The conference focuses on the design of integrated optical devices and systems for high impact applications. Theoretical and experimental papers are solicited that report progress in the following and related topics:

Simulation and Design
  • optical waveguide theory, modeling and simulation for device design
  • photonic design automation, manufacturing, and verification tools
  • novel algorithms and photonic CAD software for photonics and integration with electronics.

  • Devices
  • passive and active waveguide devices
  • integrable light sources, photodetectors, modulators, amplifiers, wavelength converters, switches, couplers, resonators, filters and subsystems
  • diffractive and subwavelength based devices
  • 2D materials in waveguide photonics and topological photonics
  • plasmonic and hybrid integrated plasmonic-photonic devices.

  • Systems and Applications
  • integrated photonics for communications: datacom, access, WDM networks and coherent communications
  • optical interconnects
  • integrated photonics for automotive, aerospace and defence applications: beam steering and LIDAR
  • photonic sensors for nanomedicine and environmental monitoring: visible, NIR and MIR
  • integrated microwave and terahertz photonics, and signal processing.
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    In progress – view active session
    Conference 11775

    Integrated Optics: Design, Devices, Systems and Applications VI

    On demand now
    View Session ∨
    • Special Focus: Three Pillars of ELI Research Infrastructure-World's Most Advanced Short-pulse Lasers
    • Welcome and Monday Plenary Presentation I
    • Monday Plenary Presentation II
    • Tuesday Plenary Presentation III
    • Tuesday Plenary Presentation IV
    • Wednesday Plenary Presentation V
    • Thursday Plenary Presentation VI
    • 1: Keynote Session
    • 2: Novel Principles, Effects, and Approaches
    • 3: Devices and Systems
    • 4: Lasers and Active Devices
    • 5: Design and Simulation
    • Poster Session
    Special Focus: Three Pillars of ELI Research Infrastructure-World's Most Advanced Short-pulse Lasers
    Livestream: 19 April 2021 • 09:00 - 11:05 CEST | Zoom



    9:00 to 9:05
    Welcome and Introduction
    Bedřich Rus, ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the CAS (Czech Republic)
    Symposium Chair

