Over the past 18 months and despite the continuing challenges of a global pandemic, the Earth Observing Systems XXVI conference was successfully held in August 2021 in a joint in-person/virtual format; and Earth observing missions continued to be launched, are awaiting launch or are in development. For example, missions recently launched include but are not limited to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation Structure and storm intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) Pathfinder mission on June 30, 2021 and the joint NASA/United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat-9 on September 27, 2021, the Korean Aerospace Research Institute Compact Advanced Satellite 500-1 (CAS 500-1) on March 22, 2021, the RosHydroMet/Roscosmos Arctica-MN1 satellite on February 28, 2021, and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Fengyun 3E (FY-3E) satellite on July 4, 2021. In addition, the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite was successfully launched on a Space X Falcon 9 rocket on November 21, 2020. Earth remote sensing missions projected for launch in the 2022-2023 timeframe include: the ESA/European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (Eumesat) Meteosat Third Generation Imager 1 (MTG-I1) satellite (2022 launch), and sounder satellite, MTG-S1 (2023 launch), and Sentinel-3C (2023 launch), and the ESA BIOMASS satellite (2023 launch), the NASA/NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System-2 (JPSS-2) (2022 launch) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-T (GOES-T) (2022 launch), the NASA Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols instrument (MAIA) (2022 launch), Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) instrument (2022 launch), Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, Ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite (2023 launch) and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument (launch 2022). Several joint space agency missions are slated for launch in the 2023 timeframe, including the NASA/Indian Space Research Organisation NISAR-L & S, the ESA/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Earth Cloud, Aerosol, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE), and the NASA/National Centre for Space Studies (CNES)/Canadian Space Agency (CSA)/UK Space Agency Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission.

On an international scale, these missions have or will join the impressive number of Earth observing satellite systems currently operating on-orbit with active and passive instruments producing remote sensing data—from the ultraviolet through the radar/microwave wavelength region. This proliferation of satellite instruments requires calibration and validation of the quality of the data they produce through a combination of careful pre-launch testing, on-orbit monitoring, and on-orbit inter-instrument comparisons of measurements made by other on-orbit assets and by airborne, balloon-borne, and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation.

Advances in electro-optic technologies and data acquisition and analysis techniques by commercial, academic, and governmental research institutions have promoted the successful on-orbit operation of hyperspectral Earth remote sensing instruments and enabled the development of lower-cost, miniature satellite sensors with specific areas of performance equal to or better than those of traditional systems.

Lastly, space agencies continue to formulate and/or refine their long-term mission plans. For example, the 2017-2027 U.S. National Research Council’s Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space continues to serve as the guide for the science and application objectives of future US space-based observations of Earth in terms of instruments and missions. NASA continues its development of its Earth Venture missions. ESA and EUMETSAT continue instrument formulation and launch planning for their future Earth Explorers, follow-on Copernicus Sentinel Missions, Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), and EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation (EPS-SG) programs.

In summary, the Earth Observing Systems XXVII conference welcomes the submission of papers over a wide range of remote sensing topics. Papers are solicited in the following general areas: ;
In progress – view active session
Conference 12232

Earth Observing Systems XXVII

23 - 25 August 2022
View Session ∨
  • 1: Prelaunch Calibration
  • 2: New Instruments and Technologies
  • 3: EOS Instruments: MODIS and AIRS
  • 4: Data Processing and Analytical Techniques
  • 5: SNPP, JPSS, and GOES-R Missions I
  • 6: SNPP, JPSS, and GOES-R Missions II
  • 7: Landsat 9
  • 8: PACE OCI
  • 9: Vicarious Calibration I
  • 10: Vicarious Calibration II
  • Poster Session
Information

POST-DEADLINE ABSTRACT SUBMISSIONS

  • Submissions accepted through 5-July

Call for Papers Flyer
Session 1: Prelaunch Calibration
Session Chair: Christopher N. Durell, Labsphere, Inc. (United States)
12232-1
Author(s): Elaine N. Lalanne, Fibertek, Inc. (United States); James J. Butler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Leibo Ding, John Cooper, Nathan E. Kelley, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
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The NASA GSFC Filter Radiometer Monitoring System (FRMS) was used to compare lamp-based and detector-based spectral radiance calibrations of an integrating sphere. The FRMS is a simple, telecentric, filter radiometer employing two apertures, a filter wheel, and a detector. The FRMS uses nine filters at specific wavelengths from 360 to 2400 nm. The lamp-based calibration used a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) calibrated irradiance standard lamp to calibrate the irradiance responsivity of a scanning spectroradiometer. The spectroradiometer was then used to transfer its irradiance calibration to an integrating sphere. The lamp-based spectral radiance calibration of the sphere was calculated using the sphere irradiance, the sizes of the sphere exit and spectroradiometer entrance apertures, and the distance between those apertures. The detector-based calibration of the sphere used a NIST calibrated absolute radiance detector to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the FRMS with the NASA GSFC Automated Laser Tuned Advanced Radiometry (ALTAR) laser system as the source. The absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the FRMS was measured at the following channels: 380, 410, 640, 840, 1240, and 1460 nm. The FRMS measured the integrating sphere to make a direct determination of its absolute radiance at those channels. The measured differences between the FRMS and spectroradiometer measured radiances of the sphere were 0.06% at 410 nm, 0.74% at 640 nm, 0.86% at 840nm, within their combined calibration uncertainties. The results from measurements at 380, 1240, and 1450 nm will be reported. Analysis of lamp-based and detector-based measurements of the integrating sphere at six wavelength bands will be presented.
