The conference is a platform for researchers and teams active in the field of x-ray tomography to exchange on the latest progress in instrumentation, algorithms, and non-destructive three-dimensional characterization. Several thousand x-ray tomography systems are currently operated in industry and academia and thousands more in clinics. While conventional attenuation contrast imaging is dominant, other forms of tomographic x-ray imaging are emerging. The huge amount of generated data requires state-of-the-art software for image reconstruction and analysis. Several technical advancements are enabling or pushing applications of tomography in pathology, tissue engineering, anthropology, etc. It is increasingly common to produce impressive imagery of unique objects and derive relevant features of the underlying structures and dynamics. Furthermore, multi-modal imaging, which recently incorporates the reciprocal space information, has started to play an increasingly important role. The Developments in X-ray Tomography conference series warmly welcomes PhD students and postdoctoral fellows in the field. In order to support their career advancement, we will again recognize and award the best poster presented by a PhD student as the first author, the best oral presentation and proceedings paper. This conference encourages interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations. Scientists and experts are openly invited from medicine/dentistry, biology, earth and materials science, crystallography, solid-state and soft-matter physics, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering and applied mathematics to present results on system instrumentation, algorithm design and evaluation, and current applications. Papers are solicited on the following and related topics:

Alternatives to Conventional Attenuation-based Tomography Recent Advances in X-ray Sources and Detector Technology Characterization and Optimization of CT-systems Classic/Deep Learning Algorithms for Reconstruction and Image Analysis Micro- and Nano-tomography of Human Tissues Non-destructive Characterization of Unique Objects Added Value of Combining X-ray Tomography with Other Methods Trending Applications of X-ray Tomography ;
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Conference 11840

Developments in X-Ray Tomography XIII

In person: 2 - 3 August 2021 | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
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  • X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Particle Technologies Plenary Session
  • X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Particle Technologies Plenary Networking Event
  • 1: Applications I
  • 2: Image analysis
  • 3: Propagation-based or spectrally sensitive reconstruction
  • 4: Instrumentation I
  • 6: Applications II
  • 10: Applications IV
  • 5: Instrumentation II
  • 7: Applications III
  • 8: Advanced Reconstruction Algorithms I
  • 9: Advanced Reconstruction Algorithms II
  • Tuesday Smoothies and Cool Jazz Scene
  • Poster Session
X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Particle Technologies Plenary Session
In person / Livestream: 2 August 2021 • 4:00 PM - 5:30 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
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X-ray imaging meets deep learning (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Ge Wang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 2 August 2021
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Deep learning, the mainstream of artificial intelligence (AI), has made progresses in computer vision, exacting information of multi-scale features from images. Since 2016, deep learning methods are being actively developed for tomography, reconstructing images of internal structures from their integrative features such as line integrals. There are both excitements and challenges in the Wild West of AI at large, and AI-based imaging in particular, involving accuracy, robustness, generalizability, interpretability, among others. Based on the author’s plenary speech at SPIE Optics + Photonics, August 2, 2021, here we provide a background where x-ray imaging meets deep learning, describe representative results on low-dose CT, sparse-data CT, and deep radiomics, and discuss opportunities to combine data-driven and model-based methods for x-ray CT, other imaging modalities, and their combinations so that imaging service can be significantly improved for precision medicine.
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A mummy’s secrets (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Stuart R. Stock, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 2 August 2021
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In 2016, the Block Museum, Northwestern University, was planning an exhibit “Paint the Eyes Softer” on portraits attached to mummies from Roman-era Egypt. These portraits are especially important because few other paintings have survived from the Greco-Roman tradition. Perhaps only 100 portraits remain attached to their mummies, serendipity provided an example amidst Northwestern’s campus, at Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary and this mummy became the exhibit’s centerpiece. The mummy required conservation, and Computed Tomography (CT) was used to investigate subsurface deterioration and to reveal details of the encased person and items within the wrappings. CT provides a 3D map of how absorbing each reconstructed volume element is but not the identity of the material(s) producing the contrast, and in situ position-resolved x-ray diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source identified different objects within the mummy. This talk covers the provenance of Hawara Portrait Mummy Fo
X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Particle Technologies Plenary Networking Event
In person: 2 August 2021 • 5:30 PM - 6:00 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 6A
Join your colleagues for 30 minutes of networking and discussion after the X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Particle Technologies Plenary talks,
Session 1: Applications I
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 10:30 AM - 10:50 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
Session Chair: Stuart R. Stock, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Slack Moderator: Stuart Stock, Northwestern Univ.
