The SPIE Conference on Organic, Hybrid and Perovskite Photovoltaics will celebrate its 22nd anniversary in 2021. The aim of this meeting is to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists from multiple disciplines to report on and discuss the fundamental issues that affect device operation, including efficiency and long-term stability. The theme of the conference will be “state-of-the-art” performance of organic, hybrid and perovskite solar cells and their applications in future technologies. The scope of the conference includes high-performance light-harvesting and carrier transporting materials, highly efficient and stable organic, hybrid and perovskite solar cells, and device physics including interfaces, film structure and morphology, and charge transport. The conference will also cover new techniques for fabrication, encapsulation, and printing of solar cells on large-area flexible substrates. The conference will feature planned joint sessions with the Conferences on Physical Chemistry of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, and New Concepts in Solar and Thermal Radiation Conversion.

The scope of the conference will cover but is not limited to the following areas:
Highlights:
Manuscripts for the conference proceedings will be peer-reviewed.

Authors are invited to submit an original manuscript to the Journal of Photonics for Energy, which is now covered by all major indexes and Journal Citation Reports.
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Conference 11809

Organic, Hybrid, and Perovskite Photovoltaics XXII

In person: 3 - 4 August 2021 | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
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  • Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Networking Event
  • Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Session I
  • 1: Advances in Materials for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells I
  • 2: Fundamentals of Organic Solar Cells
  • 3: Fundamentals of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells
  • 4: Performance & Stability of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells I
  • 5: Performance & Stability of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells II
  • 6: Advances in Materials for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells II
  • 7: Perovskite Modules and Novel Concepts
  • 8: Processing of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells
  • Tuesday Smoothies and Cool Jazz Scene
  • Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Session II
  • Poster Session
  • 9: Perovskite Interfaces: Joint Session with 11799 and 11809
  • Live Remote Keynote Session: Organic Photonics + Electronics II
  • Wednesday Surf Rock Chill and Beer Reception
Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Networking Event
In person: 3 August 2021 • 8:00 AM - 8:30 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
Join us for a short reception prior to the plenary session for refreshments and networking.
Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Session I
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 8:30 AM - 10:00 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
Session Chair: Zakya H. Kafafi, Lehigh Univ. (United States)

8:30 AM: Welcome and Opening Remarks
11808-501
Author(s): Richard H. C. Friend, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 8:35 AM - 9:15 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
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Pi-conjugated organic molecules and polymers now provide a set of well-performing semiconductors that support devices, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as used in smart-phone displays and lighting, field-effect transistors (FETs) and photovoltaic diodes (PVs). These are attractive materials to manufacture, particularly for these large-area applications, but, as I will explore in this talk, their electronic properties are very different from standard semiconductors such as silicon. Firstly, electronic overlap between adjacent molecules is relatively poor, and this often drives localization of electronic states. Secondly, dielectric screening is weak so that Coulomb interactions between charges and spin exchange energies are large. Management of transport and of excited state spin is fundamental for efficient LED and solar cells operation. I will discuss some of our recent work in Cambridge. I will discuss the use of spin ½ ‘radical’ semiconductors where we can light emission to the spin doublet excited state that avoid non-radiative spin triplet states. In contrast, I will present recent results that show triplet formation still limits the performance of the better-performing organic solar cells based on non-fullerene acceptors such as ‘Y6’.
11809-502
Author(s): Jean-Luc Brédas, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Recent advances in organic solar cells are based on non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) and come with reduced non-radiative voltage losses (ΔVnr). In this presentation [see Chen et al., Nature Energy, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-021-00843-4], we show that, by contrast to the energy-gap-law dependence observed in conventional donor:fullerene blends, the ΔVnr values in state-of-the-art donor:NFA organic solar cells show no correlation with the energies of charge-transfer electronic states at donor:acceptor interfaces. By combining temperature-dependent electroluminescence experiments and dynamic vibronic simulations, a unified description of ΔVnr is reached for both fullerene- and NFA-based devices. The critical role that the thermal population of local exciton states plays in low-ΔVnr systems is also highlighted. Another interesting finding is that it is the photoluminescence yield of the pristine materials that defines the lower limit of ΔVnr.
Session 1: Advances in Materials for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells I
11809-3
Author(s): Nitin P. Padture, Brown Univ. (United States)
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Organic-inorganic halide perovskite (OIHP) materials at the heart of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have unique crystal structures, which entail rotating organic cations inside inorganic cages, imparting them with desirable optical, electronic, and defect-tolerance properties. To exploit these properties for PSCs application, the reliable deposition of high-quality OIHP thin films over large areas is critically important. The microstructures and grain-boundary networks in the resulting polycrystalline OIHP thin films are equally important as they control the PSC performance and stability. Fundamental phenomena pertaining to synthesis, crystallization, coarsening, microstructural-evolution, and grain-boundary functionalization involved in the processing of OIHP thin films for PSCs are discussed with specific examples. In addition, the unique mechanical behavior of halide perovskites, and its implication on the reliability of PSCs, are discussed.
