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A completely new class of planar optics has emerged using subwavelength metastructures and metasurfaces with a large contrast in dielectric constants. “High-contrast metastructure” refers to this type of optical material which is formed by a planar array of coupled-resonance structures, which are defined by high refractive index contrast boundaries that have dimensions comparable to the wavelength of interest. This metastructure allows very strong light-matter interaction within the thin planar material which provides a new platform to efficiently manipulate photons. Both 1D and 2D, uniform and chirped high-contrast gratings (HCGs), metastructures and metasurfaces are demonstrated to create mirrors, lenses, filters, polarizations, birefrigent elements, 3D display and many traditional bulk optical components. This has enabled simple fabrication of long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), dynamically tunable all-pass filters (APF) for fast optical beam steering, high-Q resonators with surface-normal and arbitrary angle output, enabling massive wafer-scale semiconductor lasers and optical filters. They are used to form hollow core waveguide for chip-scale ultra-low loss photonic delays. Vertical to in-plane waveguide coupler can be made with high efficiency for easy integration with Si-photonic circuits. Chirped HCGs are shown as excellent focusing reflectors and lenses with very high numerical apertures. Finally, simple but rigorous theoretical studies lead to intuitive device designs. The field has seen rapid advances in exciting experimental demonstrations and theoretical results. This conference aims to provide an international forum for presenting the latest results and reviewing technologies relevant to new physics and devices using high contrast subwavelength metastructures. Prospective authors are invited to submit original experimental and theoretical papers dealing with enabling technology for optoelectronic device integration either on Si, or III-V-based platforms. Topics of particular interests include incorporation of high-contrast metastructures in the following: ;
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Conference 12011

High Contrast Metastructures XI

In person: 25 - 27 January 2022
View Session ∨
  • 1: Dielectric Metasurfaces I
  • 2: Active Metasurfaces I
  • 3: Dielectric Metasurfaces II
  • 4: Active Metasurfaces II
  • 5: Imaging and Sensing I
  • 6: Metaphotonics
  • 7: Imaging and Sensing II
  • 8: Thermal and Infrared Meta-Optics
  • Posters-Wednesday
  • 9: Novel Materials Platform
  • 10: Design Methods and Algorithms
  • 11: Topological Photonics
  • 12: Bond-State-in-Continuum and High-Q Resonance
Information

POST-DEADLINE ABSTRACT SUBMISSIONS

  • Submissions are accepted through 06-December
  • Notification of acceptance by 20-December

View Call for Papers PDF Flyer
Session 1: Dielectric Metasurfaces I
Session Chairs: Jon A. Schuller, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States), Andrei Faraon, Caltech (United States)
12011-1
Author(s): Ai-Yin Liu, Snow H. Tseng, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan); Hui-Hsin Hsiao, National Taiwan Normal Univ. (Taiwan)
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Natural toroidal response was hindered by stronger electromagnetic resonances, and was too weak to be observed. The recent development of metamaterials has provided a platform to enhance the strength of toroidal dipole. However, the toroidal metamaterials often require complex nanostructures or special light sources to effectively excite toroidal response and simultaneously weaken electromagnetic multipole moments. Here, we have successfully designed silicon nanocylinders which can generate transverse toroidal dipole moment through normal incident light. Then, we discuss the effect of geometric parameters on toroidal dipole response in order to optimize our design. The measured spectra are consistent with simulation results, demonstrating the success in realizing the toroidal metamaterials. Due to the sub-radiation property and strong near-field confinement of toroidal mode, toroidal metamaterials are promising to be applied for high sensitivity biosensors and nonlinear optics.
12011-2
Multifunctional metaoptics (Invited Paper)
Author(s): Federico Capasso, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States)
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Metasurfaces are a powerful tool to engineer arbitrary vector beams. By suitable subwavelength structuring the far-field can be designed in amplitude, phase, and polarization to achieve arbitrary functions. I will report on the demonstration of: 2D phase and polarization singularities, a new tool for structuring “dark”; supercell metasurfaces with multiple independent optical functions at arbitrary large deflection angles with high efficiency; a new class of computer-generated holograms (Jones matrix holograms) whose far fields possess designer-specified polarization response; meta-gratings, where the diffraction orders can perform general, arbitrarily specified, polarization transformations.
12011-3
Author(s): Willie J. Padilla, Duke Univ. (United States); Kebin Fan, Nanjing Univ. (China); Ilya V. Shadrivov, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, UNSW Canberra (Australia)
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The first and second Kerker conditions describe scattering of electromagnetic waves in the backward and forward direction, respectively. The Kerker conditions are typically applied to sub-wavelength particles, and here we extend this description to all-dielectric metasurfaces, finding good agreement with theory and simulation. Our analysis yields the exact polarizability requirements necessary to achieve both Kerker conditions simultaneously thereby achieving the a so-called invisible metasurface. The condition of perfect absorption is further described in terms of the Kerker conditions, through extension of the theory. Both invisibility and perfect absorption is shown in a metasurface, where only the resonator height is modified to switch between the two states. The developed framework shows the range of scattering response possible, providing a methodology for studying exotic electromagnetic phenomena.
