This course provides a brief review of general theory, architecture and operation of CCD and CMOS imagers. In depth discussions then focus on four key operational imager features which collectively limit overall sensor performance (i.e., charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge readout). The course will show how these parameters govern most measurements such as quantum efficiency (QE), modulation transfer function (MTF), charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and read noise measurements. Absolute test tools are presented that measure these characteristics. We will review at some length the ‘photon transfer technique’ which has become an indispensable standard test tool for the imaging community in evaluating the quality of a camera system and calibration and optimization needs. We present correlated double sampling (CDS) which is a mandatory signal processing method for imagers that delivers ultra low noise performance. The course will also take a quick look at future R&D imaging trends and new applications.
- describe theory and operation behind CMOS and CCD arrays
- summarize the four fundamental operational parameters that govern and limit performance
- present laboratory measurement techniques used to optimize performance
- review the ‘photon transfer technique’ required to achieve highest S/N performance possible
- explain how video signals are processed for maximum S/N performance
- explain current and future imaging technologies and applications