11809-4
Author(s): Yana Vaynzof, TU Dresden (Germany)
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Deposition of perovskite layers by the antisolvent engineering technique is one of the most common methods employed in perovskite photovoltaics research. Recently, we developed a general method that allows the fabrication of highly efficient perovskite solar cells by any antisolvent. We demonstrate this method by exploring 14 different antisolvents which we use to fabricate perovskite thin films and devices. By characterising the microstructure, composition and crystalline structure of these films, we identify two key factors that influence the quality of the perovskite active layer: the solubility of the organic precursors in the antisolvent and its miscibility with the host solvent(s) of the perovskite precursor solution. We show that depending on these two factors, each antisolvent can be utilized to produce high performance solar cells with efficiencies up to 22%.
11809-6
Author(s): Huanping Zhou, Peking Univ. (China)
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Recently, solution processed hybrid perovskites show intriguing electronic and optoelectronic properties applicable in various device application, and the developing of high quality materials is crucial. In this talk, three related aspects are discussed: 1) Establishing the controllable growth of multi-dimensional, low defect, high-quality perovskite crystals by tailoring the morphology and microstructure, and the particular relationship between structure and optoelectronic properties of perovskite materials; 2) Developing novel film growth process, defects passivation and interface engineering for perovskite materials and solar cells, to achieve high performance photovoltaics with certified efficiency of 24.5%; 3) Unveiling the degradation mechanism of hybrid perovskite films and devices under operational conditions. Corresponding methods are proposed to greatly improve the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells.
Session 2: Fundamentals of Organic Solar Cells
11809-12
Author(s): Feng Gao, Linköping Univ. (Sweden)
On demand
11809-14
Author(s): Dominique Lungwitz, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Thorsten Schultz, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany); Claudia E. Tait, Jan Behrends, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Swagat Mohapatra, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Andreas Opitz, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Norbert Koch, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany)
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Molecular electrical doping is of central technological relevance for organic (opto-) electronics since it allows control of charge carrier density and Fermi level position in organic semiconductors (OSCs). Here, we chose to investigate the doping capability of the n-dopant 1,2,3,4,1′,2′,3′,4′-octaphenylrhodocene (OPR). Using the bulky, strongly reducing metallocene to dope the electron-transport polymer poly{[N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5’-(2,2’-bithiophene)} [P(NDI2OD-T2)] leads to an increased bulk conductivity and decreased contact resistance. While the former is due to low-level n-doping of the polymer, trap filling and concomitant charge carrier mobility increase, the latter is caused by an accumulation of OPR at an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.[1] [1] D. Lungwitz, T. Schultz, C. E. Tait, J. Behrends, S. K. Mohapatra, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, A. Opitz, N. Koch, Adv. Optical Mater. 2021, 2002039.
11809-15
Author(s): Drew B. Riley, Oskar J. Sandberg, Sustainable Advanced Materials (Sêr-SAM), Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom); Nora M. Wilson, Åbo Akademi Univ. (Finland); Wei Li, Stefan Zeiske, Nasim Zarrabi, Paul Meredith, Sustainable Advanced Materials (Sêr-SAM), Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom); Ronald Osterbacka, Åbo Akademi Univ. (Finland); Ardalan Armin, Sustainable Advanced Materials (Sêr-SAM), Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom)
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Non-radiative losses to the open-circuit voltage are a primary factor in limiting the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic solar cells. The dominate non-radiative loss is intrinsic to the active layer which, along with the thermodynamic limit to the open-circuit voltage, define the quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS). Quantification of the QFLS in organic photovoltaic devices is challenging due to the excitonic nature of photoexcitation and device-related non-radiative losses. In this presentation I will outline an experimental approach based on electro-modulated photoluminescence to quantify the QFLS in organic solar cells. Drift-diffusion simulations are used to verify the accuracy of the method, while state-of-the art PM6:Y6 solar cells are created with varying non-radiative losses. This method quantifies the QFLS in organic photovoltaics, fully characterizing the magnitude of different contributions to the non-radiative losses of the open-circuit voltage.
Session 3: Fundamentals of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 10:30 AM - 10:50 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
Session Chair: Harald W. Ade, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
11809-18
Author(s): Gaurav Kapil, Muhammad Akmal Kamarudin, Kohei Nishimura, The Univ. of Electro-Communications (Japan); Daisuke Hirotani, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan); Qing Shen, The Univ. of Electro-Communications (Japan); Satoshi Iikubo, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan); Mengmeng Chen, Zhang Zheng, Shuzi Hayase, The Univ. of Electro-Communications (Japan)
On demand
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Recently, Sn perovskite solar cell (Sn PVK PV) are attracting attention. However, the efficiency was still lower than that of Pb perovskite solar cells. Recently, the Sn PVK PVs with efficiency higher than 10% have been reported from several research groups. The crystal defects include the presence of Sn4+, Sn2+ defect, I- defect, the presence of Sn0, the interstitial I- and so on. In order to decrease these defect densities, we have proposed some processes such as addition of Ge2+ ion, introduction of ethylammonium cation into A site, and surface passivation of perovskite grain boundary with diaminoethane dilute solution. Our results on efficiency enhancement (13%) is explained by the conduction and valence band energy level against carrier trap depth. In addition, an inverted SnPb perovskite solar cells with 23.3% efficiency is discussed from the view point of optimization of energy alignment.
