The main objective of the conference is to present an updated view of the state-of-the-art in active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques and to provide a playground for scientists coming from different microwave sectors and final application domains. In this context, the conference will offer a platform to exchange ideas and foster applications, which may take advantage from the use of radar and microwave radiometers alone, as well as their joint exploitation and combination with other sensors to take advantage from complementarity of the different techniques (SAR, scatterometer, radiometers, altimeter, GNSS-R).

Particular attention will be given to applications and algorithms, including model based and machine learning algorithms, for exploiting data of operational sensors such as Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3, ALOS2, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed, RADARSAT-2, SAOCOM, AMSR-E/AMSR2, SSMI / SSMIS, SMOS, Metop and SMAP as well as airborne and ground based experiments. Applications based on time series analysis will be addressed as well. In fact, the incoming growing capabilities of the most recent sensors, in terms of temporal revisit time and electromagnetic spectrum sampling (in active and passive mode), offer a potential tool for new environmental applications especially related to the monitoring of natural disasters (such as earthquake, flood, drought, landslides, avalanches), environmental issues, and to the food and energy challenges, which can particularly benefit from multi-temporal image analysis.

Contributions are solicited on the following and related topics for both applications and processing techniques:

  • application of microwave sensing to natural hazard, risk prevention and disaster management
  • application of microwave sensing to food security, energy and biodiversity
  • microwave (active and passive) electromagnetic modelling and simulation in different scenarios (land and ocean, atmosphere)
  • inversion algorithms for the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters from microwave data
  • microwave data (radar and radiometer) processing techniques
  • active and passive data merging, disaggregation approaches
  • machine learning algorithms for classification and retrieval applications
  • polarimetric methods, techniques and applications
  • SAR interferometry techniques and applications
  • bistatic radar, including GNSS reflectometry
  • radar altimeter and scatterometer techniques and applications
  • microwave remote sensing from UAVs.

  • Two joint sessions will be organized with the conferences “Image and Signal Processing” and “Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystem and Hydrology”. In the latter, contributions are solicited for the topic “monitoring of soil moisture and vegetation biomass by using optical and microwave data.”;
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    Conference 11861

    Microwave Remote Sensing: Data Processing and Applications

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    • Remote Sensing Plenary Presentation I: Monday
    • Security+Defence Plenary Presentation
    • Remote Sensing Plenary Presentation II: Wednesday
    • Welcome and Introduction
    • Soil Moisture and Biomass
    • Machine Learning
    • SAR Interferometry
    • SAR Interferometry and Ground-based Radiometry
    • Poster Session
    In addition to the pre-recorded on-demand presentations available for the presentations listing below, this conference will also hold a live-stream broadcast of its presentations.

    Pose your questions and join us for this unique opportunity for some interesting networking and discussion; plan to attend the conference live broadcast!
    If you are unable to take advantage of the live session, pre-recorded on-demand presentations will remain available through the digital forum duration.