    This event occurred in the past.
    Click
    here for Status of lasers and experiments at ELI-Beamlines
    here for ELI ALPS: the next generation of attosecond sources
    here for Status of high-power lasers and experiments at ELI-Nuclear Physics, Romania
    to now view in the SPIE Digital Library.
    11777-501
    Author(s): Georg Korn, ELI Beamlines (Czech Republic)
    On demand | Presented Live 19 April 2021
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    We are reviewing the high-average and high peak-power fs-laser sources and experimental areas currently in operation and preparation for user operation. This includes the 1 kHz, 15fs, 50mJ, Allegra laser based on OPCPA-technology. Short pulse 5ps-CPA thin disc lasers pump a series of OPCPA crystals ensuring a high contrast output. The Allegra laser enters the experimental area E1 with a number of end-stations for user experiments. The HAPLS (sub-30fs, Ti: Sapphire) laser pumped by a high-average power frequency converted DPSSL is currently delivering 500 TW, 3.3 Hz pulses via a stable vacuum beam transport system with a pointing stability around 1rad to the experimental areas for plasma physics experiments (E3) and ion acceleration (E4) with the ELIMAIA station. Both areas are fully equipped with target chambers and focusing optics for experimental operation and user assisted commissioning. The Nd:Glass laser Aton provides 1.5 kJ pulses and is currently being compressed to 10 PW in a large compressor tank. A second oscillator allows shaped pulse ns-operation at kJ level or future combination of 1 PW pulses and kJ shaped ns-pulses for advanced WDM or fusion experiments in the E3 area. A new laser disc liquid cooling technology enables repetition rates of 1 shot/minute allowing a much higher data acquisition for this kind of experiments. Furthermore we will report on the first experiments and the future experimental plans as well as on the prospects for user operation.
    11777-502
    Author(s): Katalin G. Varju, Univ. of Szeged (Hungary)
    On demand | Presented Live 19 April 2021
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    The Extreme Light Infrastructure – Attosecond Light Pulse Source (ELI-ALPS), the Hungarian pillar of ELI, is the first of its kind that operates by the principle of a user facility, supporting laser based fundamental and applied researches in physical, biological, chemical, medical and materials sciences at extreme short time scales. This goal is realized by the combination of specialized primary lasers which drive nonlinear frequency conversion and acceleration processes in more than twelve different secondary sources. Any light pulse source can act as a research tool by itself or, with femtosecond synchronization, in combination with any other of the sources. Thus a uniquely broad spectral range of the highest power and shortest light pulses becomes available for the study of dynamic processes on the attosecond time scale in atoms, molecules, condensed matter and plasmas. The ground-breaking laser systems together with the subsequent outstanding secondary sources generate the highest possible peak power at the highest possible repetition rate in a spectral range from the E-UV through visible and near infrared to THz. The facility – besides the regular scientific staff - will provide accessible research infrastructure for the international scientific community user groups from all around the world. The attosecond secondary sources are based on advanced techniques of Higher-order Harmonic Generation (HHG). Other secondary sources provide particle beams for plasma physics and radiobiology. A set of state-of-the-art endstations will be accessible to those users who do not have access or do not wish to bring along their own equipment. Step by step the lasers are now commissioned, trialed and handed over for user operation. References S. Kuhn et al., “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources.”, Topical Review, Journal of Physics B, 50 (2017) 132002
    11777-503
    Author(s): Kazuo A. Tanaka, Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (Romania)
    On demand | Presented Live 19 April 2021
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    Founded by the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), three state-of-art laser-based institutes in Romania, Hungary, and the Czech Republic were commissioned in the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). Construction for the three sites started in 2012 and, as of 2020, all sites are operational. ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure: Nuclear Physics) is located 10km south of Bucharest in Romania. Its flagship installation is two beams of 10 PW, each providing 230 J output energy at a 23 fs laser pulse width. The capability to provide a 10 PW output was recently demonstrated in a live performance. We were able to show that the 10 PW laser shots can be delivered for 10 minutes at a rate of one shot every minute. A total of 230 Zoom participants worldwide, including Prof G Mourou and Prof D Strickland, the Physics Nobel Laureates in 2018, witnessed this breakthrough demonstration. An early experiment at the 100 TW laser station at ELI-NP has already been completed. We successfully demonstrated an electron acceleration of up to 300 MeV, either resulting in monoenergetic or broadband spectra, depending on the well controllable experimental conditions we set. Operations at the 1 PW and 10 PW experimental stations will start soon. External user access will be tested with the early and commissioning experiments and will be formulated coherently within the framework of the IMPULSE project guided by ELI-DC. Reference Current status and highlights of the ELI-NP program research program, KA Tanaka, K Spohr, D Balabanski, et al., Matter Rad. Extremes, 5, 024402 (2020): doi.10.1063/1.5093535
    Session PL1: Welcome and Monday Plenary Presentation I
    Livestream: 19 April 2021 • 15:00 - 16:00 CEST | Zoom
    Monday Plenary Presentation I and Monday Plenary Presentation II are part of the same webinar session with a break in between.

    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)


    Welcome and Opening Remarks
    Bedřich Rus, ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the CAS (Czech Republic)