11809-19
Author(s): Ching-Wen Chan, Mriganka Singh, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan); I-Hung Ho, Hyeyoung Ahn, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan); Tzung-Fang Guo, National Cheng Kung Univ. (Taiwan); Chih Wei Chu, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Yu-Jung Lu, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)
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In this work, we investigate the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in the double-layered architecture mixed halide (DHA) perovskite photovoltaic devices by ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). The measured TAS results show the perovskite solar cell consists of SnO2/(FAPbI3)1-x(MAPbBr3)x/HTAB has stronger transient absorbance with photoinduced bleaching at 750 nm and photoinduced absorption in the range of 550-700 nm. The lifetime of DHA perovskite observed from TAS is approximately 46 µs in conjunction with the electron injection discovered within the first 150 fs, indicating the charge carriers would be easily extracted. Besides, we measured a high power-conversion-efficiency of the DHA perovskite solar cell (PSC) of 21%. Hence, understanding the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in PSC by pump-probe TAS provides detailed insights into the advanced working mechanism. The results open a door for the development of high-performance perovskite photovoltaics.
11809-20
Author(s): Jon M. Bebeau, Arash Takshi, Univ. of South Florida (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
Session 4: Performance & Stability of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells I
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 10:50 AM - 11:20 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
Session Chair: Harald W. Ade, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
11809-23
Author(s): Brendan T. O'Connor, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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As organic solar cell efficiencies continue to climb, there remains a need to address device stability; both intrinsic operational stability as well as physical stability in flexible applications. In this talk, we discuss how the thermomechanical behavior of the polymer donor and small molecule acceptor, informs the expected morphological stability of the solar cell. We show that organic semiconductors that have a high elastic modulus and glass transition temperature have the greatest morphological stability. Interestingly these systems also show poor miscibility highlighting the relationship between processing, morphology, and stability. In addition, we show how the thermal relaxation behavior of polymer: small molecule and polymer: polymer blends dictate film ductility and fracture toughness, which have direct implications on the stability of flexible devices.
11809-21
Author(s): Thomas D. Anthopoulos, King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)
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In this talk I will discuss key recent developments in the field of OPVs with focus on practical strategies for boosting the overall cell performance. Particular emphasis will be placed on the use of electronic dopants and advanced interlayer technologies for improving the cell’s efficiency and operational stability. Finally, the design and implementation of multi-junction cell architectures will be discussed.
11809-22
Author(s): Yinghuan Kuang, Tamara Merckx, Aranzazu Aguirre, imec (Belgium); Cristian Villalobos Meza, imec (Belgium), KU Leuven (Belgium); Xin Zhang, imec (Belgium), KU Leuven (Belgium), Fudan Univ. (China); Sjoerd C. Veenstra, Energy Research Ctr. of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Jef Poortmans, imec (Belgium), KU Leuven (Belgium), Univ. Hasselt (Belgium); Tom Aernouts, imec (Belgium)
On demand
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In recent years, organometal halide perovskite based photovoltaics have attracted great interest for their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) potentially at low manufacturing cost. Despite the massive progress made by the community, the long-term performance stability and the manufacturability at large scale remain very challenging. In this work, we demonstrate a stable and scalable architecture for perovskite module fabrication. Thermal evaporation assisted 2-step approach is employed for the 1.53 eV perovskite deposition. For high throughput processing, NiOx by linear reactive sputtering is developed as the inorganic hole transport layer (HTL). PCE of 20% is achieved for the solar cell. Perovskite modules with monolithic series interconnected cells by picosecond laser scribing based on the developed cell stack are also fabricated. Above 80% of the initial efficiency is retained after 1000 hrs of thermal mono-stress at 85°C in N2 atmosphere.
11809-24
Author(s): Erkan Aydin, Thomas G. Allen, Michele de Bastiani, Lujia Xu, Esma Ugur, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Michael F. Salvador, Emmanuel Van Kerschaver, Stefaan De Wolf, King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)
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Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells promise power conversion efficiencies (PCE) beyond the thermodynamic limit of single-junction devices. This potential has been unveiled via several champion devices, however, their actual outdoor performance is yet to be investigated. Here, we fabricate 25 %-efficient two-terminal (2T) monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells and test them outdoors to reveal the characteristics of these devices specifically in hot and sunny climates, which are the ideal locations to operate such efficient photovoltaic devices. In this article, we summarize our observation on the perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells under actual operational conditions and discuss the lessons we take from our interpretations.
11809-25
Author(s): Stefan Zeiske, Christina Kaiser, Nasim Zarrabi, Oskar J. Sandberg, Wei Li, Drew B. Riley, Paul Meredith, Ardalan Armin, Sustainable Advanced Materials (Sêr SAM), Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom)
On demand
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Probing the photovoltaic external quantum efficiency (EQE) at photon energies well below the semiconductor bandgap is an important tool for achieving a better understanding of the contribution of trap and tail states involved in charge generation processes in photovoltaic devices, notably solar cells. In this work, we present an electrical and optical noise-reduced EQE apparatus achieving 100 dB dynamic range. We carefully identify and study several device- and EQE apparatus-related factors limiting the EQE measurement sensitivity. Minimizing these factors allows us to detect photocurrents smaller than a fA, corresponding to EQE signals as small as -100 dB. We use these ultra-sensitive EQE measurements to probe weak sub-bandgap absorption features in organic, inorganic and perovskite semiconductors. In this regard, we directly observe photocurrent-contributing sub-gab trap states in organic solar cells significantly lower in energy than the corresponding charge-transfer state.