    Wednesday, 15 September: 13:40 to 16:30 hrs CEST
    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    Detailed schedule is listed in each conference session below.
    Link to join this live broadcast will be available to registered participants on this website starting on Wednesday, 15 September at 13:25 hrs CEST.
    Remote Sensing Plenary Presentation I: Monday
    Livestream: 13 September 2021 • 16:30 - 17:30 CEST
    Author(s): Pierluigi Silvestrin, European Space Research and Technology Ctr. (Netherlands)
    On demand | Presented Live 13 September 2021
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    In recent years the Earth observation (EO) programmes of the European Space Agency (ESA) have been dramatically extended. They now include activities that cover the entire spectrum of the wide EO domain, encompassing both upstream and downstream developments, i.e. related to flight elements (e.g. sensors, satellites, supporting technologies) and to ground elements (e.g. operations, data exploitation, scientific applications and services for institutions, businesses and citizens). In the field of EO research missions, ESA continues the successful series of Earth Explorer (EE) missions. The last additions to this series include missions under definition, namely Harmony (the tenth EE) and four candidates for the 11th EE: CAIRT (Changing Atmosphere InfraRed Tomography Explorer), Nitrosat (reactive nitrogen at the landscape scale), SEASTAR (ocean submesoscale dynamics and atmosphere-ocean processes), WIVERN (Wind Velocity Radar Nephoscope). On the smaller programmatic scale of the Scout missions, ESA is also developing two new missions: ESP-MACCS (Earth System Processes Monitored in the Atmosphere by a Constellation of CubeSats) and HydroGNSS (hydrological climate variables from GNSS reflectometry). Another cubesat-scale mission of technological flavor is also being developed, Φ-sat-2. Furthermore, in collaboration with NASA, ESA is defining a Mass change and Geosciences International Constellation (MAGIC) for monitoring gravity variations on a spatio-temporal scale that enables applications at regional level, continuing - with vast enhancements - the successful series of gravity mapping missions flown in the last two decades. The key features of all these missions will be outlined, with emphasis on those relying on optical payloads. ESA is also developing a panoply of new missions for other European institutions, namely Eumetsat and the European Union, which will be briefly reviewed too. These operational-type missions rely on established EO techniques. Nonetheless some new technologies are applied to expand functional and performance envelopes. A brief resume’ of their main features will be provided, with emphasis on the new Sentinel missions for the EU Copernicus programme.
    Security+Defence Plenary Presentation
    Livestream: 14 September 2021 • 09:00 - 10:00 CEST
    Author(s): Patrick R. Body, Tecnobit (Spain)
    On demand | Presented Live 14 September 2021
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    Optronic systems for the defence market are available from the UV to the LWIR wavelengths but the ideal band very much depends on the particular application and their environment. This lecture will cover some of the more important features of each type of optronic sensor and using examples from the experience gained over many years of system development by Tecnobit for Airborne, Navel and Land sectors, suggests some broad recommendations.
    Remote Sensing Plenary Presentation II: Wednesday
    Livestream: 15 September 2021 • 09:00 - 10:00 CEST
    Author(s): Adriano Camps, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (Spain)
    On demand | Presented Live 15 September 2021
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    Today, space is experiencing a revolution: from large space agencies, multimillion dollar budgets, and big satellite missions to spin-off companies, moderate budgets, and fleets of small satellites. Some have called this the “democratization” of space, in the sense that it is now more accessible than it was just a few years ago. To a large extent, this revolution has been fostered on one side by the standardization of the platforms’ mechanical interfaces, and on the other side by the technology developments coming from mobile communications. Standard platform’s mechanical interfaces have led to standard orbital deployers, and new launching capabilities. The technology developed for cell phones has brought more computing resources, with less power consumption and volume. Small satellites are used as pure technology demonstrators, for targeted scientific missions, mostly Earth Observation, some for Astronomy, and they are starting to enter in the field of communications, as huge satellite constellations are now becoming more possible. In this lecture, the most widely used nano/microsats form factors, and its main applications will be presented. Then, the main Scientific Earth Observation and Astronomy missions suitable to be boarded in SmallSats will be discussed, also in the context of the rising Constellations of SmallSats for Communication. Finally, the nanosat program at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) will be introduced, and the results of the FSSCAT mission will be presented.
    Welcome and Introduction
    Author(s): Fabio Bovenga, Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell'Ambiente (Italy); Claudia Notarnicola, EURAC (Italy); Nazzareno Pierdicca, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Emanuele Santi, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy)
    On demand
    Soil Moisture and Biomass
    Livestream: 15 September 2021 • 13:30 - 14:30 CEST
    Session Chair: Claudia Notarnicola, EURAC (Italy)
    In addition to the pre-recorded on-demand presentations available for the presentations listing below, this conference session will also hold a live-stream broadcast of its presentations.
    Times listed are Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    13:30 hrs Welcome and Opening Remarks

    13:35 hrs 11861-1: The HydroGNSS GNSS Reflectometry Remote Sensing Mission (Invited Paper)

    13:50 hrs 11861-2: Biomass estimation by means of Sentinel-3 data: a sensitivity analysis

    14:00 hrs 11861-3: Sensitivity to soil moisture by applying a model-based polarimetric decomposition to a time-series of airborne radar L-band data over an agricultural area

    14:10 hrs 11861-4: Flooding risk evaluation over the Agro Pontino area in central Italy by using a combination of satellite data from Copernicus missions

