corbett, Tyndall National Institute (Ireland); Artur Hermans, Univ. Gent-imec (Belgium); Antonio Jose Trindade, Chris Bower, X-Celeprint Ltd. (Ireland); Roel Baets, Gunther Roelkens, Geert Morthier, Univ. Gent-imec (Belgium)
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Micro-transfer-printing (µTP) enables the intimate integration of diverse non-inherent functionalities on a target substrate and hence allows for the realization of complex photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with small footprint. By employing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric stamp with an array of posts, a large number of micro-components can be integrated on a target wafer in one transfer printing operation, which leads to substantial cost reduction of the resulting PICs. This paper discusses the use of µTP for the realization of III-V lasers on Si and SiN PICs and summarizes the recent progress that has been made in this field.
11705-17
Author(s): Matteo Buffolo, Lorenzo Rovere, Carlo De Santi, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Justin Norman, John E. Bowers, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Robert W. Herrick, Intel Corp. (United States); Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Enrico Zanoni, Matteo Meneghini, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)
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This work investigates on the impact of dislocation density on the degradation processes affecting the lifetime of 1.3 m InAs quantum-dot lasers epitaxially grown on silicon. By combining the results of current step-stress and constant-current stress experiments carried out on two different groups of samples featuring different epitaxial quality, we were able to confirm that an increased TDD favors the optical degradation of the devices both in nominal operating regime, where the diffusion of NRRCs dominates, and in very-high current regime, where recombination-enhanced processes contribute in reducing the optical efficiency of the lasers.
11705-18
Author(s): Zhibo Li, Samuel Shutts, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Ying Xue, Wei Luo, Kei May Lau, Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology (Hong Kong, China); Peter M. Smowton, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom)
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We report temperature dependent optical modal gain and absorption features as function of injection current of 1.55 μm InAs Q-Dash laser with an InAs/InAlGaAs/InP structure monolithically grown on (001) silicon substrate. Board-area multi-segmented contact devices were fabricated and driven by pulsed current. Net modal gain and absorption was obtained by measuring amplified spontaneous emission using the variable stripe-length method. From 20˚C to 80˚C, the changes in maximum gain and gain bandwidth were studied and a redshift in peak gain wavelength was observed. Quantum confined Stark effect was measured under reversed bias from -1 V to -7 V.
Session 5: High Brightness / Narrow Linewidth
11705-19
Author(s): Paul A. Crump, Gunnar Blume, David Feise, Mohamed Elattar, Arnim Ginolas, Jörg Fricke, Andre Maaßdorf, Guenther Tränkle, Katrin Paschke, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany); Philipp Albrodt, Jonas Hamperl, Patrick George, Gaelle Lucas-Leclin, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France)
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We present progress in high power GaAs-based single-pass semiconductor tapered optical amplifiers and modules tailored for coherent beam combining (CBC) in master-oscillator power-amplifier configuration. Amplifier design is first studied, by varying device geometry and epitaxial structure in 976nm devices. Epitaxial structures with large vertical near field and low wave-guiding from the active region enable higher CBC efficiency. However, changes to in-plane geometry did not improve performance. Overall, CBC of tapered amplifiers is stable, reproducible and robust, motivating next the development of 1064nm CBC-ready stand-alone sub-modules. Design, construction and test results from the pilot-series fabrication of these amplifier modules are presented.
11705-20
Author(s): Mohamed Elattar, Olaf Brox, Pietro Della Casa, Andre Maaßdorf, Dominik Martin, Hans Wenzel, Andrea Knigge, Paul A. Crump, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany)
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We present 940 nm GaAs-based high-power broad-area diode lasers that use an enhanced self-aligned lateral structure “eSAS”, implemented within an extreme-triple-asymmetric vertical structure with a thin p-side. In this structure, two-step epitaxial growth with intermediate selective etching is used to introduce current-blocking structures consisting of n-doped GaAs and InGaP layers outside the laser stripe, whose location, thicknesses and doping are precisely defined. These blocking structures confine current to the device center, thus reducing carrier losses in the edges and limiting the detrimental effects of lateral current spreading and carrier accumulation on beam quality, without compromising conversion efficiency, output power or polarization purity. We present results of eSAS single-emitters and bars, in comparison to gain-guided reference devices. We also demonstrate optimized blocking structures with improved current blocking, which are crucial for realization of the eSAS.