12011-4
Author(s): Qinglan Huang, Lucia Gan, Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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We present a new class of grayscale volumetric metamaterials that assumes a continuous range of dielectric constants with spatial variation at subwavelength scales. Pushing the limit in the material degrees of freedom, the grayscale volumetric metamaterial offers greatly improved control over electromagnetic waves. Topology optimization is leveraged to navigate the grayscale design space and produce globally optimal solutions with great computational efficiency. The compact grayscale structures are fabricated via additive manufacturing using effective medium approaches and high contrast dielectric filaments. We experimentally demonstrate multifunctional operations at RF frequency, including various dispersion engineering and broadband aberration corrected lensing.
Session 2: Active Metasurfaces I
Session Chairs: Willie J. Padilla, Duke Univ. (United States), Weimin Zhou, DEVCOM Army Research Lab. (United States)
12011-6
Author(s): Meir Y. Grajower, Ruzan Sokhoyan, Caltech (United States); Junghyun Park, SAMSUNG Advanced Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of); Harry A. Atwater, Caltech (United States)
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We report an electro-optically tunable metasurface based on InGaAsP\InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) operating at telecommunication wavelengths. The designed metasurface utilizes guided modes resonances (GMRs), which support high-Q resonances. The proposed metasurface can steer the beam up to polar angles of 32° while maintaining a high reflectance of >30% and a high side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) > 7 dB. Finally, we describe a fabrication method, which enables the creation of InP waveguides with smooth sidewalls. We also report the optical response of the fabricated metasurfaces when the direct current (DC) electric field is applied across the MQW layer.
12011-7
Author(s): Hyun Jung Kim, Stephen Borg, William Humphreys, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States); Matthew Julian, Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (United States); Calum Williams, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); David Bombara, Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States); Yifei Zhang, Juejun Hu, Tian Gu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
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In this work, we introduce actively tunable PCM-FP (Fabry-Perot) and PCM-PNA (Plasmonic Nanohole Array) bandpass filters that possess high-speed tunability (MHz), narrow spectral bandwidth, high-transmissivity, broad tuning range, in an all solid-state design in a wide variety of imaging and spectroscopic applications. We also present the results from a Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-14) in which chalcogenide phase change material (PCM) optical components are exposed and tested in Low Earth Orbit to determine their suitability for space applications. Our samples including Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge2Sb2Se4Te1, Sb2S3 thin-films and PCM-FP were delivered aboard the ISS by Northrop Grumman (NG-15) in Feb. 2021 for 6 months of exposure testing, including: temperature, vacuum, atomic oxygen, UV exposure and solar illumination effects. Our MISSE-14 PCM study will provide valuable information on the limitations and suitability of PCMs in harsh space environments.
12011-8
Author(s): Jon A. Schuller, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Session 3: Dielectric Metasurfaces II
Session Chairs: Hyun Jung Kim, National Institute of Aerospace (United States), Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
12011-10
Author(s): Amit K. Agrawal, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
12011-11
Author(s): Noah A. Rubin, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States)
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Metasurfaces have shown promise for the miniaturization of a wide variety of different optical components and have attracted significant interest for their ability to manipulate and control polarized light in a spatially-varying fashion. This capability, however, is not unique to metasurfaces. Several past technologies have been envisioned that spatially-varying control over polarized light. A scheme for classifying these is given, enabling rigorous comparison of the polarization control enabled by each. Moreover, Jones matrix holography, a concept which generalizes past design strategies for these elements, is introduced, and examples of new devices enabled by this generalized viewpoint are shown using metasurfaces.
12011-12
Author(s): Evan Wang, Thaibao Phan, Shangjie Yu, Stanford Univ. (United States); Scott Dhuey, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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Chirality is an intrinsic symmetry property of three-dimensional systems and arises when the system is distinguishable from its mirror image. New chiral systems capable of specifying and actively tuning circular birefringence would have broad implications in sensing, polarimetry, active quantum control, optical information processing, and communications. We present a reconfigurable chiral metasurface system that uses the shear displacement between two Pancharatnam-Berry metagratings to produce tailored broadband circular birefringence responses. Our dual metasurfaces give rise to a system that can break three-dimensional symmetry in order produce configurations ranging from achiral to chiral.
12011-13
Author(s): Andrei Faraon, Conner Ballew, Gregory Roberts, Ian Foo, Caltech (United States)
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Three-dimensional elements, with refractive index distribution structured at subwavelength scale, provide an expansive optical design space that can be harnessed for demonstrating multifunctional free-space optical devices. We present three dimensional dielectric elements, designed to be placed on top of the pixels of image sensors that provide different functionalities like sorting and focusing of light based on its color, polarization and incidence angle. The devices are designed via iterative gradient-based optimization to account for multiple target functions while ensuring compatibility with existing nanofabrication processes. This approach combines arbitrary functions into a single compact element, even where there is no known equivalent in bulk optics, enabling novel integrated photonic applications. We analyze how the device behaves for input parameters that it was not designed for and investigate how the arrangement of the imaging pixels affects the device performance.