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Author(s): Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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This year, we celebrate the 125th anniversary of medical imaging based on Röntgen’s discoveries. Hands with a metallic ring have been replicated numerous times. The early images show impressive details on the bony structure. Thanks to tomographic imaging, the advanced X-ray instrumentation, the sophisticated algorithms of reconstruction and data evaluation as well as the preparation beyond the well-established staining we can make visible the micro- and nanostructures of the bone with its surrounding tissues with unequalled details, just to mention one example. This paper summarizes selected key aspects of the contributions in the 13th volume on Developments in X-ray Tomography.
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Author(s): Georg Schulz, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Nicole Nicklisch, Danube Private Univ. (DPU) (Austria), Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (Germany); Manuel Rojo Guerra, Univ. de Valladolid (Spain); Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Kurt W. Alt, Danube Private Univ. (DPU) (Austria), Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
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Microtomography (µCT) has become indispensable for imaging unique objects. We investigated a historic case of a ‘beaten-copper’ cranium from around 5,000 BCE discovered at the site of Els Trocs in the Spanish pyrenees. The skull of an approximately five-year-old child (ET1/CET1) shows distinct impressions of the cerebral convolutions (gyri cerebri) on the inner surface (tabula interna) of the frontal, parietal and occipital bone. These changes are visually reminiscent of beaten-copper and are associated with chronically increased intracranial pressure, which may have various causes. The investigation was performed with a nanotom® m (Baker Hughes, Wunstorf, Germany). The 60 cm distance between source and detector and a horizontal shift of the detector (3,072 pixels × 2,400 pixels) allows visualizing specimens up to 35 cm in diameter. The 2,000 radiographs of the µCT-study were acquired with an acceleration voltage of 150 kV and a beam current of 60 mA using a pixel length of 68 µm.
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Author(s): Marina Eckermann, Tim Salditt, Institut für Röntgenphysik, Georg-August-Univ. Göttingen (Germany)
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Severe progression of Covid-19 is frequently accompanied by lethal respiratory failure, caused by diffuse alveolar damages (DAD) and vascular pathologies. With 3d virtual histology using multi-scale phase-contrast computed-tomography (PC-CT), we studied disease mechanisms in autopsy lung tissues from Covid-19 patients, such as the occurrence of hyaline membrane, the distribution of immune cells and the thickness of alveolar walls. This talk will present the technical aspects concerning data acquisition, reconstruction and analysis, using synchrotron and laboratory radiation. An outlook will be given on how 3d virtual histology and patho-histology can be expanded for biomedical research, in particular neuropathology.
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Author(s): Andrew Nelson, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
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Radiological imaging modalities present non-destructive methods for interdisciplinary teams to study ancient mummies in order to address important biological and cultural questions about past populations.
Session 2: Image analysis
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 10:50 AM - 11:10 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
Session Chair: Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
Slack Moderator: Julia Herzen, Technische Univ München
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Author(s): Victoria Cooley, Stuart R. Stock, Northwestern Univ. (United States); William Guise, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab. (United States); Adya Verma, Tomas Wald, Ophir Klein, Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States); Derk Joester, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Characterization of dental tissues from a large number of genetically engineered mouse models requires efficient segmentation of micro-CT reconstructions. We have implemented a deep learning approach using convolutional neural networks (CCNs) that, once trained, can distinguish between enamel, dentin, and bone and are adaptable for mutant phenotypes. We show that segmentations can be used to rapidly extract metrics that support quantitative comparison of wildtype and mutant rodent tissues. We anticipate that this workflow will be broadly useful in the context of studying the formation and pathologies of dental tissues.
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Author(s): Remi Ammann, Christine Tanner, Georg Schulz, Bekim Osmani, Prasad Nalabothu, Tino Töpper, Bert Müller, Biomaterials Science Ctr., Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
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Physical and mechanical properties of aligners determine the clinical success of orthodontic treatments. A main element of the successful orthodontic tooth movements is the fitting of the aligner’s surface to the backside of the related teeth. The complex human tooth anatomy and the aligner’s production make gaps inevitable. The aim of the tomography study is the morphological assessment of the recently introduced NaturAligner (Bottmedical AG, Basel, Switzerland). Using the advanced micro-CT system (nanotom m, phoenix|xray, Waygate Technologies, Wunstorf, Germany), a series of eight different aligners, placed on the 3D-printed model of the upper jaw, were visualized. Based on these 3D datasets, the gaps between model and aligner were automatically segmented and the thickness distribution of the aligners automatically determined. This quantification, validated by manual inspection, clearly indicated that aligners fitted better the model, when higher process temperatures were applied.
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Author(s): Erik Lindgren, Univ. West (Sweden); Christopher Zach, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
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X-ray computed tomography has been proposed as a key enabling technology for the industrialization of powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing. A typical application is the characterization of material flaws, also at manufacturing. Safe automatic or semi-automatic interpretation of XCT data is required, which is still an open research question. In this work such semi-automatic interpretation is explored with deep learning models. We model the actual material flaw indication in the XCT dataset, in contrast to most published studies on the subject which focus on the classification problem alone. Results on experiments on real XCT data is presented.