    Break: 14:20 to 14:30

    For timing of sessions 2-4 see the respective session listings.
    Author(s): Nazzareno Pierdicca, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
    On demand
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    HydroGNSS has been selected as the second ESA Scout Earth Observation mission to demonstrate the ability of small satellites to deliver science. This paper summarises the case for HydroGNSS, as developed during its System Consolidation study. HydroGNSS is a high value dual small satellite mission, which will prove new concepts and offer timely climate observations that supplement and complement existing observations and are high in ESA’s Earth Observation scientific priorities. The mission delivers observations of four hydrological Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) using the new technique of GNSS Reflectometry. These will cover the world’s land mass to 25 km resolution, with a 15 day revisit. The variables are soil moisture, inundation or wetlands, freeze / thaw state and above ground biomass.
    Author(s): Davide Comite, Nazzareno Pierdicca, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Maria-Paola Clarizia, Deimos Space UK Ltd. (United Kingdom); Giuseppina De Felice-Proia, Leila Guerriero, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy); Marco Restano, Jerome Benveniste, ESRIN, European Space Agency (Italy)
    On demand
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    Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission designed to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature, ocean color and land color with high resolution and accuracy. The S3 mission is based on a constellation of two (3A and 3B) polar-orbiting satellites and it is designed and operated in the framework of the Copernicus programme, with planned 3C and 3D to ensure continuity. The mission builds up the legacy of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT and particularly CryoSat for the altimeter. Seninel-3A was launched in February 2016 and Seninel-3B in April 2018. They are equipped with a dual-frequency (Ku- and C-band) altimeter and can work both in low resolution (LRM) and SAR mode, the latter being designed to achieve high along-track discrimination. The low-resolution mode exploits conventional pulse-limited altimeter operation at C band. To approximate LRM operation at Ku band, a pseudo low-resolution mode is achieved by properly processing SAR acquisitions. Recently, a new research project funded by the European Space Agency, i.e., ALtimetry for BIOMass (ALBIOM), has been initiated to study the possibility of deriving forest biomass using Sentinel-3 altimetry data. ALBIOM aims at improving biomass global dataset, which is defined and classified as an Essential Climate Variable. In the last two decades, the exploitation of radar altimetry for studying land parameters has received renewed interest, including processing for the characterization of vegetation features and soil moisture. The vegetation cover has two main effects on the nadir backscatter measured by the altimeter. It attenuates the coherent reflection of the soil and add an incoherent volume scattering contribution. The relative weight of the two contributions depends of course form the frequency. To assess in what extent radar altimetry data are sensitive to the presence of vegetation forest, a study of the dynamic of the Sentinel-3 power waveforms with respect to the above ground biomass is needed. More importantly, the way radar waveforms are affected by disturbing land parameters, such as soil moisture, topography and surface roughness, has to be understood. In this work, an analysis considering both high- and low-resolution data made available by the Copernicus hub service is carried out. The sensitivity study of Sentinel-3 altimetry data to forest biomass over Africa is based on calibrated Sentinel-3 waveforms combined in space and time with forest biomass maps and ancillary information on the soil topography derived from a Digital Elevation Model. Comparison among Ku- and C-band waveforms are discussed, highlighting the critical aspect of the correct positioning of the time-tracking window over land, which often appears partly or completely misplaced, determining waveforms either truncated or containing noise only. The detrimental effect of the waveform truncation for the estimation of biomass and the possible mitigation approach has been considered. The study revealed that both waveforms and NRCSs can be sensitive to the presence of biomass in the order of 100-400 tons/ha, even if they can be strongly influenced by the presence of irregular topography within the system footprint. Different sensitivities with respect to the three channels (i.e., bandwidths and resolution modes) have been observed. A study about the use of differential NRCSs, defined as the difference between two different bandwidths, proposed by previous studies, is under investigation. Further research activities also connected to a modelling approach are in progress and will be discussed at the conference.
    Author(s): Giovanni Anconitano, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Marco Lavalle, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Elena Arabini, Ministero dell'Istruzione e della Ricerca (Italy); Nazzareno Pierdicca, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
    On demand
    Author(s): Ilaria Moriero, Giovanni Anconitano, Mario Giannini, Angela Celauro, Maria Antonietta Marsella, Francesco Cioffi, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
    On demand
    Machine Learning
    Livestream: 15 September 2021 • 14:30 - 15:00 CEST
    Session Chair: Nazzareno Pierdicca, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
    In addition to the pre-recorded on-demand presentations available for the presentations listing below, this conference session will also hold a live-stream broadcast of its presentations.
    Times listed are Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    14:30 hrs 11861-5: Soil moisture mapping at high resolution by merging SMAP, Sentinel1 and COSMO SkyMed with the support of machine learning

    14:40 hrs 11861-6: Towards daily snowline observations on glaciers using multi-source and multi-resolution satellite data