Session 4: Active Metasurfaces II
Session Chairs: Amit K. Agrawal, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States), Arseniy I. Kuznetsov, A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (Singapore)
12011-15
Author(s): Arseniy I. Kuznetsov, A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (Singapore)
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Over the last decade, dielectric nanoantennas have made their way from conceptualization and demonstration of basic phenomena to first proof of concept practical devices. In this presentation, I will focus on two major directions of applications of dielectric nanoantennas for active, light-emitting devices and dynamically tunable metasurfaces. For the first one, I will show our recent progress on directional nano- and micro-lasers based on dielectric nanoantenna concept. While for the second one, I will show the results of our work on development of fully functional nanoantenna-based spatial light modulators with ~1 micron pixel size.
12011-16
Author(s): Chengjun Zou, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany), Institut für Angewandte Physik, Abbe Ctr. of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Aleksandr Vaskin, Maximilian Weissflog, Mohammadreza Absalan, Stefan Fasold, Thomas Pertsch, Institut für Angewandte Physik, Abbe Ctr. of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Isabelle Staude, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)
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Tunable and light-emitting metasurfaces have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Here by combining liquid-crystal-integrated metasurfaces with a fluorescent substrate, we demonstrate active tuning of the emission spectrum and pattern in the red wavelength range. The measurements are performed with the techniques of momentum-space resolved spectroscopy and back-focal-plane imaging, showing a maximum of 16 nm shift of the emission wavelengths from 677 nm to 693 nm, and significant changes in the emission pattern at 660 nm. The results are further verified with numerical simulations. Our work paves the way towards actively controllable metasurface-based sources of complex light fields.
12011-17
Author(s): Xin Zhang, Boston Univ. (United States)
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Metamaterials represent a major class of artificially engineered electromagnetic (EM) composites and uniquely enable a myriad of material properties. During the past decade, metamaterials have emerged as a focal point in the EM domain, given their capacity to create novel effective optical properties. At the same time, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or microsystems, have evolved as powerful platforms for metamaterials and give a route to applicable metadevices. Here, we report our progress in constructing functional devices by integrating metamaterials with microsystems technology and discuss the remaining challenges and future directions of metadevices applied to forthcoming sensing and communication systems.
12011-18
Author(s): Demeng Feng, Gabriel R. Jaffe, Shenwei Yin, Gregory R. Holdman, Chenghao Wan, Hongyan Mei, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Min Seok Jang, KAIST (Korea, Republic of); Victor W. Brar, Mikhail A. Kats, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
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Knowledge of temperature-dependent optical properties of materials is required for photonics applications in extreme conditions, i.e., at high temperatures. In this talk, we will describe our latest measurements of temperature-dependent optical properties of materials (oxides, nitrides, semiconductors) for the development of metasurfaces for high-temperature applications that include thermal radiators and light sails. We use oscillator-based models to fit ellipsometry data at different temperatures in the wavelength region where a precise measurement can be made, and extrapolate to get broadband temperature-dependent optical properties. We also demonstrate using simulations how metasurface performance is affected by the temperature-dependence of constituent materials.
Session 5: Imaging and Sensing I
Session Chairs: Mikhail A. Kats, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States), Francesco Monticone, Cornell Univ. (United States)
12011-19
Author(s): Fan Yang, Mikhail Y. Shalaginov, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Sensong An, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Tian Gu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Hualiang Zhang, Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Juejun Hu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
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Wide field-of-view (FOV) functionality is crucial for implementation of advanced optical devices with applications spanning medical imaging, 3-D sensing, projection display, and security surveillance. While conventional wide FOV operation relies upon complicated assembly of multiple lens elements, metasurface optics offer a compelling alternative to realize compact, light-weight, and high-performance wide FOV optical modules. In this talk, we will elucidate the physical principles and design guidelines which underlies our recent demonstration of a fisheye metalens with > 170˚ diffraction-limited FOV. An analytical model will be discussed, which reveals the intricate design trade-offs toward optical aberration suppression. Wide-FOV achromatic metalens designs developed with a combination of direct search optimization and deep learning algorithms will also be presented.
12011-20
Author(s): Andrea Alù, The City Univ. of New York (United States)
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In this talk, I will discuss our recent efforts in the design, optimization, fabrication and characterization of all-dielectric metasurfaces enabling linear and nonlinear manipulation of the impinging optical wavefront using high-index contrast. During the talk, I will discuss the design principles, material needs, characterization results and opportunities for optical technologies.
12011-22
Software-defined optics (Invited Paper)
Author(s): Arka Majumdar, Univ. of Washington (United States)
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By combining meta-optics and software backend, we can realize compact imaging systems with unprecedented functioncalities, including broadband aberration-free imaging, depth sensing and optical computing. We believe such hybrid digital-optical system will create a new research field on “Software Defined Optics”, akin to Software Defined Radio, where the software is used to simplify the hardware.