12232-2
Author(s): Jinan Zeng, James J. Butler, Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Two scatterometers at NASA GSFC Diffuser Calibration Lab (DCL) are used to realize the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) scale transfer to be NIST traceable, and to test some flight units of solar diffusers as they fly in support of different remote sensing programs for prelaunch diffuser calibration. One of them is the laser/lamp source-based goniometer from 300 nm to 2250 nm called Table-top Goniometer/Scatterometer (TTG/TTS), which is similar to the NIST goniometers, and mainly used to disseminate the NIST traceable BRDF scale to a variety of diffusers. The other is the Large Uniform Illumination Scatterometer (LUIS) using high power LEDs from 340 nm to 1650 nm and a telescope collimator, which is able to test large area diffusers under full illumination by simulating the solar illumination on orbit. The two scatterometers determine the BRDF scales with different measurement equations. In this paper, we report the BRDF results of two scatterometers from dim to bright diffusers to validate the consistency of them. The LUIS system is also able to vary the footprint of detector field of view (FOV) to test specific locations of a diffuser as required. We will demonstrate the consistency of BRDF results of Spectralon with two scatterometers, and also achieve a good agreement of BRDF results from the instruments of other institutes. Some additional tests of the LUIS were made to verify the system, such as spatial non-uniformity of input beam, detector FOV profiles, and incident/viewing angle dependence etc., which are used to evaluate system uncertainties.
12232-3
Author(s): Daniel Link, Thomas A. Schwarting, Amit Angal, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Continuing the successful on-orbit operation of the VIIRS instruments currently on-board the Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 spacecraft, additional VIIRS instruments are in production to support future JPSS/NOAA missions. As part of pre-launch testing, investigation into the near-field response (NFR) for each detector is required to assess the detector performance and assure there is no interference, defocus, or crosstalk that could influence the radiometric measurements. We present our findings for JPSS-4 VIIRS NFR during instrument ambient testing. The results include performance of the VIIRS detectors as compared against the specifications and comparisons against previous flight models.
12232-4
Author(s): Qiang Ji, Jeffrey McIntire, Daniel Link, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key instruments on-board the Suomi-NPP spacecraft and the NOAA-20 spacecraft. Several copies of VIIRS have been built and tested. To verify its performance, the straylight response of each VIIRS instrument is characterized in a pre-launce ambient test. Due to the limitations of a clean room, straylight modeling and a special laboratory setup are involved to simulate the straylight in operational environments. Test results from multiple VIIRS instruments are summarized and compared to show that they meet the straylight rejection requirement, and the straylight performance remained consistent among VIIRS instruments.
12232-5
Author(s): Thomas A. Schwarting, Daniel Link, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Chengbo Sun, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Jeffrey McIntire, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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On-orbit the VIIRS DNB is calibrated in a two stage process. The gain is determined for the low gain using a solar diffuser and transferred to the higher gain stages by leveraging the overlap in dynamic range. Prelaunch testing uncovered non-linear effects at low radiance and of varying amounts depending on gain stage, mode, detector, and crucially sample. Cross-calibration utilizes low signal samples where nonlinear effects are significant and risks inducing errors into the other gain stages. We seek to reduce this risk by proposing sample selection criteria for this process based on pre-launch testing.
Session 2: New Instruments and Technologies
Session Chair: Armin W. Doerry, Sandia National Labs. (United States)
12232-6
Author(s): Johannes Buschek, Andreas Eckardt, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany); Ralf Reulke, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany)
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The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 35 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute’s scientific results of an in-orbit validation approach for the next generation of CMOS TDI (Time Delay and Integration) detectors. The technology can be used for future high and multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and is focused on the detector pixel chain analysis and adjustment for the whole mission lifetime. In contrast to the classic image-based methods, here the complete electrical channel is tested on the satellite itself, starting with the shift registers and ending with the digitization of the signal. The approach is based on the use of the bidirectional scanning capability of the TDI architecture, which allows to inject a reproducible number of electrons in the vertical pixel chain. This charge injection in conjunction with the gated integrator capability of the CDS architecture, periodic signals can be recovered down to sub pixel frequency level and the detector output signal characteristic can be determined in time domain. To get an accurate waveform recovery process, the delay for gated integration is controlled by FPGA. The effects of the phase adjustment of the CDS sampling position in orbit will be visualized by simulated data. The image degradation as result of typically radiation effects over the mission lifetime will be also discussed in this paper. The contribution also discusses the influence of radiation effects on e.g. non-linearities in the signal, which should also be avoided with this technology. This new approach enables e.g. linearity test, analysis and alignment and shows the relevance of such a validation technology for high-resolution optical space instruments.
12232-7
Author(s): Jason Mudge, Golden Gate Light Optimization LLC (United States); Adam Phenis, AMP Optics, LLC (United States); Andrew Nichols, Alicia Maccarrone, Alexander Cheff Halterman, Quartus Engineering Incorporated (United States)
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Many heritage spaceborne, Earth viewing radiometers have a fairly narrow optical field-of-view (FoV) and are mechanically swung in the cross-track direction to provide the required coverage. These instruments have moving parts, swing a delicate optical system, and lack a full instantaneous cross-track coverage. To get around these undesirable issues, the cross-track direction can be optically a wide-FoV telescope utilizing freeform optics [Phenis et al., Proc. of SPIE, 12078(12078J), 2021] along with a corresponding focal plane array (FPA). However, there are some unintended and undesirable consequences of wide FoV telescopes particularly when there is a significant lack of symmetry due, in part, to off-axis viewing. One of these issues is a polarization bias imparted on the light due to the optics as it progresses along the optical chain. Here we develop the polarimetric radiometric uncertainty and a polarimetric error equivalent radiance which can be used in the optical design and radiometric error budget for imaging radiometers.
12232-8
Author(s): Mehmet Ogut, Sidharth Misra, Shannon Brown, Siamak Forouhar, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Janusz Murakowski, Phase Sensitive Innovations, Inc. (United States); Michael Gehl, Sandia National Labs. (United States)
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The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a key interface of energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere, however, current spaceborne sensors are not optimized to measure in this region. There is significantly more PBL temperature and humidity information content in the microwave spectrum that current satellite instruments resolve. The photonic spectro-radiometer developed under NASA ESTO ACT-20 program capable of fully resolving the microwave spectrum to return all PBL information in the microwave spectrum. A novel photonic integrated circuit is designed having integrated a modulator for up-conversion of signals into optics domain, an arrayed waveguide grating and star couplers with filters.