    14:50 hrs 118561-8: Unsupervised learning applied to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry datasets for the characterisation of ground motion patterns in northern Germany

    For timing of sessions 1 & 3-4 see the respective session listings.
    Author(s): Emanuele Santi, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy); Fabrizio Baroni, Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy); Giacomo Fontanelli, Alessandro Lapini, Simonetta Paloscia, Simone Pettinato, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy); Simone Pilia, giuliano Ramat, Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy); Leonardo Santurri, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy); Francesca Cigna, Deodato Tapete, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy)
    On demand
    Author(s): Martina Barandun, Mattia Callegari, EURAC (Italy); Ulrich Strasser, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria); Claudia Notarnicola, EURAC (Italy)
    On demand
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    Glacier melt is an important fresh water source. Seasonal changes can have impacting consequences on downstream water resources management. Today’s glacier monitoring lacks an observation-based tool for regional, sub-seasonal observation of glacier mass balance and a quantification of associated meltwater release at high temporal resolution. The snowline on a glacier marks the transition between the ice and snow surface, and is, at the end of the summer, a proxy for the annual glacier mass balance. It was shown that glacier mass balance model simulations closely tied to sub-seasonal snowline observations on optical satellite sensors are robust for the observation date. Recent advances in remote sensing permit efficient and extensive snowline mapping. Different methods automatically discriminate snow over ice on high- to medium-resolution optical satellite images. Other studies rely on lower ground resolution optical imagery to retrieve snow cover fraction at pixel level and produce regional maps of snow cover extent. However, state-of-the-art methods using optical sensors still have important shortcomings, such as cloud-cover related issues. Images acquired by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which are almost insensitive to cloud coverage, have proofed suitable for transient snowline delineation. The combination of SAR and optical data in a complementary way carries a unique potential for a better monitoring of snow depletion on high temporal and spatial resolution. The aim of this work is to map snow cover over glaciers by combining Sentinel-1 SAR, Sentinel-2 multispectral and lower resolution MODIS images. Consecutively, we developed an approach that can automatically handle classification of multi-source and multi-resolution satellite image stacks. This provides a unique solution for continuous snowline mapping since the beginning of the century. With the provided close-to-daily transient snow cover fractions on glacier level, we provide the basis for a new strategy to directly integrate multi-source satellite image classification into glacier mass balance monitoring.
    Author(s): Nicolas Jakob Wagener, Andre Cahyadi Kalia, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Germany)
    On demand
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    The German Ground Motion Service (BBD) is an operational use of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for the monitoring of ground motions in Germany. The current dataset includes millions of measurement points each with an associated deformation time series covering a period of more than four years (2014/15-2019). The systematic analysis and interpretation of this data is still at the beginning. In this work, we are using an unsupervised learning workflow to analyse a subset of the BBD dataset covering two study areas in North Western Germany. Our approach includes a dimensionality reduction step using PCA and an autoencoder followed by a K-Means clustering. We analyse the results taking into consideration the local geology and land use and test the generalization capabilities of our approach.
    SAR Interferometry
    Livestream: 15 September 2021 • 15:00 - 16:00 CEST
    Session Chair: Fabio Bovenga, Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell'Ambiente (Italy)
    In addition to the pre-recorded on-demand presentations available for the presentations listing below, this conference session will also hold a live-stream broadcast of its presentations.
    Times listed are Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    15:00 hrs 11861-9: Interferometric SAR deformation time series: quality index (Invited Paper)

    15:10 hrs 11861-10: DInSAR deformation measurement using active and passive reflectors

    Break: 15:20 to 15:40

    15:40 hrs 11861-11: Obtaining ground deformations by multitemporal DInSAR processing in vicinity of archaeological site “Solnitsata-Provadia”

    15:50 hrs 11861-12: Measurment of earth surface deformation using advanced Differential SAR Interometry: Case study of Al Hoceїma region in Morocco