Session 6: Metaphotonics
Session Chairs: Arka Majumdar, Univ. of Washington (United States), Juejun Hu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
12011-23
Author(s): Isabelle Staude, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)
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Optical metasurfaces offer unique opportunities for tailoring the interaction of light with nanoscale matter. Due to their flat nature, their integration with two-dimensional materials consisting of only a single molecular layer is particularly interesting. This talk reviews our recent and ongoing activities in hybridizing optical metasurfaces with different types of two-dimensional materials, including monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs). We demonstrate that metasurfaces enable careful control of the pattern and polarization of light emitted by the 2D-TMDs. Particular focus will be on the interaction of valley-polarized excitonic populations with various types of nanoresonators.
12011-24
Author(s): Hongyan Mei, Jad Salman, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Boyang Zhao, The Univ. of Southern California (United States); Guodong Ren, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States); Graham Joe, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Shanyuan Niu, Huan Zhao, Yucheng Zhou, Thomas Orvis, Huaixun Huyan, Jiangbin Wu, Yang Liu, Han Wang, The Univ. of Southern California (United States); Rohan Mishra, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States); Jayakanth Ravichandran, The Univ. of Southern California (United States); Mikhail A. Kats, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
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Birefringence is a fundamental optical property of anisotropic materials where the refractive index depends on the polarization of light, and is an essential property for devices such as waveplates and polarizers. In 2018, we reported barium titanium sulfide (BaTiS3) to have a broadband birefringence of 0.76 spanning the mid-to-far-infrared range, exhibiting the largest in-plane birefringence of any known bulk materials. In this talk, we will present the characterization of giant birefringence of two more engineered A1+xBX3 crystals, strontium titanium sulfide (Sr1+xTiS3) and barium titanium selenide (BaTiSe3). Our characterization combines polarization-resolved infrared spectroscopy with generalized ellipsometry to extract the optical properties.
12011-25
Nonlocal flat optics (Invited Paper)
Author(s): Francesco Monticone, Cornell Univ. (United States)
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Nonlocal metasurfaces—metasurfaces with an engineered momentum-dependent (spatially-dispersive) response—represent an emerging direction in the field of flat optics, with applications ranging from optical computing to ultra-compact imaging systems. In this talk, we present our recent efforts on this exciting topic at the frontier of the field of metasurfaces. We broadly discuss how nonlocal designs afford new degrees of freedom that enable functionalities and performance metrics unattainable using local metasurfaces and conventional optics. As a relevant example, we present our recent work on nonlocal metasurfaces for space compression ("spaceplates"), with a focus on their bandwidth performance, physical bounds, and optimal designs.
12011-26
Author(s): Mikhail A. Kats, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
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We report on the new metasurface-based and diffractive optical elements that help interface with two quantum systems: neutral atoms and color centers in diamond. These elements include diffractive elements that enable compact magneto-optical traps, metasurfaces that for efficiently generating optical bottle beams, and nanoscale structures to efficiently extract light from shallow color centers in diamond.
12011-57
Author(s): Megha Khokhar, Rajesh V. Nair, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar (India)
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Dielectric metasurfaces manipulating light directionality instigated novel concept of the Kerker effect. We demonstrated this effect in silicon nano-disks that exhibits unidirectional scattering of light. The enhanced forward scattering is optimized with suppression of backscattered light with varying structural parameters. The nano-disk radius, thickness, lattice periodicity, and refractive index are optimized to attain a broad tunable Kerker condition. The quantum emitter coupled to these nano-disks at Kerker condition shows a large Purcell enhancement. We further observed that the emission enhancement of the quantum emitter can be tuned with varying the refractive index of nano-disks and the substrate.
Session 7: Imaging and Sensing II
Session Chairs: Aaswath P. Raman, UCLA Samueli School of Engineering (United States), Shangjie Yu, Stanford Univ. (United States)
12011-27
Author(s): Haogang Cai, Taerin Chung, NYU Langone Health (United States)
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light a critical need of point-of-care testing. Optical metasurfaces enable label-free, non-invasive, ultra-sensitive optical sensing. In particular, imaging-based dielectric metasurface-based sensors have emerged to enable spectrometer-less molecular fingerprint detection and refractive index sensing. Here, we propose an all-dielectric TiO2 Huygens’ metasurface sensing platform, which allows simultaneous tri-functional optical readouts: spectral (wavelength), spatial (geometric parameter of a gradient metasurface), and colorimetric detection. The tri-functional optical readouts are cross-validated, and experimentally demonstrated by refractive index sensing of glucose solutions. Working in the visible spectrum, this eye-perceptible approach points towards ultra-compact and cost-effective solutions for point-of-care testing.
12011-28
Author(s): Zhaowei Liu, Junxiao Zhou, Junxiang Zhao, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
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Metasurfaces consisting of engineered nano-structures have shown exceptional abilities in light manipulation and have led to various practical applications. Using designed dielectric metasurfaces, we demonstrate spatial differentiation, a key aspect of optical analog signal processing, for broadband edge detection. Combined with quantum optics, the metasurface enabled spatial differentiator allows for edge detections with significantly higher signal to noise ratio compared to using classical optics. Furthermore, Fourier optical spin splitting microscopy based on a dielectric phase metasurface realizes single-shot quantitative phase gradient imaging. The proposed ideas pave the way for next generation high-speed real-time and multi-functional imaging.