11705-21
Author(s): Bernd Sumpf, Lara Sophie Theurer, Martin Maiwald, André Müller, Andre Maaßdorf, Jörg Fricke, Peter Ressel, Günther Tränkle, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany)
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DBR tapered diode lasers at 785 nm with an output power of 7 W and an emission width below 19 pm will be presented. The devices are based on a GaAsP SQW in a large optical cavity. The lasers consist of a 500 µm long 10th order surface DBR grating, a 1 mm long ridge waveguide and a 2.5 mm long flared section (taper angle of 6°). The output power of 7 W is reached at a current of 8 A. At 6 W, the beam waist width was 11.5 µm and the far field angle 12.5° (1/e2 level).
11705-22
Author(s): Eugenio Di Gaetano, Scott Watson, Euan McBrearty, Marc Sorel, Douglas J. Paul, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)
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A GaAs/AlGaAs distributed feedback semiconductor (DFB) laser with a laterally-coupled grating is demonstrated at a wavelength of 780.24 nm with an output power up to 60 mW. A mode expander and aluminum-free active layers have been used in the material epilayer to reduce the linewidth to 612 kHz while maintaining high output power. The fabricated laser demonstrates over 40 dB side-mode suppression ratio with tuning range > 0.3 nm, which is suitable for atom cooling experiments with the D2 87Rb atomic transition and provides substantial potential for the laser to be integrated into miniaturized cold atom systems.
Session 6: QCL Frequency Combs
11705-23
Author(s): Jérôme Faist, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
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Quantum cascade laser optical frequency combs are opening new possibilities in mid-infrared spectroscopy. Using a dual comb spectroscopy, spectrum acquisition at 8um were achieved with a very short time resolution (10us) and very high accuracy (1m Absorbance); using interleaving techniques high resolution (~3MHz) measurements over a full bandwidth of 55cm-1 with an acquisition time of only 120ms were achieved. In this context, we discuss improvement of the QCL comb stability using ring QCLs geometries, RF injection in specially designed devices. Furthermore, we perform the comparison between the coherent intermode beat spectroscopy and upconversion of the output intensity as characterization tools for the comb.
11705-24
Author(s): Dmitry Kazakov, Harvard Univ. (United States); Marco Piccardo, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy), Harvard Univ. (United States); Benedikt Schwarz, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria), Harvard Univ. (United States); Nikola Opacak, Maximilian Beiser, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Yongrui Wang, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Shantanu Jha, Yale Univ. (United States); Michele Tamagnone, Harvard Univ. (United States); Johannes Hillbrand, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Lorenzo L. Columbo, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Alexey Belyanin, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard Univ. (United States)
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It is a well-established truth that spatial hole burning (SHB) in a standing-wave cavity is an essential single-mode instability mechanism for multimode operation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). We discovered recently that another instability mechanism–phase turbulence–is capable of triggering an onset of previously unseen types of frequency combs in traveling-wave ring cavity QCLs in absence of SHB. This new regime of laser operation reveals a connection with Kerr combs and paves the way to manipulation and engineering of comb states in QCLs.