Session 3: Propagation-based or spectrally sensitive reconstruction
Slack Moderators: Atsushi Momose, Tohoku Univ, and Hans Hertz, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
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Author(s): Florian Schaff, Technische Univ. München (Germany); Kaye S. Morgan, David M. Paganin, Marcus J. Kitchen, Monash Univ. (Australia)
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Propagation-based phase-contrast is commonly used in high-resolution X-ray imaging due to its comparatively simple implementation and improved contrast in weakly attenuating objects. It is well suited for high-resolution applications, and, in combination with single-material phase-retrieval, can be used to achieve large gains in image quality. We developed the combination of propagation-based phase-contrast with spectral imaging. The addition of spectral data enables phase-retrieval and material decomposition of multi-material objects, which are natural limitations of the common single-material algorithm. Here, we discuss recent theoretical and experimental results, current challenges and future possibilities for spectral propagation-based X-ray radiography and computed tomography.
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Author(s): Christopher Wiedeman, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
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Compton scatter tomography has long been a developing imaging modality for various interests, including medical applications. Recently, researchers have investigated joint reconstruction of attenuation and scatter images, particularly in the context of x-ray and γ-ray scanning. Currently, mathematical approaches to this problem vary widely. We present a simple, but broad framing of joint scatter and attenuation reconstruction with scatter data from a single-view CT scan setup. Furthermore, we propose an iterative reconstruction solution that leverages an algebraic and deep learning based methods to estimate the underlying scatter and attenuation images. Finally, we test this model on both a generated dataset of 2D phantom images designed to mimic human tissues as well as a dataset based on real CT images. Results from these tests yield good enough reconstruction quality to distinguish crucial features such as tumors and lesions, demonstrating the potential of this approach.
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Author(s): Qiheng Yang, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Nirjhor Chakraborty, BP (United States); Dmitry Lakshtanov, BP p.l.c. (United Kingdom); Adrian P. Sheppard, Andrew M. Kingston, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
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X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a powerful tool that provides 3D structural information. However, when polychromatic X-rays are employed, retrieving quantitative information, such as density, from the materials in the tomogram is difficult. We use the Alvarez-Macovski (AM) model, which describes the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation, to generate density information from tomograms conventionally reconstructed from polychromatic XCT data. Provided that some assumptions about the materials in the tomogram are made and calibration is done, it may be possible to obtain reasonably accurate physical quantities for the tomogram both per pixel and also in aggregate.
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Author(s): Ryosuke Ueda, Koh Hashimoto, Hidekazu Takano, Mingjian Cai, Atsushi Momose, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)
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The phase imaging has a higher sensitivity for low-Z materials than conventional absorption imaging. We have developed a high-resolution X-ray phase microscope in combination with a Lau interferometer and used it for phase tomography. However, an existing method cannot avoid artifacts originating from the assumption of a two-beam interference model. In this study, we take a three-wave interference model into account to reduce the artifacts and propose a new method to attain phase tomography. In the presentation, we will demonstrate the reduction of the artifacts with the results of phase tomography.
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Author(s): Samantha J. Alloo, Univ. of Canterbury (New Zealand); David M. Paganin, Kaye S. Morgan, Marcus J. Kitchen, Monash Univ. (Australia); Andrew W. Stevenson, Australian synchrotron, ANSTO (Australia); Sheridan C. Mayo, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia); Heyang T. Li, Univ. of Canterbury (New Zealand), Monash Univ. (Australia); Ben Kennedy, Univ. of Canterbury (New Zealand); Anton Maksimenko, Australian synchrotron (Australia); Josh Bowden, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia); Konstantin Pavlov, Univ. of Canterbury (New Zealand)
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We have developed a means for simultaneous 3D reconstructions of the projected thickness and dark-field (SAXS) information of a single-material object using two mask positions, under the assumption of illumination by spatially random X-ray speckles. This dark-field signal allows one to obtain information about sub-pixel size features in low-density objects. This phase-contrast imaging method implicitly rather than explicitly tracks speckles, and utilises an extended version of our recently published methods (Pavlov et al. (2020) J. Opt. 22(12): 125604; Pavlov et al. (2020) Phys. Rev. Appl. 13(5): 054023). Our new approach is based on a Fokker–Planck description of paraxial X-ray optics (Paganin and Morgan (2019) Sci. Rep. 9(1): 17537; Morgan and Paganin (2019) Sci. Rep. 9(1): 17465). The method is applied to experimental CT data collected at a synchrotron.
Session 4: Instrumentation I
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 11:10 AM - 11:30 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
Session Chair: Stuart R. Stock, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Slack Moderator: Francesco De Carlo, Argonne National Lab.