12011-29
Author(s): Rajesh Menon, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
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Traditional refractive lenses are bulky owing to their curvature. Flat diffractive lenses can overcome this difficulty, but traditional diffractive optics have limited reach, primarily due to chromaticity. Recently, we have shown that by treating the “imaging” phenomenon as simply information transfer from the object to the image plane, the spatial distribution of the phase in the focal plane can be an arbitrary function. Using this concept, we have shown that allowing the phase in the image plane of a flat lens to be a free parameter enables imaging properties of unprecedented versatility in flat, multilevel diffractive lenses (MDLs). Our research group has demonstrated multi-level diffraction lenses in multiple high performance categories: unchromatic lenses with dramatically improved operating bandwidths, high NA and large aperture sizes, and extreme depth of focus.Furthermore, these can be combined with advanced machine-learning algorithms to enhance inferencing.
12011-30
Author(s): Junjie Hu, Weijian Yang, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
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We present a novel metalens array for single-shot, large-volume, and high-resolution 3D imaging. Each metalens unit behaves as a special axicon to produce a Bessel beam point spread function (PSF), but with a bounded angular field of view (FOV). The metalens array can resolve three-dimensional information as a light-field camera. The bounded angular FOV prevents excessive image crosstalk between lens units to suppress background. Compared with conventional light-field cameras, our imaging device uses a single layer of metalens array without any bulk lens; the Bessel beam PSF increases the depth range that can be imaged while maintaining high resolution.
12011-31
Author(s): Calvin M. Hooper, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sarah E. Bohndiek, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom), Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute (United Kingdom); Calum Williams, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
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Ultrathin achromatic lenses are highly desirable for miniaturized optical imaging assemblies from compact smartphone cameras to chip-on-tip endoscopes. However, a recent theoretical study bounded metalens achromaticity using bandwidth limits for optical delay lines, thereby proving broadband achromatic lenses to be unachievable. Here, we note that the constraints on delay lines are stricter than those for ultrathin lenses thus providing two methods—alongside their fundamental limitations—of achieving near perfect achromaticity with bounded refractive indices. We argue further that true achromaticity is often practically unnecessary, showing a procedure for designing quasi-achromatic metalenses utilizing optimized thin-film multilayers and discuss its limitations.
Session 8: Thermal and Infrared Meta-Optics
Session Chairs: Zhaowei Liu, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States), Rajesh Menon, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
12011-32
Author(s): Shangjie Yu, Yue Jiang, John A. Roberts, Markus A. Huber, Helen Yao, Xinjian Shi, Stanford Univ. (United States); Hans A. Bechtel, Stephanie N. G. Corder, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Tony F. Heinz, Xiaolin Zheng, Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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In the infrared range, van der Waals materials have emerged as an exciting class of materials supporting high-quality phonon polariton excitations. The ability to localize and guide light in extremely deep subwavelength leads to fundamental light-matter interactions and functional applications such as sensing and waveguiding. In this study, we demonstrate that flame vapor deposition synthesized α-MoO3 structures are ultrahigh quality hyperbolic phonon polaritonic systems through material characterization and near-field optical measurement. We have achieved ultrabroadband visualization of the Fabry-Pérot resonances and revealed high quality factors in a polariton nanoresonator. The polariton resonators are ideal and versatile platform for molecular sensing and spectroscopy or strong-coupling measurement.
12011-33
Author(s): Aaswath P. Raman, UCLA Samueli School of Engineering (United States)
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Thermally generated light is a fundamental feature of nature. Its ubiquity makes its control and harnessing both of intrinsic scientific interest and of great importance for energy and heat transfer applications. In this talk, we will discuss our results in nanophotonic approaches to controlling thermal emission, particularly using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) materials. We will introduce gradient epsilon-near-zero materials that can support leaky electromagnetic modes that couple to free-space waves at fixed angles of incidence over a broad bandwidth. We will then present experimental demonstrations of broadband directional thermal emitters using a range of oxides, designed to operate over long-wave infrared wavelengths. We will furthermore demonstrate implementations of gradient ENZ using doped semiconductors that allow for arbitrary control of spectral bandwidths and directional response as a function of doping gradient.
12011-34
Author(s): Danveer Singh, Tomer Lewi, Bar-Ilan Univ. (Israel)
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Efficient light manipulation at subwavelength scales in the mid-infrared (MIR) region is essential for various applications and can be harnessed from intrinsic low-loss dielectric resonators. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of truncated spherical selenium (Se) resonators with tunable high-quality (Q) factor Mie resonances. Large area amorphous Se subwavelength resonators of varying sizes were grown on different substrates, using a novel CVD process. We demonstrate size-tunable Mie resonances spanning the 2-16 µm range, for single isolated resonators and large area ensembles, respectively. We show strong tunable absorption resonances (90%) in ensembles of resonators in a significantly broad MIR range. Moreover, by coupling resonators to epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) substrates, we engineer high-Q resonances as high as Q=40. We also show the resonance pinning effect near the substrate ENZ value, which is manifested in size-independent resonances.