11705-25
Author(s): Benedikt Schwarz, Maximilian Beiser, Sandro Dal Cin, Johannes Hillbrand, Nikola Opacak, Gottfried Strasser, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Harald Schneider, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e. V. (Germany); Marco Piccardo, Harvard Univ. (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard Univ. (United States); Robert Weih, nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH (Germany)
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Frequency combs are ideal candidates to realize miniaturized spectrometers without moving parts and hence are of great interest for integrated photonics. Here, an overview on the generation electrically pumped optical frequency combs on integrated platforms using semiconductor lasers. This includes self-starting generation of frequency modulated combs in quantum cascade laser in the 8um and interband cascade lasers in the 3-4um wavelength region, respectively. Furthermore, we will discuss how to integrate efficient high-speed modulators in these devices in order to facilitate the generation of picosecond pulses.
Session 7: THz QCLs: Modulation, Mode Locking, and Frequency Combs
11705-26
Author(s): Giacomo Scalari, Andres Forrer, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Yongrui Wang, Alexey Belyanin, Texas A & M (United States)
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THz quantum cascade lasers (QCL) frequency combs are recently attracting attention both as valuable sources for THz spectroscopy as well as a model system to study non linear generation and laser dynamics. Harmonic comb state has proven to be emerging in quantum cascade lasers and promoted by an interplay between parametric gain and spatial hole burning. We report here on robust, self-starting harmonic mode locking in double-metal THz quantum cascade lasers. Different harmonic orders can be excited in the same laser cavity depending on the pumping conditions. The harmonic state can be RF injected and frequency pulled. We study the dependence of harmonic state on the laser cavity and we also report results on harmonic state in external cavities under RF injection.
11705-27
Author(s): Sukhdeep S. Dhillon, Lab. de Physique de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (France)
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The use of fundamental modelocking to generate short terahertz (THz) pulses and THz frequency combs from semiconductor lasers has become a routine affair, using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as a gain medium. Here, using time-resolved THz techniques, we show the first of demonstration harmonic injection and mode- locking in which THz QCLs are modulated at the harmonics of the round-trip frequency. This generates multiple THz pulses per round trip in both active and self-starting harmonic regimes. This behavior is supported by time-resolved Maxwell-Bloch simulations of induced gain and loss in the system. This work exploits the inherent ultrafast dynamics of QCLs and opens up new avenues in THz pulse generation.
11705-28
Author(s): Paul Dean, Alex Valavanis, Aniela Dunn, John Cunningham, Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Anthony Kent, The Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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The fast modulation of lasers is a fundamental requirement for applications in optical communications, high-resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here, we report a new mechanism to modulate the emission from a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) device , whereby optically-generated acoustic phonon pulses are used to perturb the QCL bandstructure, enabling fast amplitude modulation that can be controlled using the QCL drive current or strain pulse amplitude. We show that this modulation can be explained using a perturbation theory analysis.
11705-29
Author(s): Leonardo Viti, Francesco P. Mezzapesa, CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze (Italy); Jürgen Raab, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Liahne Li, Giles A. Davies, Edmund H. Linfield, Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Christoph Lange, Rupert Huber, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Miriam S. Vitiello, CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze (Italy)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We devise a THz polaritonic saturable absorber exploiting ultra-strong coupled intersubband cavity polaritons generated in a multi quantum well (MQW) heterostructure. By coupling the polaritonic saturable absorber reflector with a high bandwidth heterogeneous THz QCL frequency comb (2.3-3.8 THz) we demonstrate spectral reshaping of the QCL emission and a major increase of the comb operational dynamic range up to 38% characterized by a stable single and narrow intermode beatnote.
Session 8: Modeling of QCLs and their Frequency Combs
11705-30
Author(s): Thomas Grange, nextnano GmbH (Germany); Samik Mukherjee, Polytechnique Montréal (Canada); Giovanni Capellini, IHP GmbH (Germany); Michele Montanari, Luca Persichetti, Luciana Di Gaspare, Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tre (Italy); Stefan Birner, nextnano GmbH (Germany); Anis Attiaoui, Oussama Moutanabbir, Polytechnique Montréal (Canada); Michele Virgilio, Univ. di Pisa (Italy); Monica De Seta, Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tre (Italy)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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The theory of interface roughness scattering is well established in the case of idealized abrupt interfaces. Here we generalize this theory for finite interfacial widths. Experimental findings for Ge/GeSi interfaces show that the interface roughness can be correlated along the growth directions at length scales smaller than the interfacial width. This feature is included in a generalized theory of interface roughness scattering, accounting for correlations along both in-plane and out-of-plane directions. This model is included in a nonequilibrium Green’s functions simulator, allowing to assess the impact of interface roughness on the performances of quantum cascade lasers.