Session 5: Performance & Stability of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells II
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 11:20 AM - 11:50 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
Session Chair: Harald W. Ade, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
11809-28
Author(s): Harald W. Ade, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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The rapid increase in the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) during the last few years has been achieved through the development of non-fullerene small-molecule acceptors (NF-SMAs). Stability is now becoming a pressing concern. The presentation will discuss how intermolecular interactions govern morphological stability, specifically, how the diffusion of an NF-SMA exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy that scales linearly with the enthalpic Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. Consequently, the thermodynamically most unstable systems (high interaction parameter) are the most kinetically stabilized. In short, unfavorable interactions can enable stability. The activation energy is shown to scale with the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the NF-SMA and mechanical characteristics of the polymer (elastic modulus) of the polymers [1]. This allows predicting relative diffusion properties and thus morphological stability from simple analytical measure
11809-26
Author(s): Laura Schelhas, National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)
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In this talk, we present our methodology for both in-situ and operando X-ray characterization of full PSC device stacks. These methods were developed, in collaboration with researchers at SLAC and NREL, initially to study the device properties of MAPbI3 as a function of temperature. Since then, these methods have been applied to understand the phase stability of mixed A-site PSCs of the form XPbI3 where X = FA, Cs, and/or MA. More recently we have explored tin−lead PSCs devices, to better understand diminished device performance upon thermal treatment. This work showed a stable bulk structure of the perovskite absorber, suggesting that the degradation mechanism is dominated by the surface chemistry. This talk will provide a summary of the operando methods developed as well as a report on these past and more recent results.
11809-27
Author(s): Tiarnan Doherty, Sam Stranks, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Andrew Winchester, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (Japan); Stuart Macpherson, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sofiia Kosar, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (Japan); Duncan Johnstone, Felix Kosasih, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Aron Walsh, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Paul Midgley, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Keshav Dani, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (Japan)
On demand
11809-29
Author(s): Chien-Chen Kuo, Fang-Chung Chen, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan)
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Because single crystals (SCs) contain less defects, perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) prepared with SCs should ideally exhibit higher efficiencies. Most of the crystallization methods proposed so far, however, require an interfacial layer to modify the surface property of the substrates to facilitate the diffusion of the precursor ions. The resistance of the interfacial layer, which often also serves as charge transport layers, inevitably increases the series resistance of the solar cells, thereby limiting the performance. Herein, we dope the interfacial layer, which is also a hole-transport layer (HTL) in our cells, with p-type organic molecules to reduce their resistances and find the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the single-crystal PeSCs are significantly improved. At the optimal concentration, the PCE is improved to 14.99%; the champion PCE is up to 15.67%. The results indicate that the HTL play an important role in determining the performance of the single-crystal PeSCs.
11809-30
Author(s): Annalisa Bruno, Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N) (Singapore)
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Here we present highly efficient, large-area perovskite solar cells (PSCs) where the perovskite active layer is deposited by thermal co-evaporation. The co-evaporated MAPbI3 perovskite films are pinhole-free and uniform over several centimeters, showing low surface roughness, and a long carrier lifetime. The perovskite films’ high-quality lets the fabrication of small area PSCs (0.16 cm2) with PCEs above 20%, high reproducibility in both n.i.p and p.i.n configurations, and an impressive thermal and environmental stability over months. Similarly, the first co-evaporated mini-modules (20 cm2) achieved record PCEs above 18.%. We have also developed colored semi-transparent PSCs and mini-modules. The semi-transparent PSCs achieved PCEs consistently ~16.0% for the wide range of colors realized. Our work represents a significant step towards the development of large-area PSCs and mini-modules and the future commercialization of perovskite technology.
11809-31
Author(s): Anurag Krishna, Hong Zhang, Zhiwen Zhou, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Thibaut Gallet, Univ. du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Mathias Dankl, Olivier Ouellette, Felix T. Eickemeyer, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Fan Fu, EMPA (Switzerland); Mounir Mensi, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Ursula Rothlisberger, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); G. N. Manjunatha Reddy, Univ. de Lille (France); Alex Redinger, Univ. du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Michael Grätzel, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Anders Hagfeldt, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
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We report a new molecular-level interface engineering strategy using a multifunctional ligand that augments long-term operational and thermal stability by chemically modifying the formamidinium lead iodide rich photoactive layer. The surface derivatized solar cells exhibited high operational stability (maximum powering point tracking at 1 sun) with a stabilized T80 (the time over which the device efficiency reduces to 80% of its initial value of post-burn-in) of ≈5950 h at 40 ºC and stabilized efficiency over 23%. The origin of high device stability and performance is correlated to the nano/sub-nanoscale molecular level interactions between ligand and perovskite layer, which is corroborated by comprehensive multiscale characterization. Chemical analysis of the aged devices showed that interface passivation inhibited ion migration and prevented photoinduced I2 release that irreversibly degrades the perovskite.