12232-9
Author(s): Thomas U. Kampe, John Fleming, Jerold Cole, Peter Spuler, Isaiah Franka, Natalie Fan, Ball Aerospace (United States)
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Manufacturable freeform optics enable compact, high-performance optical systems. The additional degrees of freedom provided by freeform surfaces allow for smaller systems, higher performance, and fewer elements. Next generation Earth science programs are pushing for more spectral bands, an increased field of view and reduced size that could potentially benefit from the use of freeform mirrors. Numerous paper studies have been published on freeforms but successful demonstration of freeform components in hardware is limited. We describe the successful outcome of a development program including design, fabrication, and test of compact WFOV 3-mirror freeform telescope including measured stray light performance.
12232-10
Author(s): Stephen J. Schiller, Jeffery J. Puschell, Raytheon Intelligence & Space (United States)
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The Improved Radiometric calibration of land Imaging Systems or IRIS is a compact full-spectrum calibration system that reduces the size, weight and power of conventional on-board radiometric sources into a single flat panel format by combining both carbon nanotube and LED technology within a Jones source design. Introduced in this presentation is a methodology that maintains in-flight traceability through a fusion of the on-board IRIS LED reference with Labsphere’s FLARE vicarious calibration system. The process known as IRIS-V provides SI traceability of the on-board VSWIR calibration system through the mission's lifetime without impacting operational land or coastal image collection.
Session 3: EOS Instruments: MODIS and AIRS
Session Chair: Jeffery J. Puschell, Raytheon Intelligence & Space (United States)
12232-11
Author(s): Hartmut H. Aumann, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
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The 20 years of AIRS data are the longest continuous hyperspectral data set from a single instrument in a fixed 1:30 ascending node polar orbit. Its pre-launch calibration has been extensively compared over the past 20 years directly and indirectly to ground truth data. The radiometric accuracy and stability have exceeded all requirements. The analysis of the time series of various measurements indicate a small multi-decadal variability and trends , which could be Climate Change or the effect instrument degradation. We illustrate this with the trend in the count of deep convective clouds and clear footprints in the tropical oceans.
12232-12
Author(s): Thomas S. Pagano, Steven Broberg, Evan Manning, William Mathews, Hartmut H. Aumann, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
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The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002 and is currently fully operational. AIRS acquires hyperspectral infrared radiances in 2378 channels ranging in wavelength from 3.7-15.4 um with spectral resolution of better than 1200, and spatial resolution of 13.5 km with global daily coverage. The AIRS was designed to measure temperature and water vapor profiles for improvement in weather forecast and improved parameterization of climate processes. Currently the AIRS Level 1B Radiance Products are assimilated by NWP centers worldwide and have shown considerable forecast improvement. AIRS L1 and L2 products are widely used for studying critical climate processes related to water vapor feedback, atmospheric transport, atmospheric composition and cloud properties. Coupling of the polarization emitted from the AIRS scan mirror and the polarization of the spectrometer introduces a scan dependent modulation of the instrument radiometric response. Measurements of the polarization pre-flight were used to determine the current calibration coefficients in Version 5. A Deep Space Maneuver of the Aqua Spacecraft which was performed on September 23, 2021 provided a unique measurement of the radiometric modulation that we now use to derive a new set of polarization parameters for the system. This is expected to improve left/right asymmetries and reduce radiometric errors in cold scenes. This paper will summarize the methodologies used, compare the new polarization parameters to those derived pre-flight and in-orbit using space views, and early results from testing of the new polarization parameters.
12232-13
Author(s): Truman M. Wilson, Amit Angal, Junqiang Sun, Xu Geng, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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MODIS on board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts has been in operation for 22 and 20 years, respectively. Throughout each mission, Moon observations have been a key component to the on-orbit calibration. For MODIS Collection 7, we have updated the lunar calibration algorithm to provide improvements to the data quality. This includes removing pixel oversampling errors associated with including partial lunar images in addition to full disk images, data masking for the mitigation of crosstalk contamination, and corrections to digital counting errors (sticky bins). These corrections reduce variations in the data while maintaining the long-term trends from Collection 6.
12232-14
Author(s): Gal Sarid, Kevin A. Twedt, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The drift of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts from their nominal mission orbits will cause changes in the solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) viewing geometry and calibration conditions. This, in turn, will drive a variation in the calibration parameters used to calculate reference adjustments for the MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB). We examine a few alternative approaches to mitigate this impact and produce continuous calibrations for the SD degradation and SD-derived detector gains.
12232-15
Author(s): Brent McBride, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Aisheng Wu, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
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Over time, trends of MODIS reflectance data in some bands have shown artifacts related to polarization sensitivity. In this work, we propose a new algorithm that uses the polarized signal from large-scale marine stratocumulus clouds to study this sensitivity for Aqua MODIS Band 2. By comparing a co-located polarization measurement from POLDER-3 at 865nm to Aqua MODIS Band 2 reflectances over suitable cloud geometries and across six matchups in 2005, we derived sensitivity coefficients across a range of AOI. The difference in measurement time between Aqua and POLDER-3 is the largest error source and recommend this algorithm for future radiometer-polarimeter scenarios with simultaneous co-location (i.e. NASA PACE).
12232-16
Author(s): Emily J. Aldoretta, Daniel Link, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The MODIS instruments have provided Earth data to the science community for the last 20 and 22 years, respectively. The SRCA is an on-board calibrator that characterizes the radiometric, spatial, and spectral properties of the MODIS reflective solar bands. In radiometric mode, the SRCA monitors gain trends on a detector level. Once per calendar year the SRCA is operated in radiometric mode over several consecutive orbits, monitoring the gain changes of the RSBs under unique conditions. This paper will provide insight into the short-term stability of the MODIS RSBs, along with the long-term trends of these multi-orbit gain observations.
12232-17
Author(s): Kevin A. Twedt, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The detectors in the reflective solar bands (RSB) of Terra and Aqua MODIS use a linear relationship to relate the instrument response to the observed top-of-atmosphere radiance. Recently, we reported that Aqua MODIS bands 1 (645 nm) and 2 (858 nm) have deviations from gain linearity that change on-orbit, leading to errors in the NASA Level 1B radiance products for low radiance scenes. In this paper, we expand on these findings to assess the linearity of detector responses in both Aqua and Terra MODIS for all RSB using data from the on-board solar diffuser and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly.