11705-31
Author(s): Lorenzo L. Columbo, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Franco Prati, Luigi A. Lugiato, Univ. degli Studi dell'Insubria (Italy); Alessandra Gatti, Univ. degli Studi dell'Insubria (Italy), CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (Italy); Mariangela Gioannini, Carlo Silvestri, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Benedikt Schwarz, Nikola Opacak, Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Marco Piccardo, Ctr. for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy), Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Federico Capasso, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States); Massimo Brambilla, Politecnico di Bari (Italy), CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (Italy)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We propose a generalization of the well-known Lugiato-Lefever Equation to unify the description of combs- and structures- forming nonlinear optical systems. This approach rigorously connects for the first time passive systems such as Kerr micro-resonators and active systems such as Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) which were so far treated separately. The model effectively describes a unidirectional ring QCL driven by a coherent signal where we show the existence of temporal solitons and Turing rolls, previously identified only in Kerr micro-resonators, considerably increasing the theoretical insight and the technological potential of chip-scale comb sources.
11705-32
Author(s): Yongrui Wang, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Andres Forrer, Giacomo Scalari, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Alexey Belyanin, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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New experiments with THz QCLs reveal the harmonic frequency comb regime, in which isolated modes are separated by several free spectral ranges and the optical spectrum does not have a reflection symmetry. Here we study the mechanism of the harmonic frequency combs. Our calculations show that the harmonic comb is favored if the QCL contains two lower laser states, with different but comparable strength of the optical transitions. The asymmetry between the two optical transitions can be linked to a linewidth enhancement factor. Our work can be extended to mid-IR QCLs with an asymmetric gain spectrum.
11705-33
Author(s): David Burghoff, Univ. of Notre Dame (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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In certain lasers, frequency combs can form whose output is frequency-modulated (FM) linearly in time. While this result has been replicated numerically, the core physics have remained elusive. By deriving a mean-field theory for lasers analogous to the Lugiato-Lefever equation, we efficiently describe the dynamics of light in nonlinear laser cavities. This equation can be solved analytically with some weak assumptions, simplifying to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a phase potential. The phase of its solution is piecewise quadratic in time—an FM comb. Our results apply to nearly any laser and explain the diverse experimental observations.
11705-34
Author(s): Nikola Opacak, Sandro Dal Cin, Johannes Hillbrand, Gottfried Strasser, Benedikt Schwarz, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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A phenomenological linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) was recently used to explain a variety of laser dynamics, from free-running optical frequency combs (OFCs) to solitonic-structures in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). In this work, we provide a physical origin of the LEF for the first time. The inclusion of scattering assisted optical transitions leads to considerable asymmetry of the gain lineshape, which induces a finite LEF. A k-space resolved density matrix model that incorporates multiple elastic and inelastic scattering mechanisms was used. A laser master equation including LEF is derived that shows OFC formation and provides a link to Kerr microresonators.
Session 9: Mid-infrared QCLs: New Materials, High Performance
11705-35
Author(s): Eric Tournié, Marta Rio Calvo, Laura Monge-Bartolome, Zeineb Loghmari, Daniel A. Diaz-Thomas, Guilhem Boissier, Ariane Meguekam, Michaël Bahriz, Roland Teissier, Alexei N. Baranov, Laurent Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, Univ. de Montpellier (France)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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The integration of mid-IR lasers with Si-based platforms is needed for the development of smart sensor grids. Here we review our recent results on laser diodes (LDs), interband-cascade lasers (ICLs) and quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), all grown on on-axis (001) Si substrates and covering emission wavelengths from 2 to 10 µm. In addition, we will demonstrate that etching facets is a viable route toward cavity definition either on plain wafers or recessed Si wafers.