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Author(s): Gabriella Dalton, Noelle M. Collins, Joshua Clifford, Emily Kemp, Ben Limpanukorn, Edward Steven Jimenez, Sandia National Labs. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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The goal of this work is to develop an x-ray computed tomography (CT) capability that delivers improved imaging resolutions while reliably identifying the material composition of the interrogated object. Through the use of a hyperspectral x-ray detector along with a multi-metal patterned anode, one can simultaneously enhance achievable spatial resolution and improve the spectral signal through the use of energy intervals that capture the k-lines of each material present in the anode. This paper will present preliminary Monte-Carlo results of the anode design and simulated CT datasets along with the applied machine learning techniques to identify materials and their concentrations.
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Author(s): Shashidhara Marathe, Ralf Ziesche, Diamond Light Source Ltd (United Kingdom); Gunjan Das, Sven L.M Schroeder, Diamond Light Source Ltd (United Kingdom), University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Emily Baird, Stockholm University (Sweden)
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We present the most recent advances in fast X-ray grating interferometer and their applications. A dedicated setup for rapid scanning with a single grating and using filtered broadband illumination of an undulator source has been implemented. With this setup tomographic scans can be achieved within minutes. Larger number of samples can be measured and chemical processes can be studied. Improvements in the data processing technique will be presented. We will also describe the new capabilities and applications.
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Author(s): Matthew Andrew, Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc. (United States); Lars Omlor, Carl Zeiss AG (Germany); Andriy Andreyev, Carl Zeiss (United States); ravikumar Sanapala, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH (United States); Mohsen Samadi Khoshkhoo, Carl Zeiss Microscopy Deutschland GmbH (Germany)
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We introduce two new technologies which significantly improve X-ray microscopy image quality and contrast. First, we introduce the first technique for the fully automated training of deep learning networks for X-ray reconstruction – DeepRecon Pro. These networks can remove two major contributors to spurious reconstructed image signal; random noise and sparse sampling artefacts. These two sources of spurious signal are discussed, showing how they can be removed with correctly trained reconstruction networks. We test network performance on a series of datasets, including those outside network’s training regions, showing a consistent high level of performance. We also introduce a technique which allows for the complete removal of propagation phase contrast artefacts. The removal of this effect reveals the inherent reconstructed material contrast which can then be much more effectively denoised, segmented or analyzed.
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Author(s): Benjamin Hornberger, Jack Kasahara, Lyncean Technologies, Inc. (United States)
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There is a large performance gap between X-ray tomography instruments with conventional laboratory X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation sources. An Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source can provide a narrow-band, high flux and tunable X-ray source that fits into a laboratory at a cost of a few percent of a large synchrotron facility. Here we present an ICS source design that is more than two orders of magnitude brighter than sources currently in operation, well-suited for high resolution, micro-CT imaging of millimeter-sized samples at micron resolution, with a flux density similar to some high-energy synchrotron beamlines.
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Author(s): Kenji Kimura, Mengran Sun, Ryosuke Ueda, Yanlin Wu, Haojie Pan, Atsushi Momose, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)
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Talbot-Lau interferometers are widely used for X-ray phase imaging/tomography. For thick objects or materials including metals, high-energy X-rays should be used. However, absorption gratings with extremely high aspect-ratios (AR) are necessary but are hard to be fabricated by current microfabrication techniques. As an approach without using high-AR absorption gratings, we developed the high-energy X-ray phase imaging device with a structured anode X-ray source, which has tungsten target array embedded in a diamond substrate. X-rays are emitted from the tungsten region, and therefore G0 can be omitted. We will show the results of high-energy X-ray phase imaging and tomography performed with a design energy of 82 keV.
Session 6: Applications II
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 11:30 AM - 11:50 AM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
Session Chair: Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
Slack Moderator: Marina Eckermann, Georg-August-Univ Göttingen
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Author(s): Stuart R. Stock, Northwestern Univ. (United States); P. E. Morse, Duke Univ. (United States), Univ. of Florida (United States); M. K. Stock, Metropolitan State Univ. of Denver (United States); K. C. James, Southwest Fisheries Science Ctr., National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (United States); L. J. Natanson, Northeast Fisheries Science Ctr., National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (United States); H. Chen, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook Univ. (United States); P. V. Shevchenko, Evan Maxey, Olga Antipova, Argonne National Lab. (United States); J. S. Park, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Energy sensitive diffraction tomography is used for 3D mapping of crystal quantities (including lattice parameters and crystallographic texture) for entire shark vertebrae whose complex structure is made up of mineralized collagen.