Session 4: Data Processing and Analytical Techniques
Session Chair: Xingfa Gu, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS (China)
12232-18
Author(s): Ferdenant A. Mkrtchyan, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)
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Aquatic ecosystems are one of the important objects of geoinfomation monitoring. One of perspective approach to the solution of the problems arising here is GIMS-technology(GIMS = GIS + model).The basic scheme of collection and processing of the information in geoinformation monitoring system(GIMS) recognizes that effective monitoring researched object is possible at complex use of methods of simulation modeling, collection and processing of the information. One of the basic tasks of geoinformation monitoring of an environment is automation of data processing of measurements with the principal goal of the task decision for phenomena detection and classification on a water surface. Various algorithms of the theory of images recognition, statistical decisions and cluster analysis are used to solve this problem. The mathematical model describing the background characteristics of water surface spottiness is proposed. Operative software for this model is realized.
12232-19
Author(s): Blanca Arellano, Josep Roca, Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain)
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The effects of heatwaves on the population have been described by numerous authors who have established clear relationships between high temperatures and morbidity and mortality. Cities can substantially increase local temperatures and reduce temperature drop at night. The literature on urban climate has highlighted the singular importance of urban greenery for smoothing the urban heat island (UHI) as well as extreme temperatures. It is important to highlight that urban vegetation plays a fundamental role in adapting to climate change in cities. Greenery increases humidity in the air and the shadow projected on the surfaces. Such characteristics break the continuity of the UHI. Thus, green areas register lower temperatures than the rest of urban spaces and generate a cooling effect that spreads to their surroundings creating a real "cool island" effect. In this topic, the studies aim to quantify the influence of the physical characteristics of the parks and their urban surroundings to improve the criteria to a climate-sensitive urban design and planning and represent an opportunity to reduce health risks of its inhabitants during extreme periods of heat in cities. The World Health Organization has recommended a minimum standard of 10 m2 of urban green space per inhabitant. However, the concepts of "park" and "green area" are vague and imprecise, and there is no clear consensus about what should be considered urban green. Highly artificialized spaces, with high proportions of sealed soil, and devoid of vegetation, are often considered "parks" in urban planning. Likewise, forest spaces, with few artificial elements, are also usually considered as urban “parks”. The use of satellite images has helped to study urban vegetation. Indicators such as NDVI, SAVI, LAI, FAPAR or FCOVER allow us to understand the extent and quality of greenery, as well as to assess its impact on day and night temperatures. In this context, this work aims to study the extent of vegetation in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (600 km2, 3,200,000 inhabitants) from various satellite sensors as well as different indicators of greenness, with the aim of determining the thresholds from which it is possible to speak with rigor of urban green.
12232-20
Author(s): Ferdenant A. Mkrtchyan, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)
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The main purpose of the concept of remote monitoring is to connect data collection systems, processing methods, mathematical models of natural objects, computer tools for implementing algorithms and models with a wide range of service provision when visualizing monitoring results. From a practical point of view, it is important to synthesize an integrated system for collecting and processing information about the environment, which combines remote and contact measurements that form the basis of remote monitoring systems. Wherein problems connected with the decision making when the natural or anthropogenic processes are held studied and assessed basing on the big data clouds delivered by the multi-channel monitoring systems. Decision making tool is developed basing on the classical and sequential analysis procedures. It is supposed that studied process is assessed on the base of specific indicator and a set of its values is formed from different information sources.
12232-21
Author(s): Shihyan Lee, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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An instrument’s Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) and Modulated Transfer Function (MTF) are keys to its spatial performance and the accuracy of converting radiance to irradiance. In this paper, we present a modeling approach to examine the potential IFOV/MTF uncertainties derived from the commonly used Line Spread Function (LSF) measurements. Our analyses show: 1) The IFOV and MTF is a function of apparent LSF, which itself is a function of the size of the source image with respect to the IFOV and sampling distance. 2) A 3% bias in derived IFOV occurs when the source size is about 1/8 of the IFOV; the bias grows to 25% when the source size increased to be the same size of IFOV. 3) The derived IFOV bias is mainly caused by the LSF broadening due to the convolution of source and IFOV within each sampled pixel. The accuracy of the derived IFOV can be improved by pixel binning, which can reduce the apparent impact on IFOV measurements from the LSF broadening. 4) Similarly, the LSF derived MTF will have an increasingly low bias when a larger source is used in the measurement.
Session 5: SNPP, JPSS, and GOES-R Missions I
Session Chair: Thomas S. Pagano, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
12232-22
Author(s): Ning Lei, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The SNPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSBs) use a sunlit onboard solar diffuser (SD) to calibrate. The dark count is obtained through viewing the space view (SV) port. Stray light contaminations of the SV and/or the SD views, if present, could impact negatively on the radiometric calibration accuracy. Here, we investigate the magnitudes of the stray light contaminations in the SD and SV views, focusing on the M1 band (412 nm). If stray light contaminations are non-negligible, we further evaluate the stray light’s impact on the accuracy of the NASA SNPP VIIRS Level-1B Collection 2 products for the M1 band.
12232-23
Author(s): Ning Lei, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The SNPP VIIRS solar diffuser (SD) reflectance change (H-factor) is determined by the SD stability monitor (SDSM). To find the H-factor for the SD-to-telescope direction, we use a function of the true H-factor for the SD-to-SDSM direction, deconvolved from the directly measured H-factor, with one model parameter. To determine the parameter value, we fit the RSB gains determined by using the function to the gains from lunar observations. We examine the uncertainties of the SDSM detector spectral response function due to insufficient knowledge of its band filter orientation, and their impact on the retrieved model parameter and the associated uncertainties in the Level-1B products.