11705-36
Author(s): Alexei N. Baranov, Zeineb Loghmari, Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes, Univ. de Montpellier, CNRS (France); Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes, Univ. de Montpellier, CNRS (France); Laurent Cerutti, Ariane Meguekam, Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes, Univ. de Montpellier, CNRS (France); Gilles Patriarche, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud (France); Michaël Bahriz, Roland Teissier, Eric Tournié, Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes, Univ. de Montpellier, CNRS (France)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We report InAs/AlSb QCLs directly grown on a GaAs substrate. Fabricated lasers with Fabry-Perot resonators exhibited threshold current densities as low as 0.8 kA/cm2 at room temperature and operated up to 410 K in pulsed mode at a wavelength around 7.5 µm. In the cw regime, the QCLs operated up to 300 K with a threshold current density of 1.3 kA/cm2. These performances are nearly equivalent to the characteristics of the same lasers grown for comparison on a native InAs substrate. The obtained results open a way to a large-scale production of high performance QCLs in modern semiconductor fabs.
11705-37
Author(s): Zeineb Loghmari, Univ. de Montpellier (France), mirSense (France); Hadrien Philip, Michaël Bahriz, Alexei N. Baranov, Univ. de Montpellier (France); Roland Teissier, Univ. de Montpellier (France), mirSense (France)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We report new developments of quantum cascade lasers (QCL), made of InAs/AlSb, operating in the long wavelength mid-infrared range from 10 to 20 µm. Fabry-Pérot lasers operated in the CW regime up to a wavelength of 18 µm at 40°C, and up to 21 µm on Peltier cooler, with threshold current densities below 1 kA/cm². Distributed feedback QCL are also fabricated using a metal grating on the top of the laser ridges. They demonstrated single frequency operation in CW regime at room temperature. These lasers are suitable for new high resolution spectroscopy applications in this almost unexplored spectral range.
11705-38
Author(s): Kevin M. Oresick, Jeremy D. Kirch, Luke J. Mawst, Dan Botez, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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By using both elastic- and inelastic-scattering analysis we find that inherent carrier-leakage suppression and high transition efficiencies for ~ 8 mcron-emitting step-tapered active-region (STA) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) lead to internal and injection efficiency values as high as 76 % and 89 %, respectively. By contrast, for an 8 micron-emitting conventional QCL the internal efficiency is found to be only ~ 62 %, typical of experimental values from 7-11 micron-emitting conventional QCLs. We obtain from fabricated ~ 8 micron-emitting STA-QCLs a single-facet wall-plug efficiency of 10.6 %, the highest single-facet value to date from MOCVD-grown 8-11 micron-emitting QCLs.
11705-39
Author(s): Jae Ha Ryu, Jeremy D. Kirch, Benjamin Knipfer, Zerui Liu, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Morgan Turville-Heitz, Intraband (United States); Tom Earles, Rob Marsland, Intraband, LLC (United States); Axel Strömberg, Giriprasanth Omanakuttan, Yan-Ting Sun, Sebastian Lourdudoss, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Dan Botez, Luke J. Mawst, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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Measurements of beam stability for mid-infrared (IR)-emitting quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are important for applications that require the beam to travel through air to remote targets, such as free-space communication links. We report beam quality measurement results of narrow-ridge, 4.6 µm-emitting buried-heterostructure (BH) QCLs fabricated using ICP etching and HVPE regrowth. Beam-quality measurements under QCW operation exhibit M2 < 1.2 up to 1 W for ~5-µm-wide ridges. 5 µm-wide devices display some small degree of centroid motion with increasing output power (< 0.125 mrad), which corresponds to a targeting error of ~1.25 cm over a distance of 100 m.