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Author(s): Griffin Rodgers, Christine Tanner, Georg Schulz, Alexandra Migga, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Timm Weitkamp, Synchrotron SOLEIL (France); Willy Kuo, Univ. Zürich (Switzerland); Mario Scheel, Synchrotron SOLEIL (France); Melissa Osterwalder, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Univ. Zürich (Switzerland); Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
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Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding of post mortem tissue specimens is widely used for high-resolution neuroimaging with both conventional and X-ray virtual histology. Exchange of embedding solutions generates non-uniform brain shrinkage and changes relative tissue densities. We used synchrotron radiation-based X-ray micro computed tomography to visualize the embedding process for a single mouse brain. Non-rigid registration was employed to determine the volumetric strain fields and to track the X-ray absorption changes of corresponding features. This allows for a correction of the observed microanatomy to improve the anatomical context. Through embedding, the entire brain shrinks to around 40% of its volume in formalin. Shrinkage is non-uniform and varies over anatomical regions and the distance to external surfaces.
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Author(s): Kamila Iskhakova, Florian Wieland, Berit Zeller-Plumhoff, Regine Willumeit-Römer, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany)
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Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are attractive materials for biodegradable bone implants due to their high biocompatibility and mechanical properties similar to bone. We explore the suitability of diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) to obtain information about the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in bone necessary for understanding the influence of degradation by the implant. We have studied a sheep femur bone explant with a BRI.Mag implant. The DCT measurement was performed at the p07 beamline at PETRA III (DESY, Germany). The data was then reconstructed and analyzed using the MATLAB computing environment and the ASTRA Toolbox. We have developed a reconstruction approach that can yield lattice parameters of HAp such as reflection width and reflection position around the implant surface. The degradation of the BRI.Mag implant does not notably affect the d-spacing, while line width shows a significant change depending on the distance from the surface of an implant.
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Author(s): Jenny Romell, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Vun Wen Jie, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Arttu Miettinen, Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Univ. Zürich (Switzerland), Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), Univ. of Jyväskylä (Finland); Emily Baird, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hans M. Hertz, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
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The visual systems of pollinating insects are studied to understand the effects of a changing environment, and are to date imaged using microscopy or micro-CT. Microscopy only allows two-dimensional imaging and conventional micro-CT requires heavy-metal staining of the samples. Here we present virtual histology of compound eyes of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) using a laboratory nano-CT system. Propagation-based phase-contrast CT allows three-dimensional imaging of samples without using any staining. Micrometre-resolution images of the microanatomy of the eyes were reconstructed, and the features identified in CT (cornea, crystalline cones, pigment, photoreceptor cells, basement membrane) were confirmed with electron microscopy.
Session 10: Applications IV
In person / Livestream: 3 August 2021 • 11:50 AM - 12:10 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Room 10
Session Chair: Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
Slack Moderators: Bert Müller, Univ. Basel, and Kaye Morgan, Monash Univ.
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Author(s): Alexandra Migga, Georg Schulz, Griffin Rodgers, Melissa Osterwalder, Christine Tanner, Univ Basel (Switzerland); Phil Salmon, Bruker microCT (Belgium); William Twengström, Exciscope AB (Sweden); Mario Scheel, Timm Weitkamp, Synchrotron Soleil (France); Jan S. Bolten, Jörg Huwyler, Univ Basel (Switzerland); Gerhard Hotz, Natural History Museum of Basel (Switzerland), Univ Basel (Switzerland); Bert Müller, Univ Basel (Switzerland)
On demand | Presented Live 3 August 2021
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Author(s): William Twengström, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), Exciscope AB (Sweden); Carlos Fernandez Moro, Karolinska Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Jenny Romell, Jakob C. Larsson, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), Exciscope AB (Sweden); Ernesto Sparrelid, Mikael Björnstedt, Karolinska Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Hans M. Hertz, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
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Surgery is an essential part of the curative plan for most patients affected with solid tumors. The outcome of such surgery, e.g., recurrence rates and ultimately patient survival, depends on several factors where the resection margin is of key importance. Here we show that laboratory-source-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging has potential to provide rapid intra-operative information of the resection margin. Our system relies on a liquid-metal-jet source in combination with a CMOS detector providing the magnification to allow sufficient resolution (10 um). We show results from liver and pancreas tumors, in 2D and 3D, and compare with classical histology.
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Author(s): Oriol Roche i Morgo, Lorenzo Massimi, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Tamara Suaris, St. Bartholomew's Hospital (United Kingdom); Marco Endrizzi, Peter Munro, Savvas Savvidis, Glafcos Havariyoun, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); P. M. Sam Hawker, Alberto Astolfo, Oliver J. Larkin, Nikon Metrology UK Ltd. (United Kingdom); Rachel L. Nelan, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (United Kingdom); J. Louise Jones, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (United Kingdom), St. Bartholomew's Hospital (United Kingdom); Daniël M. Pelt, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (Netherlands); David Bate, Nikon Metrology UK Ltd. (United Kingdom); Alessandro Olivo, Charlotte Hagen, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
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Fast, high-quality intraoperative imaging is crucial for accurate clinical intervention. The currently available techniques often struggle to provide high contrast, good spatial resolution and/or quick scanning times. Cycloidal computed tomography, when combined with x-ray phase contrast imaging, offers a solution: by under-sampling the specimens with a structured x-ray beam and translating the sample as it rotates, cycloidal scanning can obtain high-quality images within clinically workable scan times. This talk will explore the cycloidal method’s performance in the context of intraoperative imaging of breast tissue, discuss practical implementation strategies and give an outlook for clinical use.