12011-35
Author(s): John A. Roberts, Po-Hsun Ho, Shangjie Yu, Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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Spectrally-tailored thermal emitters in the mid-infrared are needed for applications including gas sensing. We experimentally demonstrate a spectrally-selective, electrically-driven thermal emitter based on an aligned carbon nanotube metamaterial. Hyperbolic nanoribbon resonators patterned in the nanotube metamaterial double as resistive heaters and provide resonant polarized thermal emission in the infrared. The width of the nanoribbon resonators and their angle relative to the nanotube alignment axis can be designed to tailor the resonant frequency of the thermal radiation. Because of the low thermal mass of this design, the emitted thermal radiation can be modulated at rates up to 1 MHz.
12011-36
Author(s): Tomer Lewi, Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Shany Cohen, Pilkhaz Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Michal Poplinger, Doron Naveh, Bar-Ilan Univ. (Israel)
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We present a study of various compositions of the chalcogenide family used for static and active metasurfaces. We start with large area CVD grown amorphous spherical Selenium nanoparticles on various substrates and show that their Mie-resonant response spans the entire mid-infrared (MIR) range. By coupling Se Mie-resonators to ENZ substrates we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in quality factor. Next, we investigate topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 metasurfaces. We study the optical constants of single crystal Bi2Te3 in the NIR to the MIR range, followed by fabrication and characterization of metasurface disk arrays. We show that these high permittivity metasurfaces can yield very large absorption resonances using deep subwavelength structures. Finally, we demonstrate ultra-wide dynamic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms and metasurfaces, utilizing the anomalously large thermo-optic coefficient and high refractive index of this material.
Posters-Wednesday
In person: 26 January 2022 • 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM PST
Conference attendees are invited to attend the OPTO poster session on Wednesday evening. Come view the posters, enjoy light refreshments, ask questions, and network with colleagues in your field.

Poster Setup: Wednesday 10:00 AM – 5:00 PM
View poster presentation guidelines and set-up instructions at
https://spie.org/PW/Poster-Guidelines
12011-56
Author(s): Samar Shahin, Nageh Allam, Yehea Ismail, The American Univ. in Cairo (Egypt)
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Phase-gradient metasurfaces (PGM) are of high importance as they can alter the phase of electromagnetic wave fronts. Herein, we numerically present a novel unit cell known as bipodal Cylinders (BPC), made of Silicon (Si) and placed on a Silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrate to be compatible with CMOS fabrication techniques and to avoid field leakage into a high index substrate. The BPC structure provided a way to shift the electric dipole mode to a frequency higher than that of the magnetic dipole mode. The unit cell is considered as inhomogeneous and asymmetric and effective parameters are calculated from s-parameters but suffer from minor fallacies attributed to a homogeneity limit being reached. A periodic structure is then presented that can achieve efficient electromagnetic beam steering with high transmission of 0.84 and angle 15.2o; almost the same as the theoretically predicted angle, and covering the whole phase range from 0 to 2π.
Session 9: Novel Materials Platform
Session Chairs: Simon Thibault, Univ. Laval (Canada), Jelena Vuckovic, Stanford Univ. (United States)
12011-37
Author(s): Andrew McClung, Mahsa Torfeh, Vincent J. Einck, James J. Watkins, Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
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With high feature density and subwavelength dimensions, visible spectrum metalenses are challenging to scalably manufacture. Electron beam lithography and short-wavelength photolithography capable of patterning metalenses for the visible do so at high cost per wafer. Here, we present a low-cost and scalable fabrication process based on nanoimprint lithography, and use it to demonstrate metalenses designed for 550 nm light with 4 mm diameter and NA=0.2. Our metalenses are formed of silicon nitride nanoposts with critical dimensions smaller than 100 nm. In this presentation we report focusing efficiencies above 50%, share holographic characterization data, and demonstrate imaging.
12011-38
Optical Fourier surfaces (Invited Paper)
Author(s): David J. Norris, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
12011-39
Author(s): Vincent J. Einck, Andrew McClung, Dan Eon Jung, Mahsa Torfeh, Mahdad Mansouree, James J. Watkins, Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
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We describe a high throughput approach to all-inorganic metalens manufacturing using a single step nanoimprint lithography process and titania nanoparticle-based inks. The process yields a refractive index of 1.9, lenses with critical dimensions below 60 nm, feature aspect ratios greater than 8, and efficiencies greater than 55% and consistent device performance across 15 lenses printed within 30 minutes. We further describe pathways to fabricating all-inorganic lenses with RI of 2.1.
12011-40
Author(s): Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
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We present a technique for designing efficient and robust metasurfaces that optimizes the metasurface design curves instead of individual metasurface elements and thus does not suffer from the size limitations of conventional optimization techniques. Spatially varying design curves are parametrized and optimized using the grating averaging technique. We present simulation and experimental results of highly efficient metasurface beam deflectors and lenses that are robust to fabrication errors. In particular, we present an 80° beam deflector with absolute efficiency of 75% and a metalens with NA of 0.8 and an efficiency of 86% that is robust to fabrication errors.