Session 10: Mid-infrared and THz Lasers: New Designs I
11705-40
Author(s): Hedwig Knötig, Borislav Hinkov, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Robert Weih, nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH (Germany); Benedikt Schwarz, Stefan Lindner, Johannes P. Waclawek, Bernhard Lendl, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria); Sven Höfling, Julius-Maximilians-Univ. Würzburg (Germany); Johannes Koeth, nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH (Germany); Gottfried Strasser, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We have demonstrated that both ring quantum cascade (QCLs) and interband cascade lasers (ICLs) are excellent platforms for vertical light emission. Of these two lasers ICLs typically show lower power consumption and lasing threshold, qualifying them especially for miniaturized and battery-powered applications. With our work on ring ICLs we are aiming to build a compact portable sensing device, employing interferometric cavity-assisted photothermal spectroscopy. Here, we present our current work on interband cascade devices, as well as an overview of previous studies on ring QCLs. These devices rely on the light outcoupling via a second-order distributed-feedback grating from a ring cavity.
11705-41
Author(s): Sushil Kumar, Lehigh Univ. (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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Two different phase-locking schemes are developed for surface-emitting terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) with some of the best reported power performance in pulsed operation. In the first-scheme, multiple metallic microcavities are coupled through surface-plasmon-polaritons traveling in surrounding medium of cavities, that leads to peak-power output of 2.03W for a 3.3THz QCL with a slope-efficiency of 1.57W/A. Single-mode operation and radiation in an elliptical single-lobed beam are realized. In the second-scheme, a phase-locking scheme with hybrid second- and fourth-order Bragg gratings is demonstrated to realize a multi-mode surface-emitting THz QCL radiating 2.13W in a symmetric single-lobed beam. Both QCLs operate at ~60K.
11705-42
Author(s): Lukasz A. Sterczewski, Mahmood Bagheri, Clifford Frez, NASA Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Chadwick L. Canedy, Igor Vurgaftman, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States); Mijin Kim, KeyW Corp. (United States); Chul Soo Kim, Charles D. Merritt, William W. Bewley, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States); Jérôme Faist, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Gerard Wysocki, Princeton Univ. (United States); Jerry R. Meyer, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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The combination of low-drive-power and broad gain bandwidth has made interband cascade laser (ICL) optical frequency combs increasingly popular for the 3-5 µm region. However, the high refractive index of the ICL’s GaSb substrate poses some challenges to the optical waveguiding. The optical field can leak into the GaSb and induce wavelength-dependent interference that modifies the gain and group velocity dispersion (GVD) profiles. Using the sub-threshold Fourier transform technique, we studied ICL combs with different designs. We find that the resonant nature of the substrate modes induces oscillations, which affect both the spectral bandwidth and the phase-locking properties above threshold.
Session 11: Mid-infrared and THz Lasers: New Designs II
11705-43
Author(s): Kamil Pierscinski, Dorota Pierscinska, Aleksandr Kuzmicz, Grzegorz Sobczak, Katarzyna Krajewska, Maciej Bugajski, Piotr Gutowski, Krzysztof Chmielewski, Lukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Electron Technology (Poland)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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The paper focuses on design, technology, and characterization of monolithic, coupled-cavity, multi-section quantum cascade lasers for potential applications in gas detection systems. In this work, in order to overcome the disadvantages of the FIB process, gaps separating sections were defined by dry etching during the fabrication process. We present that this approach results in a high yield of devices increasing their potential in applications. Single-mode devices were demonstrated, achieving better than 20dB side mode suppression ratio.