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Author(s): Marie-Christine Zdora, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom), Univ. College London (United Kingdom), Diamond Light Source Ltd. (United Kingdom); Pierre Thibault, Univ. degli Studi di Trieste (Italy), Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom); Irene Zanette, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (Italy), Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
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X-ray speckle-based imaging (SBI) has seen increasing attention in the last years. SBI benefits from a robust and cost-effective experimental setup and makes use of a piece of sandpaper as an optical element to create a random speckle pattern as a wavefront marker. The distortions of the speckles are computationally analysed to extract information about the sample. Combined with tomography, SBI can give 3D quantitative information about the density distribution within the sample under investigation. SBI has shown promising potential in a wide range of fields including biomedicine, materials science and X-ray optics characterisation. Here, we will first provide an overview of the principles of SBI and its developments in the recent years. We will then focus on several applications of the technique, in particular for the investigation of biomedical soft tissue, for which we have achieved a density resolution of better than 2 mg/cm3 at a spatial resolution of a few micrometres.
Session 5: Instrumentation II
Slack Moderators: Graham Davis, Queen Mary Univ. of London, and Christoph Rau, Diamond Light Source Ltd
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Author(s): Felix Beckmann, Fabian Wilde, Marc Thiry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany)
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The Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany, is operating the user experiments for microtomography at the beamlines P05 and P07 using synchrotron radiation produced in the storage ring PETRA III at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Attenuation-contrast and phase-contrast techniques were established to provide an imaging tool for applications in biology, medical science and materials science. In the recent years we rebuilt the integration of imaging detectors. This allows the user to choose from a set of cameras based on different CMOS and CCD sensors. Here we will present the features of the different camera system together with the advantage for different applications. Furthermore, we rebuilt the data preprocessing before reconstruction to provide different scanning techniques to investigate samples larger than the field of view of the X-ray beam. Multi-scale tomography is realized by using different setups or to integrate a low-resolution together with a high-resolution region-of-interest invest
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Author(s): Marc Thiry, Felix Beckmann, Jörg U. Hammel, Julian P. Moosmann, Fabian Wilde, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany)
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The high-energy tomography station of the beamline HEMS/P07, operated at DESY by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, uses photon energies from 50 to 200 keV. The beamline is therefore of special interest for industrial users, especially from the metal industry sector. In this contribution we introduce the tomography set-up at HEMS and the possibilities for industrial access, together with examples for tomography of challenging highly-absorbing samples.
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Author(s): Mirko Riedel, Technische Univ. München (Germany), Institut für Werkstoffphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany); Alex Gustschin, Lev Ushakov, Wolfgang Noichl, Kirsten Taphorn, Madleen Busse, Technische Univ. München (Germany); Felix Beckmann, Jörg U. Hammel, Julian P. Moosmann, Institut für Werkstoffphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany); Pierre Thibault, Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Julia Herzen, Technische Univ. München (Germany)
On demand
11840-23
Author(s): Kian Shaker, Giovanni Marco Saladino, Carmen Vogt, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Yurika Katsu-Jimenéz, Karolinska Institute (Sweden); Bertha Brodin, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Raoul V. Kuiper, Karolinska Institute (Sweden); Kenth Andersson, Yuyang Li, Jakob C. Larsson, Martin Svenda, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, Karolinska Institute (Sweden); Muhammet S. Toprak, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Marie Arsenian-Henriksson, Karolinska Institute (Sweden); Hans M. Hertz, KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
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Laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) computed tomography (XFCT) with nanoparticles (NPs) as contrast agents now allows for in vivo preclinical imaging and longitudinal studies at low radiation dose. We present on developments of our XFCT arrangement capable of low-dose (<25 mGy) imaging with high signal-to-background resulting in high-spatial-resolution (200-400 µm) in vivo imaging of Ru, Rh and Mo NPs injected and accumulated locally in mice. We further demonstrate multiplexing capabilities by cross-talk-free separation of Ru, Rh and Mo XRF signal as well as envisioning the future of preclinical XFCT for active targeting and imaging of molecular markers (e.g., cancer cells).