12232-24
Author(s): Khalil Ahmad, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Wenhui Wang, Univ. of Maryland (United States); Slawomir Blonski, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Xi Shao, Univ. of Maryland (United States); Changyong Cao, NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (United States)
12232-25
Author(s): Junqiang Sun, Hongda Chen, Gal Sarid, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Chengbo Sun, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Daniel Link, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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VIIRS day-night band (DNB) covers a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm, has three gain stages enabling a dynamic range of 7 orders of magnitude, and is calibrated by a solar diffuser. In this paper, the calibration uncertainty of the DNB is analyzed for both SNPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS instruments. It is shown that the uncertainties of the DNB for all gain stages, detectors, half angle mirror sides, and aggregation modes are much smaller than the uncertainty specifications of the band, which is 5%, 10%, and 100% for low, middle, and high gain stage, respectively.
12232-26
Author(s): Hongda Chen, Gal Sarid, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States), NASA (United States); Chengbo Sun, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Daniel Link, Junqiang Sun, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States), NASA (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The SNPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is capable of making day and nighttime observations. The DNB uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) panel for low gain stage calibration, and the SD observations are also carefully selected to compute gain ratios between low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. This paper focuses on the on-orbit calibration and performance in their operations. The DNB straylight correction algorithm has been discussed. Performance validations are presented using comparisons to the calibration methods employed by NOAA’s operational Interface Data Processing Segment.
Session 6: SNPP, JPSS, and GOES-R Missions II
Session Chair: Joel T. McCorkel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
12232-27
Author(s): Taeyoung J. Choi, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States), NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (United States); Changyong Cao, NOAA Ctr. for Satellite Applications and Research (United States); Slawomir Blonski, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States), NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (United States); Xi Shao, Wenhui Wang, Sirish Uprety, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Yalong Gu, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States), NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (United States); Bin Zhang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Khalil Ahmad, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States), NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (United States); Yan Bai, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
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The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was successfully launched on November 18, 2017, onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-20 (NOAA-20) satellite. After the initial adjustment of the calibration coefficients called F-PRDICTED LUTs, the F-PREDICTED LUT has been set to a constant level for each detector in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) after April of 2018. Meanwhile, the NOAA VIIRS SDR team has been checking the validity of the F-PREDICTED LUT by comparing with the lunar calibration coefficients (F-factors), Deep Convective Cloud (DCC), and extended Simultaneous Nadir Observations (SNOx) trends. Recently, small but meaningful upward trends were observed in some RSB F-factors and an update of the NOAA-20 VIIRS F-PREDICTED LUT was proposed to replace the current constant F-factors for M1-M6 and I1.
12232-28
Author(s): Kevin A. Twedt, Tiejun Chang, Amit Angal, Ning Lei, Junqiang Sun, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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The VIIRS instrument on the NOAA-20 satellite continues to have excellent performance in its reflective solar bands (RSB), with detector gains changing by less than 0.5% over the first four years of the mission. The calibration of the RSB for NASA’s Collection 2 Level 1B product relies primarily on data from the on-board solar diffuser (SD). In this paper, we describe a recent calibration algorithm update that includes corrections to the long-term SD gain based on regularly scheduled lunar observations, which will allow for more accurate tracking of the long-term NOAA-20 VIIRS RSB gain in the future.
12232-29
Author(s): Xiangqian Wu, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (United States); Fangfang Yu, Haifeng Qian, Hyelim Yoo, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
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Six channels of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sense radiance in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectrum. Two ABI have been launched and in service, one with GOES-16 at 75.2oW and the other with GOES-17 at 137.2oW. Unlike the GOES infrared channels that have had onboard calibration since the 1970’s, ABI is the first GOES instrument that is equipped with onboard calibration for its RSB. This paper reviews the operational calibration of the ABI VNIR channels, including initial post-launch calibration, correction for elevation angle variation, and correction for azimuth (beta) angle variation. GOES-17 suffers from a compromised cooling subsystem such that the instrument temperature, including that for the VNIR Focal Plane Module, varies more than designed. The impact and mitigation of this thermal stress will also be described. Finally, GOES-18 will be launched in 1 March 2022. It is expected that some preliminary calibration results of GOES-18 will be available for discussion. Declaimer: The scientific results and conclusions, as well as any views or opinions expressed herein, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of NOAA or the Department of Commerce.
12232-30
Author(s): Fangfang Yu, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Xiangqian Wu, NOAA Ctr. for Weather and Climate Prediction (NCWCP) (United States); Hyelim Yoo, Haifeng Qian, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
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The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument is the key payload onboard NOAA’s series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R) that provides high-quality earth imagery to improve the weather forecasts and environmental change studies over the Western Hemisphere. GOES-16 was launched on 19 November 2016 and became the GOES-East satellite at 75.2 West on 18 December 2017. As the first satellite in the series, it overcame a number of anomalies in the first few years of operation but has performed well since the calibration was stabilized in April 2019. On the other hand, GOES-17, launched on 1 March 2018 and became GOES-West at 137.2 West on 12 February 2019, suffered a malfunction of the cooling system, which called for quite a different operation and calibration configurations. This talk is a summary of the on-orbit radiometric calibration performances for the GOES-16/17 ABI Infrared (IR) channels. The GOES-16 IR radiance is well calibrated and very stable at various temporal and spatial scales after the two major IR ground system updates in its early in-orbit time. The overall radiometric calibration accuracy of GOES-17 IR channels during the stable period is comparable with that of GOES-16. One exception is that the bias to the reference is relatively large for GOES-17 Ch16 due to the shift of its spectral response function caused by the elevated operational temperature. This talk will also include the impacts of the major calibration events for the GOES-17 ABI IR data after its operation, including the implementation of the predictive calibration (pCal) algorithm in July 2019 to improve the radiometric calibration accuracy at satellite night time, salvaged imagery with the cooling timeline in the peak thermal stress days around the eclipse seasons, change of FPM set-point temperatures in late 2021 and early 2022, and the large-scale best detector select (BDS) updates in December 2021.