Session 6: Advances in Materials for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells II
11809-32
Author(s): Jovana Milic, Univ. de Fribourg (Switzerland)
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Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising materials in photovoltaics. However, their instability under operating conditions hampers their practical application. This stimulates the development of hybrid materials with enhanced stabilities during operation. For this purpose, supramolecular chemistry provides a powerful toolbox for controlling the properties of hybrid materials by purposefully tailoring the noncovalent interactions of the organic components. We have demonstrated the role of supramolecular engineering in templating hybrid perovskite structures through halogen bonding and π-based interactions, as well as host-guest complexation, which has been uniquely assessed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and NMR crystallography. As a result, we have obtained perovskite solar cells that exhibit superior performances and operational stabilities, highlighting the important role of supramolecular templating in advancing hybrid perovskite photovoltaics.
11809-34
Author(s): Andreas Opitz, Dominique Lungwitz, Raphael Schlesinger, IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Sujitkumar Bontapalle, Susy Varughese, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India); Keli Fabiana Seidel, Univ. Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (Brazil); Thomas Krüger, Jan Behrends, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Seth R. Marder, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Norbert Koch, IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany)
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Polyethylenimine (PEI) layers are used as cathode interlayer to reduce the work function of electrode materials and are frequently applied to organic or perovskite opto-electronic devices. PEI was applied from solution on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate mixture, zinc oxide and graphite. Choice of solvent and residual solvent removal ensure the superior functionality. [1] Furthermore, a single-step formation of a low work function cathode interlayer and n‑type bulk doping from semiconducting polymer/PEI blend solution was observed. [2] [1] S. Bontapalle et al., Adv. Mater. Interface 7 (2020) 2000291. [2] K. Seidel et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12 (2020) 28801.
Session 7: Perovskite Modules and Novel Concepts
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 1:30 PM - 1:50 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
Session Chair: Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
11809-39
Author(s): Eshwar Ravishankar, Ronald E. Booth, Harald Ade, Heike Sederoff, Brendan T. O'Connor, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Greenhouses are a form of highly productive farming that conserves land and water but use significantly more energy compared with conventional farming. Employing semitransparent organic solar cells (ST-OSCs) on greenhouse structures has been proposed as a strategy to significantly reduce the systems energy needs. In this talk, we experimentally demonstrate that the ST-OSCs result in negligible crop losses when growing lettuce. We also show through computational modeling that net-zero energy greenhouses can be achieved using ST-OSCs with 10% efficiency. We expand on this model by coupling the energy model to a detailed plant growth model that accounts for light intensity and spectra on crop yield. We modelled over 60 different ST-OSCs that have unique spectral character and performance. We show that integrating ST-OSCs with greenhouse can increase their net present value by nearly 50% thereby revealing that OSCs can assist in achieving sustainable agriculture.
11809-37
Author(s): Jinsong Huang, The Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)
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One major concern for the commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology is the toxicity of lead from the water-soluble lead halide perovskites that can contaminate the environment. Here I will present an abundant, low-cost and chemically robust sulfonic acid cation exchange resins (CERs) based method which can prevent lead leakage in damaged perovskite solar modules under severe weather conditions. CERs exhibit both high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate to lead in water due to the large binding energy to lead ions in the mesoporous structure. Integrating the CERs with perovskites at different locations have dramatical influence on how strong they prevent lead leakage. I will present several innovations that can reduce the lead leakage from damaged large-area perovskite solar panels to below 7.0 ppb even in the worst scenario that every sub-module is damaged.
11809-38
Author(s): Helge Eggers, Fabian Schackmar, Stefan Schlisske, Noah Strobel, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Bryce S. Richards, Ulrich W. Paetzold, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany)
On demand
11809-40
Author(s): Hidneori Nakayama, Kazuhiro Nakabayashi, Rieko Hata, Kazuhiro Mouri, Shigeru Nakane, Izuru Takei, Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. (Japan)
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Organic photodiodes (OPDs) are advantageous to silicon counterparts in absorption coefficient and tunability of detection wavelength up to near-infrared (NIR), enabling higher spatial resolution and wider color detection when integrated in CMOS image sensors (CIS). We first discuss the requirements for OPDs to be compatible with CIS, then report materials and device design for visible or NIR light sensing. The OPDs have a polymeric hole transport layer on the bottom electrode. The visible OPDs achieve a dark current of ~10^-10 A/cm^2 with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of ~85% at 450-700 nm owing to the active layer developed for OPVs. The NIR OPDs, employing a NIR-absorbing non-fullerene acceptor, achieve a dark current of ~10^-8 A/cm^2 with an EQE of ~80% at 940 nm. These devices keep 70-100% of their original EQEs without crystallization in the active layer after thermal annealing at >150 degC for 1 hr.
11809-41
Author(s): Angus Mathieson, Michael DeVolder, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
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By combining the photovoltaic and electrochemical properties of organo-metal hybrid perovskite materials in a single device, a novel photobattery technology is proposed. Utilising the photovoltaic performance of perovskite materials in combination with lithium ion intercalation reactions, a device with the ability both to convert light to electrochemical energy and store it is demonstrated. The motivation for such a device will be discussed, with its inherent impact in areas such as off-grid energy solutions. The fabrication techniques are described and characterisation techniques common to both photovoltaic and electrochemical disciplines, with their recent results are discussed. Modifications are made to conventional electrochemical coin cells and pouch cells, in order to facilitate optical access to the electrode material. Using in-operando x-ray diffraction and optical probing, the fundamental mechanisms of charge storage and ion conversion are investigated.