Session 7: Applications III
Slack Moderators: Marie-Christine Zdora, Paul Scherrer Institut, and Alexandra Migga, Univ. Basel
11840-29
Author(s): David Mills, Alan Boyde, Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
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We show exact correlation between light microscopy of historical ground section microscope slides and XMT and OCT scans of the prepared slides. Samples were selected to represent a wide range of sizes and skeletal and dental tissue types, including human femoral bone, human permanent teeth, dog carnassial tooth, narwhal mandible, black rhinoceros molars, sperm whale cementum and dentine, African elephant ivory, and prairie marmot molars. XMT was conducted using the QMUL Mucat2 system, nominal voxel size 20um, 90kV, 24 hours. Analysis used TomView, ImageJ and Drishti software. In each case we were able to match XMT and LM. We can now report mineralisation densities for all the calcified tissues in the context of LM imagery.
11840-31
Author(s): Benedicta D. Arhatari, Australian Synchrotron, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Yakov I. Nesterets, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia); Seyedamir T. Taba, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Anton Maksimenko, Christopher J. Hall, Andrew W. Stevenson, Daniel Hausermann, Australian Synchrotron, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Sarah J. Lewis, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Matthew Dimmock, Monash University (Australia); Darren Thompson, Sheridan C. Mayo, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia); Harry M. Quiney, The University of Melbourne (Australia); Timur E. Gureyev, The Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Patrick C. Brennan, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia)
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One of the imaging modalities offered by the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron is X-ray phase-contrast propagation-based computed tomography (PB-CT). The present paper demonstrates that PB-CT produces superior results for imaging low-density materials such as breast mastectomy samples, when compared to the conventional absorption-based CT collected at the same radiation dose. The performance was quantified in terms of both the measured objective image characteristics and the subjective scores from radiological assessments. This work is part of the ongoing research project aimed at the introduction of 3D X-ray medical imaging at the IMBL as innovative tomographic methods to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Major progress of this project includes the characterization of a large number of mastectomy samples, both normal and cancerous.
Session 8: Advanced Reconstruction Algorithms I
Slack Moderators: Christine Tanner Univ. Basel, and Ge Wang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
11840-32
Author(s): Qingchao Zhang, University of Florida (United States); Xiaojing Ye, Georgia State University (United States); Yunmei Chen, University of Florida (United States)
On demand
11840-34
Author(s): Murdock Grewar, Glenn Myers, Andrew Kingston, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
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Statistical reconstruction methods in X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) are well-regarded for their ability to produce more accurate and artefact-free reconstructed volumes, in the presence of measurement noise. Maximum-likelihood methods are particularly salient and have been shown to result in superior reconstruction quality, compared with methods that minimise the $\ell^2$ residual between measured and projected line attenuations. Least-squares more generally may refer to the minimisation of quadratic forms of the projected attenuation residuals. Early maximum-likelihood methods showed promising reconstruction capabilities but were not practical to implement due to very slow convergence, especially compared with least-squares methods. More recently, least-squares methods have been adapted to minimise quadratic approximations to (negative) log-likelihood, thereby attaining the speed of least-squares minimisation in service of likelihood maximisation for superior reconstruction fidelity
11840-35
Author(s): Chuang Niu, Mengzhou Li, Ge Wang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
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Deep learning based methods have achieved promising results for CT metal artifact reduction (MAR) by learning to map an artifact-affected image or projection data to the artifact-free image in the data-driven manner. Basically, the existing methods simply select a single window in the Hounsfield unit (HU) followed by a normalization operation to preprocess all training and testing images, based on which a neural network is trained to reduce metal artifacts. In practice, various tissues and organs in CT images are inspected with different window settings. We propose a multiple-window learning method for CT MAR. The basic idea of multiple-window learning is that the content of large HU values may help improve features of small HU values, and vice versa. Our method can precisely process multiple specified windows through simultaneously and interactively learning to remove metal artifacts within multiple windows.
11840-36
Author(s): Yi Zhang, Hu Chen, Wenjun Xia, Sichuan Univ. (China); Yang Chen, Southeast Univ. (China); Baodong Liu, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Yan Liu, Huaiqiang Sun, Jiliu Zhou, Sichuan Univ. (China)
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Session 9: Advanced Reconstruction Algorithms II
Slack Moderators: Graham Davis, Queen Mary Univ of London, and Christoph Rau, Diamond Light Source Ltd
11840-39
Author(s): Christine Tanner, Griffin Rodgers, Georg Schulz, Melissa Osterwalder, Biomaterials Science Ctr., Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Gabriela Mani-Caplazi, Gerhard Hotz, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); Mario Scheel, Timm Weitkamp, Synchrotron SOLEIL (France); Bert Müller, Biomaterials Science Ctr., Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
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Tooth cementum annulation (TCA) is used for determining age-at-death and stress periods based on yearly deposited lines in the root cementum of human teeth. Traditionally, TCA analysis employs optical microscopy, which requires cutting sections of the root and provides only sparse sampling in the third dimension. Ancient teeth are unique specimens that should not be sliced. In this imaging study, we show that extended field of view synchrotron radiation-based tomography provides true micrometer resolution and coverage for non-destructively surveying for incremental lines. To rapidly review the root cementum layer of four teeth from early 19th century cemetery with historical records of life events, we employed machine learning for semi-automatic detection and analysis of incremental lines. Surveying large regions of the root cementum enables detection of incremental lines and hence improves TCA analysis as an alternative to slicing of the unique teeth.