Session 7: Landsat 9
Session Chair: Jeffrey S. Czapla-Myers, Wyant College of Optical Sciences (United States)
12232-31
Author(s): Julia A. Barsi, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Esad Micijevic, U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Matthew Montanaro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Simon J. Hook, NASA (United States), Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Nina G. Raqueno, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States); Kurtis Thome, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Cody Anderson, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)
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Landsat-9, launched on September 27, 2021, carries the Thermal Infrared Sensor-2 (TIRS-2). The TIRS-2 instrument is a close copy of the Landsast-8 TIRS instrument; it is a two spectral-band, pushbroom sensor with three Sensor Chip Assemblies (SCAs) that cover the 15-degree field-of-view. The primary radiometric change between the instruments is the addition of baffling in the TIRS-2 telescope to mitigate the stray light issue that has plagued the radiometric quality of Landsat-8 TIRS. Landsat-9 completed a three-month commissioning phase in January 2022 and has been operational since Feb 2022. This paper will present the on-orbit radiometric performance of the Landsat-9 TIRS-2 instrument.
12232-32
Author(s): Michael J. Choate, U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Rajagopalan Rengarajan, Jim Storey, Mark Lubke, KBR, Inc. (United States)
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Landsat 9 (L9) was launched on September 27, 2021 from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California. The USGS released both Level-1 data, geometrically orthorectified and radiometrically calibrated imagery in digital numbers that can be scaled to Top-of-Atmosphere reflectance, and Level-2 data, geometrically orthorectified and radiometrically calibrated surface reflectance imagery, to the public on February 10,2022. From launch to early January of 2022, the satellite and its two instruments, the Operational Land Imager-2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Land Imagery-2 (TIRS-2), were in their commissioning phase, updating key radiometric and geometric calibration parameters for both the spacecraft and the instruments. Upon release of the data to the public, calibration parameters were updated from their pre-launch values, providing the user community with fully calibrated products. Calibration parameters of the sensors and the spacecraft continued to be monitored to ensure the data released to the public is of the same high quality as previous Landsat data products. This paper discusses the geometric operational calibration procedures and results for the L9 spacecraft and its instruments during this operational time frame.
12232-33
Author(s): Esad Micijevic, U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Julia A. Barsi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Md. Obaidul Haque, U.S. Geological Survey (United States), KBR, Inc. (United States); Cody Anderson, U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Kurtis Thome, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Dennis Helder, U.S. Geological Survey (United States), KBR, Inc. (United States)
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The Landsat 9 satellite was launched on September 27, 2021 to continue systematic imaging of the entire Earth’s land surface every 8 days together with the Landsat 8. Landsat 9 carries the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2), which is practically a copy of the Landsat 8 OLI, and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2). In this paper we demonstrate the excellent radiometric performance of OLI-2 over its first several months of operations on orbit. On-board calibrator data was used to assess the sensor’s radiometric performance characteristics, such as radiometric stability, signal-to-noise ratio, uniformity and bias stability. OLI-2 derived top-of-atmosphere reflectance was compared with Landsat 8 OLI.
12232-34
Author(s): Raviv Levy, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Kurtis Thome, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Operational Land Imager2 (OLI2) on board Landsat 9 enables new on-orbit radiometric characterization modes. One of these new characterizations uses the OLI2 on-orbit calibration devices observations while toggling the detector select maps from the operational setting to cycle through all possible detectors. Another special characterization mode for OLI2 was the addition of the stim-lamp non-linearity characterization collects. In this paper and presentation, we present the results from these new characterization capabilities that extended the dynamic range of the non-linearity characterization as well as the on-orbit radiometric characteristics for the full set of focal plane detectors.
12232-35
Author(s): Norvik Voskanian, Brian N. Wenny, Mohammad H. Tahersima, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Kurtis Thome, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Combining images from multiple Earth Observing (EO) satellites increases the temporal resolution of the data; overcoming the limitations imposed by low revisit time and cloud coverage. However, this requires an inter-calibration process, to ensure that there is no radiometric difference in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) observations and to quantify any offset in the respective instruments. In addition, combining vicarious calibration processes to the inter calibration of instruments can provide a useful mechanism to validate and compare data from multiple sensors. The Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) provides automated surface and top-of atmosphere reflectance data from multiple participating ground sites that can be used for instrument vicarious calibration. We present comparative analysis of Landsat 9 Operational Land Imager-2 (OLI-2) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensors and validate the data by comparing them to measurements from RadCalNet sites as a quantitative inter-calibration approach. The presented process provides SI-traceable inter calibration methodology and quantifies the offset and uncertainty in the OLI and MSI instruments to assess if the data can be reliably cross corelated and used by the scientific community.
12232-36
Author(s): Thomas U. Kampe, Ball Aerospace (United States)
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The Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) is flying aboard the Landsat 9 satellite. OLI-2 has nine spectral bands in the solar reflective region and a GSD of 30 m from a 705 km altitude for all bands except the panchromatic band, which has a 15 m GSD. OLI-2 is the second in a series of instruments. Its predecessor OLI, on Landsat 8 satellite, launched in 2013. The OLI-2 telescope alignment was completed in 2017. We summarize the telescope as-built performance in addition to a comparison to OLI. Performance parameters discussed include measurement of EFL, MTF, throughput, polarization and pointing.
Session 8: PACE OCI
Session Chair: Bertrand Fougnie, EUMETSAT (Germany)
12232-37
Author(s): Gerhard Meister, Joseph J. Knuble, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Leland H. Chemerys, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Hyeungu Choi, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States); Nicholas R. Collins, Telophase Corp. (United States); William B. Cook, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Robert E. Eplee, SAIC (United States); Ulrik B. Gliese, KBR, Inc. (United States); Eric T. Gorman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Kim Jepsen, Samuel Kitchen-McKinley, Jeffrey McIntire, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Frederick S. Patt, SAIC (United States); Kenneth J. Squire, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); Bradley C. Tse, Microtel LLC (United States); Eugene Waluschka, Stellar Solutions Inc. (United States); Jeremy P. Werdell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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This paper provides a first look at the initial tests of the system level test campaign of the flight unit of the ‘Ocean Color Instrument’ (OCI), the primary payload of NASA’s ‘Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystem’ (PACE) mission. The PACE mission will provide global top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements at ~1km spatial, and continue several climate data records provided by heritage instruments. OCI will provide a wider spectral range (340nm to 2260nm) than heritage sensors and hyperspectral sampling for wavelengths below 890nm. The expected launch date of the PACE mission is January 2024.