12011-41
Author(s): Andrew McClung, Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
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When uncorrected, metalenses exhibit significant chromatic dispersion that limits them to narrowband operation. To address this, several metalens singlets corrected for chromatic aberration recently have been demonstrated. These metalenses mainly rely on engineered metaatom dispersion, an approach that limits them to small diameter and NA. Here, we validate an alternative approach by experimentally demonstrating a metalens doublet that directs light along trajectories of appropriate length to produce the desired achromatic behavior. Our lens is corrected over the 800-900 nm spectral region, collects light incident over a 2 sq. mm area, and has an NA of 0.2.
Session 10: Design Methods and Algorithms
Session Chairs: Patrice Genevet, Ctr. de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (France), David J. Norris, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
12011-42
Author(s): Mingkun Chen, Robert Lupoiu, Chenkai Mao, Der-Han Huang, Jiaqi Jiang, Stanford Univ. (United States); Philippe Lalanne, Univ. de Bordeaux (France); Jonathan A. Fan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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We introduce WaveY-Net, a hybrid data- and physics-augmented convolutional neural network that can predict electromagnetic field distributions with ultra fast speeds and high accuracy for entire classes of dielectric photonic structures. This accuracy is achieved by training the neural network to learn only the magnetic near-field distributions of a system and to use a discrete formalism of Maxwell's equations in two ways: as physical constraints in the loss function and as a means to calculate the electric fields from the magnetic fields. As a model system, we construct a surrogate simulator for periodic silicon nanostructure arrays and show that the high speed simulator can be directly and effectively used in the local and global freeform optimization of metagratings.
12011-43
Author(s): Simon Thibault, Univ. Laval (Canada)
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Over the year, lens designer have seen many new technologies growing up but metasurface is certainly a special of them. This talk will discuss how and why it is so fascinating for the lens design community. I will also describe how we can combine the power of modern optical design software and metasurface model to build new unprecedented tools to support raytracing through metasurfaces. Particularly, we will discuss about dispersion of high contrast metasurface for vis and NIR applications. It will also bring that a metasurface is far from a diffractive optical element in terms of dispersion engineering.
12011-44
Author(s): Kiyoul Yang, Jelena Vuckovic, Stanford Univ. (United States)
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By combining state of the art optimization and machine learning techniques (photonics inverse design) with new fabrication approaches, we can implement large area metastructures and integrated photonics with superior photonics. In addition to making photonics more robust (e.g., to errors in fabrication and variation in temperature), more compact, and more efficient, this approach can also enable new functionalities. While in our early work we focused on inverse design and demonstration of individual photonic devices, our more recent work focused on scaling it to photonic integrated circuits and large area metasurfaces that can be fabricated in a commercial semiconductor foundry.
12011-45
Author(s): Babak Mirzapourbeinekalaye, Andrew McClung, Mahdad Mansouree, Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
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We present a technique for designing efficient and robust metasurfaces that optimizes the metasurface design curves instead of individual metasurface elements and thus does not suffer from the size limitations of conventional optimization techniques. Spatially varying design curves are parametrized and optimized using the grating averaging technique. We present simulation and experimental results of highly efficient metasurface beam deflectors and lenses that are robust to fabrication errors. In particular, we present an 80° beam deflector with absolute efficiency of 75% and a metalens with NA of 0.8 and an efficiency of 86% that is robust to fabrication errors.
Session 11: Topological Photonics
Session Chairs: Orad Reshef, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada), Sang-Yeon Cho, DEVCOM Army Research Lab. (United States)
12011-46
Author(s): Sara Kandil, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States); Dia'aaldin Bisharat, The City Univ. of New York (United States); Dan Sievenpiper, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
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Metasurfaces have been studied extensively in recent years as important platforms for controlling and guiding electromagnetic waves. In this paper, we introduce different metasurface designs that allow for controlling and steering different polarizations (spins) of highly collimated surface waves. We also study a new type of surface waves that is supported by an L-shape design called chiral surface waves which are circularly polarized waves that possess two transverse spins. Controlling the spin-orbit interactions of electromagnetic waves is of great importance for applications in spintronics and valleytronics.
12011-47
Author(s): Hong-Gyu Park, Min-Soo Hwang, Ha-Reem Kim, Korea Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kirill Koshelev, Yuri S. Kivshar, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
12011-48
Author(s): Nitish Chandra, Natalia M. Litchinitser, Duke Univ. (United States)
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In electromagnetics, a medium moving at non-relativistic velocities is equivalent to a bianisotropic refractive index, produces the same effect for light as vector potential for charged particles. We investigate Mie scattering from the cylinder made of magneto-electric material. We find Poynting vector singularities in the near field distribution. A high k-vector region around the singularity may find applications in the near field superresolution imaging. We predict an additional phase change in the far-field for the magneto-electric cylinder compared to conventional Mie scattering. The magneto-electric coefficient can control the angular position of the phase change in the far-field and the position of the Poynting vector singularities.