Session 8: Processing of Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 1:50 PM - 2:50 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 5A
Session Chair: Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
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Author(s): Gang Li, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong, China)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Hybrid organo-metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising candidates for next generation photovoltaic device primarily due to their high efficiency, printability and low cost. PSCs have exhibited externally verified power conversion efficiencies (PCE) exceeding 25% outclass from 3.8% in 2009, which have encouraged recent efforts on scalable coating technique in PSCs towards manufacturing. However, devices fabricated by scalable techniques are still lagged the state-of-the-art spin coated devices because the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is highly dependent on the morphology and crystallization kinetics under a controlled environment, and delicate solvent system engineering. In this talk, we will present the recent works using in-situ technique to guide the development of high performance PSCs using blade coating technology.
11809-8
Author(s): Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Electronic defect passivation has been used as a strategy to achieve high performance perovskite solar cells. This strategy relies on interlayers that hinder carrier transfer through the bulk and across interfaces. I will discuss how different crystallographic phases of the halide perovskite affect charge carrier transport in the bulk. Charge carrier transport across interfaces will be further studied to understand whether crystalline structures or amorphous phases are able to efficiently allow transport out the device. Synchrotron-based characterization techniques, such as grazing incidence x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence will be used to understand the structural and chemical composition of the films, whereas intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy will be used to understand transport processes in the devices. As a result of these contributions, we aim at designing materials that can lead the path toward 30% efficient single junction perovskite solar cells.
11809-43
Author(s): Chih Wei Chu, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan)
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The organic solar cells (OSCs) have contributed a significant role in photovoltaics by improving its power conversion efficiency (PCE). We have introduced a facile method for transferring thin films to achieve polymer solar cells with stacked structures to enhance the bilayer and ternary solar cells' efficiency. By controlling the swelling/de-swelling properties of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via solvent treatment, we formed uniform organic films upon the PDMS surface and then transferred them to target substrates.This residue-free and place-lift-off transferring method appear to have great promise in increasing the efficiency of multilayer stacked thin-film OSCs.
11809-44
Author(s): Mriganka Singh, Yu-Jung Lu, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Gang Li, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong, China); Hong-Cheu Lin, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan); Chih Wei Chu, Research Ctr. for Applied Sciences - Academia Sinica (Taiwan)
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We present a high-energy wet-milling grinding method to prepare the NiO NPs at a room temperature and a low-temperature solution-processing method for the intercalation of Cs2CO3 into NiO, resulting in bipolar charge-carrier extraction capability for inverted (p–i–n) and conventional planar (n–i–p) PSCs. In comparison with the corresponding device featuring an HTL of NiO alone, the Cs2CO3-intercalated NiO layer exhibited enhanced electron extraction without sacrificing its hole extraction capability. This new material for bipolar charge-carrier extraction has the potential to serve as an inexpensive, scalable, and environmentally stable interconnection layer for emerging flexible tandem photovoltaic devices.
11809-48
Author(s): Mozhgan Sadeghianlemraski, Hany Aziz, Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)
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The solvent-robustness and temporal stability of polyethylenimine (PEI) as an electron extraction layer (EEL) in inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) were studied. For that purpose, a PEI EEL is utilized in inverted OSCs with the archetypal Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) donor:acceptor system. Results show that soaking the PEI film in solvents (1-propanol and/or toluene) does not significantly impact OSC performance or photostability. As verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, the N atoms in PEI interact with indium-tin-oxide (ITO), causing PEI to strongly adhere to the surface of ITO. Shifts in N bands in the case of PEI on ITO compared to the PEI on glass confirm the presence of a strong physical interaction. In addition, comparing OSCs with fresh PEI and N2-stored PEI demonstrates that the PEI film is very stable over time, and a time gap between PEI
Tuesday Smoothies and Cool Jazz Scene
In person: 3 August 2021 • 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Sails Pavilion, Exhibition Hall Coffee Area
Cool off with a smoothie while you network with other conference goers and chill with a smooth Jazz trio.
Organic Photonics + Electronics Plenary Session II
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 4:00 PM - 5:30 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
Session Chair: Zakya H. Kafafi, Lehigh Univ. (United States)

4:00 PM: Welcome and Opening Remarks
11809-503
Perovskite Solar Cells (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Anita Ho-Baillie, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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In this talk, I will give a short overview of perovskite solar cells with regards to their opportunities and challenges. Opportunities for performance improvement will be highlighted. Challenges regarding durability will be discussed touching on our work on understanding intrinsic stability of perovskites and meta-stability of perovskite solar cells and strategies for boosting perovskite solar cells’ durability against thermal extremes and humidity. Our perovskite solar cells were the first to exceed the strict requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standards for thermal cycling damp heat and humidity freeze. Such a major breakthrough represents an important step towards commercial viability.
11808-504
Author(s): Franky So, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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OLEDs are thin-film devices consisting of multilayers of organic thin films sandwiched between a metal and an ITO electrodes. Because of the different refractive indices of the layers in the thin film stack, different optical modes are trapped in the device. In this talk, we will first discuss the physics of these optical modes and describe techniques to characterize them. We will then describe how to use various photonic structures to maximize the light output and manipulate these optical modes to control the polarization as well as directionality to achieve beam shaping.