11840-38
Author(s): Mengzhou Li, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
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Micro-/nano-CT has been widely used in practice to offer noninvasive 3D high-resolution (HR) imaging. However, increased resolution is often at a cost of a reduced field of view. Although data truncation does not corrupt high-contrast structural information in the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction, the quantitative interpretation of image values is seriously compromised due to the induced shifting and cupping artifacts. State-of-the-art deep-learning-based methods promise fast and stable solutions to the interior reconstruction problem compared to analytic and iterative algorithms. Nevertheless, given the huge effort required to obtain HR global scans as the ground truth for network training, deep networks cannot be developed in a typical supervised training mode. To overcome this issue, here we propose to train the network with a low-resolution (LR) dataset generated from LR global scans which are relatively easily obtainable and obtained excellent results.
11840-40
Author(s): Graham R. Davis, Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
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It is well known that beam-hardening gives rise to errors in the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficient that vary with position, thus invalidating post-reconstruction calibration methods. Prior to reconstruction, projections can be linearized, but this works only for samples composed of a single phase. Two-dimensional beam-hardening correction has been proposed for the two-phase case. A method for forward projection from polyhedral phantoms has also been proposed in the past. Here, this method has been extended to simulate polychromatic radiation and a hierarchical representation of phantom materials is proposed. This is used to create a liquid-immersed tooth phantom. The phantom projection data was then used to validate and improve the two-dimensional beam-hardening correction algorithm.
Tuesday Smoothies and Cool Jazz Scene
In person: 3 August 2021 • 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Sails Pavilion, Exhibition Hall Coffee Area
Cool off with a smoothie while you network with other conference goers and chill with a smooth Jazz trio.
Session P: Poster Session
In person: 3 August 2021 • 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM PDT | Conv. Ctr. Sails Pavilion, City Trellis Entrance
11840-49
Author(s): Christoph Rau, Shashidhara Marathe, Andrew J. Bodey, Diamond Light Source Ltd (United Kingdom); Malte Storm, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany); Darren Batey, Diamond Light Source Ltd (United Kingdom); Silvia Cipiccia, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Peng Li, Ralf Ziesche, Diamond Light Source Ltd (United Kingdom)
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We report about the most recent progress for high-throughput tomography across the micro- and nano-lengthscale. The experiments are carried out at the Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13L . The micro-tomography setup has been recently complemented with a robotic sample changing system, permitting currently measuring 300 samples per day. The system can be used also for the grating interferometry setup, operating at a similar rate. For nano-imaging we use polychromatic radiation, completing tomographic scans within minutes. For highest spatial resolution ptycho-tomography is employed. With the we achieve a scan performance on the hour range.
11840-45
Author(s): Jiayu Duan, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Tianquan Wang, Sun Yat-Sen Univ. Cancer Ctr. (China); Yang Li, Xuanqin Mou, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)
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The field-emission cold cathode flat-panel source has been a heated topic since it appeared. Currently, the ZnO based flat-panel source is still facing technical limitations. With the unaddressable lighting mode, the measurement is completely overlapped and has little value in practice. In this paper, we make some pilot studies on solving the overlapped measurements. An imaging system and optimization algorithm are designed to decouple the overlapped measurements. A high-order prior is introduced based on the overlapped measurement. Simulation and real results show the potential of the proposed method, which will be fundamental to the further flat-panel source study.
11840-46
Author(s): Maksim Korobenkov, Anton Narikovich, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal Univ. (Russian Federation)
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Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT or µCT) is a standard tool for materials science research. This method allows high-resolution non-destructive analysis of the internal structure of an object. In this work, the internal structure of B4C-C composites has been examined using µCT for quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Boron carbide is a promising material for X-ray refractive lenses due to its properties - quite high refractive ability with high transmission of X-ray radiation. Experimental samples were fabricated by the spark plasma sintering method. It has been shown that µCT can be used to determine the parameters of the internal structure of B4C-C composite for further optimization of x-ray refractive optics manufacturing.
Conference Chair
Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
Conference Chair
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Program Committee
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany)
Program Committee
Queen Mary, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Julia Herzen
Technische Univ. München (Germany)
Program Committee
Tohoku Univ. (Japan)
Program Committee
Monash Univ. (Australia)
Program Committee
Northwestern Univ. (United States)