12011-49
Author(s): Patrice Genevet, Ctr. de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (France); Qinghua Song, Jesús Zúñiga-Pérez, Ctr. de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (France); Boubacar Kanté, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
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The topological properties of the S-Matrix operating near their singular points offer new degree of freedom to address optical phase engineering. Here we engineer topologically-protected full 2𝜋− phase on a specific reflected polarization channel by choosing metasurface building blocks disposed along an arbitrarily closed trajectory in parameter space to encircle a singularity. The ease of implementation of the topological phase, together with its compatibility with other phase-addressing mechanisms including Pancharatnam-Berry phase, bring topological properties into the realm of industrial applications.
12011-50
Author(s): Sukanta Nandi, Tomer Lewi, Pilkhaz Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Shany Cohen, Doron Naveh, Danveer Singh, Bar-Ilan Univ. (Israel)
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Topological insulators (TIs) are a new class of condensed matter system that host topologically protected surface states, leading to dissipationless electron transport. This intrinsic characteristic makes them potential candidate for quantum computing owing to their ability to preserve quantum coherence. Recently, these systems and the concept of topology have been embraced by the photonics community as well. In this work, we study the mid-infrared optical properties of high index (n~5.2) TI bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) nanobeams (NBs), grown by chemical vapor deposition. Using Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and FTIR nanospectroscopy, we find that these NBs support size-tunable Mie-resonant modes across the infrared (~1-16 µm). Furthermore, polarized measurements reveal that the total optical response of these deep subwavelength NBs is composed of TE and TM resonant mode. Finally, near-filed studies are also carried out to understand the effect of topological phase.
Session 12: Bond-State-in-Continuum and High-Q Resonance
Session Chairs: Amir Arbabi, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States), Hong-Gyu Park, Korea Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
12011-51
The rise of Mie-tronics (Invited Paper)
Author(s): Yuri S. Kivshar, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
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Recent progress is metaphotonics is driven by the physics of Mie resonances excited in high-index dielectric nanoparticles and also voids created in a dielectric media. This provides a novel platform for localization of light in subwavelength photonic structures and opens new horizons for metamaterial-enabled photonics, or metaphotonics. I aim to review the recent advances in Mie-resonant metaphotonics (also called "Mie-tronics") for isolated high-index dielectric nanoparticles and nanoparticle structures such as dielectric metasurfaces, and also discuss its applications to different problems, including nonlinear harmonic generation, non-plasmonic nanolasers, and topological photonics
12011-52
Author(s): Sang-Yeon Cho, DEVCOM Army Research Lab. (United States); Andrea Alù, The City Univ. of New York (United States); Weimin Zhou, DEVCOM Army Research Lab. (United States)
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We report light trapping and guiding properties in resonant dielectric open metastructures for chip-scale photonic integrated circuit applications.
12011-53
Author(s): Orad Reshef, Theng Loo Lim, Yaswant Vaddi, M. Saad Bin-Alam, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Lin Cheng, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada), Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Rasoul Alaee, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Graham Carlow, Iridian Spectral Technologies Ltd. (Canada); Yaryna Mamchur, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada), National Technical Univ. of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine); M. Zahirul Alam, Jeremy Upham, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Brian T. Sullivan, Iridian Spectral Technologies Ltd. (Canada); Jean-Michel Ménard, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Mikko J. Huttunen, Tampere Univ. (Finland); Ksenia Dolgaleva, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Robert W. Boyd, Univ. of Ottawa (Canada), Univ. of Rochester (United States)
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We introduce the concept of Fourier Lattice Resonances (FLRs), a generalization of the plasmonic surface lattice resonance (SLR) platform. FLRs can support multiple simultaneous high-quality factor lattice resonances with arbitrarily-placed resonant wavelengths in a single-layer metasurface. We experimentally demonstrate metasurfaces with arbitrarily placed resonances (e.g., at 1310 and 1550 nm) and Q-factors as high as 800 in a plasmonic platform. This flexible paradigm requires only standard lithographic fabrication methods, and the computation of a single Fourier transform for its design, allowing one to customize metasurfaces to any specific optical-cavity-based applications.
Conference Chair
Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
Conference Chair
Jonathan A. Fan
Stanford Univ. (United States)
Conference Chair
CCDC Army Research Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Andrea Alù
The City Univ. of New York Advanced Science Research Ctr. (United States)
Program Committee
Walter Schottky Institut (Germany)
Program Committee
Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
Program Committee
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
Caltech (United States)
Program Committee
The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
Program Committee
Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)
Program Committee
A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (Singapore)
Program Committee
Lab. Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences (France)
Program Committee
John R. Lawall
National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Program Committee
National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan)
Program Committee
IBM Research – Zürich (Switzerland)
Program Committee
Univ. of Washington (United States)
Program Committee
Bala Pesala
Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India)
Program Committee
Pinnacle Photonics (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Program Committee
Fudan Univ. (China)
Program Committee
Ecole Centrale de Lyon (France)
Program Committee
The Univ. of Southern California (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)