11705-44
Author(s): Dorota Pierscinska, Kamil Pierscinski, Grzegorz Sobczak, Katarzyna Krajewska, Krzysztof Chmielewski, Maciej Bugajski, Aleksandr Kuzmicz, Krzysztof Piskorski, Piotr Gutowski, Lukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Electron Technology (Poland)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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Improving the heat dissipation in Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) is important from the point of view of a growing number of their applications, which require better performance. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the possibility of a significant reduction of Active Region (AR) temperature without sophisticated and fabrication-intensive means. We have examined the influence of electroplated gold thickness on thermal and electro-optical properties of InP-based QCLs. Numerical modeling predicts a significant reduction of the laser core temperature of epi-side up mounted ridge waveguide QCLs with increased thickness of electroplated gold. Predictions of the numerical model have been confirmed experimentally by means of electro-optical, spectral, and thermal characterization.
11705-45
Author(s): Maxime Guais, Gregory Maisons, Johan Abautret, Mathieu Carras, mirSense (France)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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We present the design, fabrication and the characterisation of compact and widely tuneable MIR source. This device is based on an INP micro-lenses array and on a DFB QCL array. Both of those arrays are designed together to induce a beam combination. This work presents one complete device for wavelength between 8.5 and 9.5 µm with a typical size of 5*2 mm² designed for one specific solid spectroscopic application.
Session PS: Poster Session
11705-46
Author(s): James N. Pan, Northrop Grumman Corp. (United States)
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A photonic MOSFET includes a semiconductor laser in the drain region, and a photon sensor or avalanche photo diode (APD) in the channel / well region. The MOSFET, laser, and photon sensor are fabricated as one integral transistor. When a voltage is applied to the MOSFET gate, and a voltage is applied to the laser, both MOSFET and laser are switched to on. Light emitted from the laser is absorbed by the photon sensor or APD to generate a light current, which flows into the MOSFET drain. This forms a positive feedback control loop. When the MOSFET is turned off, both laser and APD are turned off. A photonic CMOS QCL is regulated by a MOSFET, which operates with electric fields, and avalanche breakdown (with APD), which also depends on electric fields. A traditional QCL is based on quantum well diodes, which rely on thermal diffusion to function, and can be easily affected by temperature variations. In this paper we discuss advantages of photonic CMOS QCL vs. traditional QCL.
11705-47
Author(s): A. Chelny, JSC Optron (Russian Federation); Alexander Savchuk, Oleg I. Rabinovich, National Univ. of Science and Technology MISIS (Russian Federation); Yu. Akhmerov, M. Mezhenny, JSC Optron (Russian Federation); Sergey Didenko, National Univ. of Science and Technology MISIS (Russian Federation)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 6 March
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During laser heterostructures growth by the MOCVD method, the electroluminescence wavelength oscillations over the structure area are caused by the growth rate and the composition nonuniformity. Based on simulation, the quantum well thickness and the potential barrier height influence on the electroluminescence wavelength spread was detected. According to the obtained results, the electroluminescence wavelength spread is due to potential barrier height fluctuations with compositions X in the AlXGa0.48-XIn0.52As barrier range from 0.05 to 0.1, and fluctuations in the quantum well thickness with compositions X in the AlXGa0.48-XIn0.52As barrier from 0.22 to 0.48. For compositions X of the AlXGa0.48-XIn0.52As barrier from 0.1 to 0.22, both and the first and the second factors influence are serious.
Conference Chair
Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
Conference Chair
Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Yasuhiko Arakawa
The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Program Committee
Technische Univ. München (Germany)
Program Committee
Dan Botez
Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Program Committee
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States)
Program Committee
Gary A. Evans
Southern Methodist Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
Program Committee
Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)
Program Committee
Microsoft Research Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Kei-May Lau
Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology (Hong Kong, China)
Program Committee
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
NTT Device Technology Labs. (Japan)
Program Committee
Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Program Committee
U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Boston Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (Germany)
Program Committee
Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Johann Peter Reithmaier
Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Program Committee
Intel Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Nelson Tansu
Lehigh Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Istituto Nanoscienze (Italy)
Program Committee
Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
Program Committee
Wanhua Zheng
Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)