    For timing of sessions 1-2 & 4 see the respective session listings.
    Author(s): Yismaw Wassie, S. Mohammad Mirmazloumi, Oriol Monserrat, Ctr. Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (Spain); Bruno Crippa, Department of Earth Sciences, Section of Geophysics, University of Milan (Italy); Riccardo Palamà, Anna Barra, Michele Crosetto, Ctr. Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (Spain)
    On demand
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    Estimating unknown absolute phase from a wrapped observation is a challenging and ill-posed problem that possibly leads to misinterpretation of interferometric SAR (InSAR) deformation results. In this study, we introduce a quality index to cluster post-phase unwrapping multi-master InSAR timeseries outputs based on the estimated phase residuals and redundancy of network of interferograms. The index is supposed to indicate the reliability of a timeseries, including the identification of persistent scatterers (PSs) possibly affected by phase unwrapping jumps. The algorithm was tested on two Sentinel-1 interferometric datasets with 622,991 and 95,398 PSs, generated from the PSI processing chain PSIG of the geomatics division of CTTC. Promising result have been achieved-especially in identifying erroneous PSs with phase unwrapping jumps. Along with existing temporal phase consistency checking algorithms, the approach could provide rich information toward a better interpretation of the deformation timeseries results.
    Author(s): Guido Luzi, Pedro Espín-López, Michele Crosetto, Oriol Monserrat, Anna Barra, Qi Gao, Ctr. Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (Spain)
    On demand
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    Passive Corner Reflectors (PCR) are often used in spaceborne SAR interferometry as benchmarks. The main goal of the use of PCRs in DInSAR deformation monitoring is to provide pixels with a high and stable response to be used as reference to estimate the deformation when natural persistent scatters are not available. The use of PCRs at C band is not always suitable, especially in areas as glaciers, snow covered regions, and mountain slopes, where accessibility and PCRs’ installation can be very time and cost consuming, or where harsh weather conditions can jeopardize their performance. An alternative to PCRs is Active Reflectors (AR), more compact and lighter apparatus, which need a power source, and are often susceptible to the natural air temperature variations which can affect the stability of their response. The study presented here reports on the use of an AR designed to operate with Sentinel-1 SAR data, installed with some PCRs aimed at comparing the performance of the two approaches. The AR was designed and implemented to provide a fair performance/cost benefit to make feasible the setup of a dense network. Images covering almost one year have been processed to compare the performance of a prototype installed close to our center. A real campaign was also carried out installing an AR together with a network of PCRs in a site, located in a mountain area of Andorra, where a landslide occurred in 2018, and where a monitoring based on DInSAR is ongoing.
    Author(s): Hristo Nikolov, Space Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Mila S. Atanasova-Zlatareva, National Institute in Geophysics, Geodesy, and Geography (Bulgaria)
    On demand
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    The Differential Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique provides fast and accurate means for detecting small displacements of the Earth’s surface having a magnitude in centimeters range. Applying this method monitoring of ground movements of natural or anthropogenic origin are reliably registered. The information is produced from the interferograms resulting from purposely processing the phase signal present in two SAR images from different dates over the one and the same area. The motivation behind this research was to study the crustal deformations that pose treat to the archaeological site “Solnitsa-Provadia” located in the area Mirovo salt deposit near the town Provadia, NE Bulgaria. It needs to be mentioned that the said monument is dated back to VI-V millennium BC and includes the remnants of an ancient city near Provadia. The registered deformations in the region are due to natural and anthropogenic factors. The mentioned factors have undisputable negative impact on the preservation of this historical site and justify the necessity of regular monitoring of the ongoing geodynamic processes. In this research the authors provide results based on multitemporal processing of freely accessible SAR data from Sentinel-1 mission by ESA. The information concerning the detected surface deformations was obtained by the DInSAR method. The multitemporal processing included creation of set of interferometric images from several periods with time span of four months. This interval was selected since it was needed to decrease the decorrelation of the phase signal caused by the vegetation and noise introduced by the atmosphere. In order to increase the reliability of the output information SAR data from ascending and descending orbits were processed which provided two different stereoscopic-like views to the investigated area. The results also have been compared with the trends of ground motions using data from repeated multi-year results geodetic measurements made at Mirovo geodynamic network.
    Author(s): Khalid Ghzala, Desire Muhire, Yassine Tounsi, Abdelkrim Nassim, Univ. Chouaïb Doukkali (Morocco)
    On demand
    SAR Interferometry and Ground-based Radiometry
    Livestream: 15 September 2021 • 16:00 - 16:30 CEST
    Session Chair: Emanuele Santi, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy)
    In addition to the pre-recorded on-demand presentations available for the presentations listing below, this conference session will also hold a live-stream broadcast of its presentations.
    Times listed are Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    16:00 hrs 11862-15: SAR time series, optical data and archival documentation for the identification of hypogea as a possible element of vulnerability in Rome