Poster Session
In person: 3 August 2021 • 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Sails Pavilion, City Trellis Entrance
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Author(s): HyeonWoo Kim, HoJae Kwak, Incheol Jung, Dae-Chan Kim, Yoo Sung Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Hui Joon Park, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Wonsoo Ji, Envision Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); SeungGol Lee, Kyu-Tae Lee, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
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We investigate how the forward scattering of a dielectric nanoparticle array (NPA) affects the absorption in a perovskite semiconductor by increasing an optical path length. Both diameter and fill factor of the NPA are optimized, and 15.4 mA/cm2 of Jsc is obtained from a 200 nm-thick perovskite film, which can be improved by 56.5% with the TiO2 NPA with a diameter of 420 nm and a fill factor of 0.65 yielding 24.1 mA/cm2 of Jsc. Moreover, the multipole expansion is performed to study the contribution of multipole resonances, and the influence of the surrounding medium on the scattering is explored.
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Author(s): Sascha Feldmann, Timo Neumann, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Richard Ciesielski, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Richard H. Friend, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Achim Hartschuh, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. München (Germany); Felix Deschler, Walter Schottky Institut (Germany)
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Combining temperature-dependent photoluminescence microscopy with computational modelling we quantify the impact of local bandgap variations from disordered halide distributions on the global photoluminescence yield in mixed-halide perovskite films. We find that fabrication temperature, surface energy, and charge recombination constants are key for describing local bandgap variations and charge carrier funneling processes that control the photoluminescence quantum efficiency. We report that further luminescence efficiency gains are possible through tailored bandgap modulation, even for materials that have already demonstrated high luminescence yields. Our work provides a strategy and fabrication guidelines for further improvement of halide perovskite performance in light-emitting and photovoltaic applications.
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Author(s): Sarah S. Youn, Ewha Womans Univ. (Korea, Republic of), Advanced Photovoltaics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); William Jo, Ewha Womans Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Gee Yeong Kim, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
On demand
11809-56
Author(s): Bernd Doll, i-MEET, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany), HI-ERN (Germany), Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (Germany); Johannes Hepp, Mathis Hoffmann, i-MEET (Germany); Florian Talkenberg, greateyes GmbH (Germany); Renè Schüler, Manuel Baier, IBC SOLAR AG (Germany); Claudia Buerhop-Lutz, HI-ERN (Germany); Dirk Tegtmeyer, Ingenieurbüro Mencke & Tegtmeyer GmbH (Germany); Ian Marius Peters, Jens Hauch, HI-ERN (Germany); Christoph J. Brabec, i-MEET, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany), HI-ERN (Germany), Bayerisches Zentrum für Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (Germany)
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Cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, on-site photovoltaic (PV) characterization methods are of interest to PV operators to determine countermeasures against defects causing power loss or against safety problems. Combining the advantages of both methods electroluminescence (EL) and thermography is photoluminescence (PL). With our PL setup, we achieved high resolution luminescence images of large area PV modules without any physical and electrical contact. Defects are recognizable with a high rate compared to indoor EL images at controlled conditions. We analyzed inactive areas, cracks, potential induced degradation, snail trails, EVA degradation, and interconnection failures and compared the PL images with different characterization methods.
Session 9: Perovskite Interfaces: Joint Session with 11799 and 11809
In person / Livestream: 4 August 2021 • 9:00 AM - 10:00 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6C
Session Chair: Gang Li, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong, China)
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Author(s): Oleg V. Prezhdo, The Univ. of Southern California (United States); Carlos Mora Perez, Univ. of Southern California (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 4 August 2021
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Excited state dynamics play key roles in numerous condensed phase and molecular materials designed for solar energy, opto-electronics, spintronics and other applications. Controlling these far-from-equilibrium processes and steering them in desired directions require understanding of material’s response on the nanometer scale and with fine time resolution. We couple, in a unique way, real-time time-dependent density functional theory for the evolution of electrons with non-adiabatic molecular dynamics for atomic motions to model such non-equilibrium response in the time-domain and at the atomistic level. The talk will describe the basics of the simulation methodology and will discuss several recent applications, such as metal halide perovskites, metallic and semiconducting quantum dots, and transition metal dichalcogenides, among the broad variety of systems studied in our group.
11809-7
Author(s): Michel De Keersmaecker, Neal R. Armstrong, Erin L. Ratcliff, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 4 August 2021
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Metal halide perovskites have mixed electronic-ionic conductivity that contributes to intrinsic instabilities under operating conditions of voltage, light and temperature, exacerbated in environmental conditions involving oxygen and moisture. A lack of operando characterization, particularly of buried interfaces, limits rational improvement of perovskite solar cells. This talk will focus on measurement and quantification of relevant charge transfer processes at perovskite interfaces. We employ a new metrology approach to evaluate the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behaviors of perovskite interfaces, complemented with a combination of photoelectron spectroscopies and operando x-ray diffraction measurements.