12232-38
Author(s): Jacob K. Hedelius, Kenneth J. Squire, James Q. Peterson, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); Eric T. Gorman, Gerhard Meister, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
12232-40
Author(s): Kenneth J. Squire, Jacob K. Hedelius, James Q. Peterson, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); Eric T. Gorman, Gerhard Meister, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Session 9: Vicarious Calibration I
Session Chair: Amit Angal, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
12232-41
Author(s): Brandon Russell, Christopher N. Durell, Jeffrey Holt, Labsphere, Inc. (United States); David N. Conran, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States); Stephen J. Schiller, Raytheon Technologies Corp. (United States)
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Labsphere has created automated vicarious calibration sites using convex mirror technology in the new FLARE (Field Line-of-sight Automated Radiance Exposure) Network. FLARE has been operational for over two years, with network expansion and performance validation against industry standards and common methods for calibration and validation (cal/val) of 350-2500nm optical Earth Observation Systems (EOS). The FLARE point sources provide absolute and traceable data, creating a new tool in harmonization of satellites with ground sampling distances (GSD) of 0.3m to 60m. This paper provides an overview of the FLARE system and presents findings and improvements in operational hardware and software performance. Once commissioned, all FLARE nodes have been repeatedly targeting Landsat 8, Landsat 9 (starting 2022), and Sentinel 2A/B. This has produced a multi-year archive of radiometric and spatial calibration imagery. Landsat and Sentinel are the premier reference programs for Earth Observation performance and utilize both on-board calibration equipment and on-ground reference sites such as RadCalNet and PICS. This work compares the results of the FLARE technique to current official radiometric coefficients and spatial performance metrics for these satellites. Discussion will center on new insights gleaned from the archive analysis and FLARE’s contribution to the community’s capability for data fusion, instrument harmonization, and the potential to support the concept of Analysis Ready Data (ARD) for easier data use and information extraction. Finally, the future progression of FLARE sites, capabilities, and activities will be outlined.
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Author(s): Cibele Teixeira Pinto, Pedro Valle de Carvalho e Oliveira, David Aaron, South Dakota State Univ. (United States); Jeffrey Holt, Brandon Russell, Christopher N. Durell, Labsphere, Inc. (United States); Larry Leigh, South Dakota State Univ. (United States)
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The objective of this work is to present the initial results of the Mirror based Empirical Line Method using FLARE system. The data collected in 2020 with the FLARE concomitant with the OLI sensor overpass on board the Landsat-8 were used in the assessment. In summary, the surface reflectance image product available to download for OLI sensor were compared directly with the surface reflectance image resulting from the MELM method. The preliminary results showed the mean error between the surface reflectance from the OLI Level-2 product image and the surface reflectance from the MELM was 0.017, 0.030, and 0.019, for the Blue, NIR and SWIR 2 bands, respectively; and was lower than 0.004 for the Green, Red and SWIR-2 bands (all in reflectance units). These results suggest the MELM technique using FLARE has great potential for reflectance surface evaluation of orbital sensors.
12232-43
Author(s): Rantaj Singh, Jeffrey S. Czapla-Myers, Nikolaus J. Anderson, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
12232-44
Author(s): Rantaj Singh, Jeffrey S. Czapla-Myers, Nikolaus J. Anderson, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
Session 10: Vicarious Calibration II
12232-45
Author(s): Jeffrey S. Czapla-Myers, Nikolaus J. Anderson, Wyant College of Optical Sciences (United States)
12232-46
Author(s): Mohammad H. Tahersima, Brian N. Wenny, Norvik Voskanian, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States), NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Kurtis Thome, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Spatiotemporal resolution of earth surface images is significant for many applications including real-time hazard monitoring and agriculture. SI-traceable intercomparison between concurrent earth imaging instruments can help enable harmonization of data collected by those instruments, to improve spatiotemporal resolution of their collective data. To that end, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiated the Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) to provide automated surface and top-of-atmosphere TOA reflectance data from multiple participating ground sites to the worldwide user community. Here, we report SI-traceable intercomparison between Landsat 9 and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-2) using RadCalNet as a common reference.
12232-47
Author(s): David R. Doelling, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States); Prathana Khakurel, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Rajendra Bhatt, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States); Conor Haney, Benjamin Scarino, Arun Gopalan, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
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Multi-year Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS , NPP-VIIRS and Metoesat-7 observations over Libya-4 show very similar TOA reflectance temporal variability. Although, the surface reflectance and atmospheric column varies seasonally, the inter-annual variability of the seasonal cycle should be small. During 2013, the Libya-4 TOA reflectance was found to be greater than usual in all 4 satellite records. Preliminary comparisons with mean wind speed and aerosol optical depth (AOD) indicate that the year 2013 is marked by elevated levels of both conditions. The goal of this study is to tie the Libya-4 visible reflectance inter-annual variability with corresponding meteorological measurements to further improve the characterization of the site.
12232-48
Author(s): David R. Doelling, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States); Conor Haney, Forrest Wrenn, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Rajendra Bhatt, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States); Benjamin Scarino, Arun Gopalan, Lusheng Liang, Prathana Khakurel, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
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The VIIRS coincident I1 and M5 TOA reflectance measurements provide the optimal opportunity to validate Spectral Band Adjustment Factors (SBAFs)for cross-calibration of visible imagers over many surface and cloud conditions. The CERES project maintains SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, Hyperion, and radiative transfer model-based scene-stratified hyper-spectral reflectance measurements that can be convolved with sensor pair SRFs to compute the corresponding SBAF. Preliminary results indicate that the SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 based SBAFs for the VIIRS I1 and M5 band pairs may differ by 1.5% for some scene conditions. Because most of the modern GEOs visible band SRFs encompass the VIIRS I1 band SRF, these evaluations are critical to ensure that the MODIS, VIIRS, and GEO cloud and flux retrievals are consistent.
Poster Session
Conference attendees are invited to view a collection of posters within the topics of Nanoscience + Engineering, Organic Photonics + Electronics, and Optical Engineering + Applications. Enjoy light refreshments, ask questions, and network with colleagues in your field. Authors of poster papers will be present to answer questions concerning their papers. Attendees are required to wear their conference registration badges to the poster session.