    16:10 hrs 11862-14: Method of operational forecasting of aircraft icing conditions by means of atmosphere microwave remote sensing

    16:20 hrs 11861-13: Identification and analysis of nonlinear trends in InSAR displacement time series

    For timing of sessions 1-3 see the respective session listings.
    Author(s): Alexander Petrovich Shelekhov, Evgeniya A. Shelekhova, Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems (Russian Federation); G. Ilin, V. Bykov, V. Stempkovsky, A. Shishikin, Institute of Applied Astronomy (Russian Federation); Peter Rutkevich, IKI (Russian Federation)
    On demand
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    Aircraft icing is a dangerous meteorological phenomenon affecting flight safety. Despite the fact that modern airplanes and helicopters are equipped with anti-icing systems, when assessing flight safety, one constantly has to take into account the possibility of ice accumulation on the surfaces of the aircraft during the flight. The modern approach to diagnostics and forecasting of aircraft icing is based on the data of altitude temperature profiles, T(h) and relative humidity RH (T-RH criterion). In addition to the RH value, air humidity can also be characterized by the integrated water vapor content (Q, g/cm2) measured in real time by a microwave remote sensing system (MRSS). The paper presents the results of the analysis of atmospheric parameters at the Geophysical Observatory, IMCES SB RAS, Tomsk, obtained with MRSS, at intervals that coincide in time with the phenomena of aircraft icing recorded by the local aerodrome meteorological service. The observations were carried out in the autumn-winter period, which corresponds to the climatic winter in the Tomsk region, when conditions for the icing phenomenon of the aircraft are most likely to appear. The measurements of the T(h) and Q values were carried out using MRSS consisting of a two-frequency radiometric system RMS-1 and meteorological temperature profiler MTP-5PE. Surface values of meteorological parameters were recorded by the universal meteorological station Vaisala WXT-520. Information on the presence of actual aircraft icing and the cloud base were obtained from the data of the Aerodrome Meteorological Information and Measurement System (AMIS-RF) of the Tomsk International Airport. The results of diagnostics of diurnal variations of meteorological parameters, height of the cloud base, total water vapor content and temperature profile are presented. A statistical analysis of the integrated water vapor content in the periods when aircraft icing was observed according to the AMIS-RF data of the Tomsk airport is presented. The scientific foundations of the method for remote forecasting of aircraft icing using real time MRSS data are formulated. It is shown that the value of the integrated water vapor recorded in real time by MRSS can be used as a predictor of the phenomenon of aircraft icing in the clouds, along with the temperature profile T(h). A quantitative criterion for the occurrence of conditions leading to aircraft icing (Q>4 kg/m2) and a method for determining such conditions with the help of real time ground-based radiometric remote sensing of the atmosphere are formulated. A new approach to diagnostics and forecasting of aircraft icing based on T(h) and Q data is theoretically substantiated in this paper. It is shown that the proposed quantitative criterion for the occurrence of icing conditions corresponds to the T-RH approach to predicting aircraft icing.
    Author(s): Angela Celauro, Jose Antonio Palenzuela Baena, Ilaria Moriero, Maria Antonietta Marsella, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy)
    On demand
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    In Rome, the expansion of urbanization, the increase of population density, and the subsequent escalation of traffic are common factors in road infrastructure vulnerability, especially when these aspects coexist with the presence of ancient subterranean environments, such as ancient tuff quarries. These wide networks of subterranean structures are often in endangered preservation conditions, also because their position and extension are only partially known. Furthermore, the aerial bombing attacks that the city of Rome experienced during the II World War are considered here as another critical factor favouring ground instability processes. In the present research, the joint exploitation of SAR dataset, "historical photograms", and vectorization of historical records have been applied on circumstanced test areas to estimate the quarries' dimension and typology and to evaluate their conservation state related to these anthropogenic aspects. The aims were addressed mainly with the twofold use of the SAR Cosmo-SkyMed dataset, from the processing of both intensity and phase information contents. The intensity has been used to distinguish low and high backscattering anomalies attributed to the presence of open cast and subterranean structures. The phase information was processed from SAR long time-series, through the PSInSAR method, to test its performance in monitoring cavity stability state. The extraction of Permanent Scatterers was carried out to evaluate its suitability to detect entities of displacement through a wide time span, especially using interpolation maps, to identifying patterns related to ancient hypogea. This stratification of information has been analyzed around endangered areas. Using this method to analyze the features mentioned, a relationship between these anthropic factors and sinkholes was revealed.