11799-46
Author(s): Daniel C. Ratchford, Vanessa M. Breslin, Elizabeth S. Ryland, Junghoon Yeom, Robert B. Balow, Blake S. Simpkins, Paul A. Brown, Jeffrey C. Owrutsky, Adam D. Dunkelberger, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States)
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2D perovskites, consisting of alternating layers of metal halide sheets and cations, tend to be more environmentally robust compared to their bulk 3D counterpart and have broad technological appeal because of their tunable mechanical, optical, and electrical properties. While these materials have promise for flexible optoelectronic applications, it is necessary to determine the impact of strain on the perovskite optical and electronic properties. Here, we discuss our work in understanding how strain modifies the carrier dynamics of 2D perovskites using time resolved spectroscopy. We compare the photoluminescence lifetime of two different 2D perovskite materials, synthesized using either phenethylammonium or butylammonium cations. Both perovskite materials exhibit about a 50% decrease in the lifetime for tensile strains <1%. The decrease in the photoluminescence lifetime, indicating a decrease in the charge carrier lifetime, is discussed in relation the materials defect states and bands
11809-2
Author(s): Yuanyuan Zhou, Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong, China)
On demand
11799-45
Author(s): Xijia Zheng, Artem A. Bakulin, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)
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We present multi-pulse time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy study of lead halide perovskite materials. By heating carriers with infrared pulse and observed the cooling process, the carrier cooling dynamics are measured in the context of complex photoconductivity as a function of time and frequency. The result indicates non-Dude conductivity and the is discussed in conjunction with theoretical study based on polaron conductivity.
11809-10
Author(s): Thu Ha Do, Andres Granados del Aguila, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Dong Zhang, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Jun Xing, Sheng Liu, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Mikhail Prosnikov, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weibo Gao, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Kai Chang, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Peter Christianen, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands); Qihua Xiong, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
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Lead halide perovskites are known for their great potential in high-performance light-harvesting devices. We investigated the exciton recombination properties of 2D perovskites. We resolved two bright (optically allowed) exciton doublets and a dark (optically forbidden) exciton. Particularly, under the inherently strong electron-hole exchange interaction, each bright exciton doublet is split into two orthogonally orienting dipoles with large energy splitting of 2 meV, which is the largest experimental values in two-dimensional semiconductors. Furthermore, we observed the brightening of dark excitons induced by external magnetic fields that is attributed to interlayer exciton. Our results reveal that the physics on exciton recombination in 2D perovskites is rich, while the optical emission properties can be manipulated by external fields. Future theoretical calculation will be required to fully understand the exciton pictures in these emergent 2D materials
Live Remote Keynote Session: Organic Photonics + Electronics II
In person / Livestream: 4 August 2021 • 1:30 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
Session Chair: Barry P. Rand, Princeton Univ. (United States)
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Author(s): Mark G. Kuzyk, Washington State Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 4 August 2021
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We study the mechanisms of the photomechanical response of dye-doped polymers and liquid crystal elastomers by characterizing the stress/strain response function to modulated light of a variety of material compositions with the specific goal of optimizing the photomechanical response Figure of Merit (FOM), which quantifies the efficiency with which light energy is converted to mechanical work. We discuss experiments that vary the parameters, which define the FOM to study the underlying mechanisms. Large and dramatic length changes and bending angles are commonly observed in materials with a small Young’s modulus even when the light-induced stress is small. However, useful devices require large forces, which may not always lead to large displacements in stiff materials. We use the concept of a photomorphon, the smallest photomechanical material element, to guide in the design of the most efficient materials and describe the photomechanical analog of the optical transistor.
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Perovskite LEDs (Keynote Presentation)
Author(s): Edward H. Sargent, Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
On demand | Presented Live 4 August 2021
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Perovskites, widely-known for their promise in solar photovoltaics, also show promise in the realization of light-emitting diodes. Multiple classes of materials and emission wavelengths have now exceeded EQEs of 20%. Much effort has been invested in achieving charge transport layers that invest efficiently into these devices. Brightnesses are now reaching interesting levels for applications in information display. A key gating item is to advance further the understanding of degradation mechanisms, and to lever this understanding to extend operating lifetimes, just as the OLED community did two decades ago. I will review progress and open questions.
Wednesday Surf Rock Chill and Beer Reception
In person: 4 August 2021 • 4:30 PM - 5:30 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. West Terrace (Upper Level)
Join other attendees for some light appetizers as you relax to the vibes of a California surf band. Network with company representatives and other technical professionals and enjoy some San Diego sunshine.
Conference Chair
Lehigh Univ. (United States)
Conference Chair
NSF (Professional Development) (United States)
Conference Co-Chair
Ana Flávia Nogueira
Univ. of Campinas (Brazil)
Conference Co-Chair
The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong, China)
Conference Co-Chair
Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)
Program Committee
Harald W. Ade
North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)
Program Committee
Univ. de València (Spain)
Program Committee
The Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Program Committee
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany)
Program Committee
The Rowland Institute at Harvard (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. degli Studi di Pavia (Italy)
Program Committee
Imperial College London (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2) (Spain)
Program Committee
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Program Committee
Hideo Ohkita
Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Program Committee
Annamaria Petrozza
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy)
Program Committee
Barry P. Rand
Princeton Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Yana Vaynzof
TU Dresden (Germany)
Program Committee
Iris Visoly-Fisher
Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev (Israel)
Program Committee
South China Univ. of Technology (China)