Poster authors, visit Poster Presentation Guidelines for set-up instructions.
12232-49
Author(s): Xuming Shi, Lingjia Gu, Ci Gao, Mingda Jiang, Jilin Univ. (China)
12232-50
Author(s): Guangan Yu, Lingjia Gu, Ci Gao, Mingda Jiang, Jilin Univ. (China)
12232-51
Author(s): Sihan Hu, Lingjia Gu, Ci Gao, Mingda Jiang, Jilin Univ. (China)
12232-52
Author(s): Ci Gao, Lingjia Gu, Ruizhi Ren, Mingda Jiang, Jilin Univ. (China)
12232-53
Author(s): Jong-Min Yeom, Seungtaek Jeong, Jong-Sung Ha, Korea Aerospace Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)
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In the case of North Korea, it is a politically, economically and socially isolated country. Therefore, obtaining agricultural information about North Korea (classification of major crops, estimation of production of major crops) is quite limited. In addition to the serious food situation in North Korea due to recent disasters (drought, flood, pests and diseases), the vulnerability to climate change is also high due to poor agricultural infrastructure. Furthermore, in the case of North Korea, which has a high external food supply rate, difficulties in supplying food to neighboring countries due to the corona pandemic situation recently. Therefore, scientific and quantitative agricultural information estimation and prediction technology on major crops in North Korea is required. Above all, it is necessary to develop a monitoring system that can quickly identify the agricultural environment of North Korea in the event of a disaster (drought, flood, pests). Satellite information is the only way to obtain scientific information about inaccessible areas such as North Korea. In this study, early prediction of rice yields over North Korea was performed using geostationary satellite and deep learning method. According to the results, the prediction accuracy of rice yield is reliable when comparing with FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) survey data, meaning that it is possible to obtain agricultural information of inaccessible North Korea using satellite and deep learning method.
12232-54
Author(s): Amit Angal, Junqiang Sun, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Sherry Li, Carlos Pérez Díaz, Xu Geng, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
12232-55
Author(s): Ashish Shrestha, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Sherry Li, Truman M. Wilson, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
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VIIRS has 22 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Among these 22 VIIRS bands, the day and night band (DNB) is a visible/near-infrared panchromatic band. It has three gain stages: low gain stage (LGS), medium gain stage (MGS), and high gain stage (HGS), which allows us to study the Earth at any times of day or night. With its high gain stage, DNB can also observe reflected lunar radiances at night. This research uses numerous daily observations of the reflected lunar radiances at night from Dome-C to investigate the long-term calibration stability of DNB and the calibration consistency between the two VIIRS sensors. The VIIRS DNB measured lunar radiances are compared to those predicted by the GIRO (GSICS Implementation of the ROLO) model.
12232-56
Author(s): Jong-Sung Ha, Jong-Min Yeom, Korea Aerospace Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kwon-ho Lee, Gangneung-Wonju National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
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The types of aerosols in the atmosphere are becoming more diverse, and the mechanisms by which aerosols affect climate change and atmosphere are becoming increasingly complex. In particular, as China's industrial scale grows and activities become more active, the frequency of occurrence of fine dust as well as yellow dust blowing from the deserts in China is increasing. Due to the improvement of the temporal-spatial resolution of geostationary satellite, many studies on aerosol retrieval have been conducted and algorithms are still being improved. In this study, Aerosol Optical Thickness(AOT) was retrieved using Geo-KOMSAT-2A(GK-2A) satellite launched in 2018, and operated by the Korea Meteorological Satellite Center in South Korea. GK-2A is equipped with 16 bands, including 4 visible bands, and is taking pictures of the East Asia region every 2 minutes. We utilized visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared bands on AOT retrieval. These bands are simultaneously affected by atmospheric scattering and surface reflection, so the contribution of each element can be simulated using the atmospheric Radiation Transfer Model (RTM model). The algorithm in this study consists of three steps. The first is to generate Look-up Table using RTM model of SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer), the second is the atmospheric correction reflectivity calculation process. In particularly, when estimating the surface reflectance, we newly applied BRDF-based background reflectance since the radiometric contributions of land surface were processed as a non-Lambertian scattering characteristics in reality. Finally, AOT was retrieved, and the results were compared and verified with ground measurement data.
12232-57
Author(s): Alexey Grigoriev, Eduardo Trifoni, Joice Mathew, James Gilbert, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Carmine Mastrandrea, Massimo Cosi, Cristiano Simonelli, Leonardo S.p.A. (Italy)
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Earth-observing Near-Infrared hyper-spectral imager should have Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) down to 10m from orbit of about 600km. To provide good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Ground Motion Compensation methodic (GMC) can be used: FOV is frozen during exposure time to Earth’s surface spot despite orbital movement. But either complicated precise mechanical pointing system or precise spacecraft rotation is needed. Application of fast avalanche photodiode, like SAPHIRA by Leonardo company, can allow to avoid GMC complexities. Estimations show that with the constant nadir pointing and with typical radiance at the top-of-atmosphere the SNR will be about one hundred.
12232-58
Author(s): David I. Moyer, The Aerospace Corp. (United States); Jeffrey McIntire, Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States); Xiaoxiong Xiong, NASA (United States)
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The Joint Polar Satellite System 4 (JPSS-4) is the follow-on for the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and JPSS-1 through -3 missions. A primary sensor on both JPSS and S-NPP is the Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that provides Sensor Data Records (SDRs) of calibrated Earth observations for Environmental Data Record (EDR) products. Polarized Earth scenes have radiometric bias errors within the SDRs that must be corrected in some EDR algorithms. This paper discusses the JPSS-4 VIIRS polarization sensitivity results and comparisons with heritage sensors.
Conference Chair
NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Conference Chair
NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Conference Chair
Xingfa Gu
Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS (China)
Program Committee
Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
Wyant College of Optical Sciences (United States)
Program Committee
Sandia National Labs. (United States)
Program Committee
Labsphere, Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
EUMETSAT (Germany)
Program Committee
NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Program Committee
Raytheon Intelligence & Space (United States)
Program Committee
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Raytheon Intelligence & Space (United States)