    Author(s): Fabio Bovenga, Alberto Refice, Guido Pasquariello, Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell'Ambiente, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy); Raffaele Nutricato, Davide Nitti, GAP S.r.l. (Italy)
    On demand
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    Multi-temporal SAR interferometry (MTInSAR) allows analysing wide areas, identifying critical ground instabilities, and studying the phenomenon evolution in a long time-scale. Nowadays satellite SAR constellations provide datasets covering time periods of several years with short revisit times, which allow investigating ground displacements showing non-linear kinematics. These are particularly interesting since they include warning signals related to pre-failure of natural and artificial structures. Recently, approaches have been proposed for recognising and analysing nonlinear displacements, which use different strategies. The authors have introduced two innovative indexes for characterising MTInSAR time series: one relies on the fuzzy entropy and measures the disorder in a time series, the other performs a statistical test based on the Fisher distribution for selecting the polynomial model that more reliably approximate the displacement trend. This work reviews the theoretical formulation of these indexes and evaluate their performances by simulating time series with different characteristics in terms of kinematic, level of noise, signal length and temporal sampling. Finally, the proposed procedures are used for analysing displacement time series derived by processing real datasets acquired by both Sentinel-1 and COSMO-SkyMed constellations. In particular the hilly villages of Pomarico and Montescaglioso have been investigated, which are located in Southern Italian Apennine (Basilicata region), in an area where several landslides occurred in the recent past, causing damages to houses, commercial buildings, and infrastructures. The MTInSAR displacement time series have been analysed by using the proposed methods, searching for nonlinear trends that are possibly related to relevant ground instabilities and, in particular, to potential early warning signals for the landslide events affecting Mtescaglioso in 2013 and Pomarico in 2019. Acknowledgments - This work was supported in part by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, D.D. 2261 del 6.9.2018, Programma Operativo Nazionale Ricerca e Innovazione (PON R&I) 2014–2020 under Project OT4CLIMA.
    Poster Session
    Author(s): Tomohisa Konishi, Seiji Ito, Yoshinari Oguro, Hiroshima Institute of Technology (Japan)
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    Landslide due to heavy rains and earthquakes is major hazards to human life and property. Applications for rapid detection and mapping of the damage situation and extent using earth observation satellite imageries are expected. Especially, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is effective due to the capabilities of cloud penetration and is independent of solar illumination. It was, however, difficult to extract landslide areas in SAR images accurately using the traditional methods. Therefore, we tried to extract landslide areas using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which are being used for computer vision. We adopted U-Net, one of the CNNs, for Landslide extraction. The U-Net enables accurate segmentation from a small amount of training data. We verified the landslide extraction with U-Net, using the collapsed areas caused by the 2018 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake that occurred on September 6, 2018. Landslide extraction was performed using pre- and post-event X-band COSMO-SkyMed imageries. For pre-processing, we performed multi-looking, radiometric calibration, and ortho-rectification using 10 m DEM data. The U-Net was trained for 100 epochs with a mini-batch size of 24, 32, and 40. Two types of dataset were prepared for the model input, that is, (1) pre- and post-event COSMO-SkyMed amplitude and the ratio of pre- and post-event COSMO-SkyMed amplitude, (2) pre- and post-event COSMO-SkyMed amplitude and slope. As a result, the optimal value of the F-measure (70.9%) was obtained with the dataset (1) using 128 × 128 strides and batch size of 32. Topographic factor (slope) did not improve landslide extraction in this study.
    Conference Chair
    CNR IREA (Italy)
    Conference Chair
    EURAC research (Italy)
    Conference Chair
    Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza (Italy)
    Conference Chair
    Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (Italy)
    Program Committee
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany)
    Program Committee
    Univ. of Michigan (United States)
    Program Committee
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy)
    Program Committee
    Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (Poland)
    Program Committee
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany)
    Program Committee
    Fabio Del Frate
    Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy)
    Program Committee
    Dara Entekhabi
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
    Program Committee
    Carlos Lopez-Martinez
    Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain)
    Program Committee
    Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy)
    Program Committee
    CIMA Research Foundation (Italy)
    Program Committee
    Stefan Schneiderbauer
    EURAC research (Italy)
    Program Committee
    David Small
    Univ. of Zürich (Switzerland)