    This event occurred in the past. Click here to now view in the SPIE Digital Library.
    11775-601
    New technologies for new astronomy (Plenary Presentation)
    Author(s): John C. Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
    On demand | Presented Live 19 April 2021
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    We’ve come a long way since 1609, from spectacle lenses to mirrors in space, from twitching frog legs to the Event Horizon Telescope observing a black hole. But far more is possible. On the ground, a new generation of optical telescopes is under construction, up to 39 m in diameter. Adaptive optics compensates for the turbulent atmosphere, but could work far better with an orbiting reference beacon in space. Bright chemiluminescent emission lines in the upper atmosphere interfere with observations, but could be blocked by fiber optic filters. Energy-resolving photon counting detectors promise far greater sensitivity. New ways of making mirrors offer far better resolution for space X-ray telescopes. Coronagraphs can suppress starlight enough to reveal exoplanets in direct imaging, or starshades can cast star shadows on telescopes to do the same thing. New generations of far IR detectors with large cryogenic telescopes in space can reveal the cool and cold universe. Radio telescopes on the quiet far side of the Moon can overcome the limits of the ionosphere and intense local interference to see events in the early universe as it heated up again after the Big Bang expansion cooled everything. Neutrino telescopes can see stars being shredded by black holes, and gravitational wave detectors see merging neutron stars and black holes. Atom wave gravimeters can measure the internal structure of planets and asteroids, and sample return missions are already bring back distant bits of the solar system. What will happen next? I don’t know but it will be glorious.
    Session PL2: Monday Plenary Presentation II
    Livestream: 19 April 2021 • 17:00 - 18:00 CEST | Zoom
    Monday Plenary Presentation I and Monday Plenary Presentation II are part of the same webinar session with a break in between.

    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)


    Welcome and Introduction
    Ivo Rendina, CNR/Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (Italy)
    Symposium Chair

    This event occurred in the past. Click here to now view in the SPIE Digital Library.
    11770-602
    Author(s): Anna C. Peacock, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
    On demand | Presented Live 19 April 2021
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    The nascent field of semiconductor core fibres is attracting increased interest as a means to exploit the excellent optical and optoelectronic functionality of the semiconductor material directly within the fibre geometry. Compared to their planar counterparts, this new class of waveguide retains many advantageous properties of the fibre platforms such as flexibility, cylindrical symmetry, and long waveguide lengths. Furthermore, owing to the robust glass cladding it is also possible to employ standard fibre post-processing procedures to tailor the waveguide dimensions and reduce the optical losses over a broad wavelength range, of particular use for nonlinear applications. This presentation will review progress in the development of nonlinear devices from the semiconductor core fibre platform and outline exciting future prospects for the field.
    Session PL3: Tuesday Plenary Presentation III
    Livestream: 20 April 2021 • 15:00 - 16:00 CEST | Zoom
    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)


    Welcome and Introduction
    Saša Bajt, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
    Symposium Chair
    11776-603
    Author(s): Nina Rohringer, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme (Germany)
    On demand | Presented Live 20 April 2021
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    X-ray free-electron lasers, delivering x-ray pulses of femtosecond duration, are available for experiments for more than a decade and allow for hitherto unachievable x-ray intensities on sample, reaching up to 1021 W/cm2 for hard x-rays. At these intensities, the probability of a single atom or molecule to absorb a photon of an impinging x-ray pulse reaches unity. Moreover, several interactions of photons and matter within the duration of the x-ray pulse – nonlinear x-ray matter interactions – become possible, opening the pathway to nonlinear x-ray optics. For a macroscopic ensemble of atoms, molecules, nanometer-sized clusters or a solid, the interaction with a strongly focused x-ray beam can create macroscopic, highly excited states of matter, far from equilibrium. In particular, saturated absorption with a high-intensity x-ray pulse can result in transient states, present for roughly one femtosecond, with the characteristic feature, that every single atom in the interaction region is in a population inverted state with missing population in the innermost electronic shell. This macroscopic population inversion can lead to collective radiative decay mechanisms, such as amplified spontaneous emission or superfluorescence. In this presentation I will give you an overview over our experimental and theoretical investigations of these single-pass x-ray laser amplifiers in the x-ray spectral domain. I will address applications of this phenomenon in the area of chemical x-ray emission spectroscopy, a new concept of an x-ray laser oscillator, and will highlight recent theoretical developments to describe collective spontaneous emission in the x-ray spectral domain.
    Session PL4: Tuesday Plenary Presentation IV
    Livestream: 20 April 2021 • 17:00 - 18:00 CEST | Zoom
    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)


    Welcome and Introduction
    Bedřich Rus, ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the CAS (Czech Republic)
    Symposium Chair
    11777-604
    Author(s): Gilliss Dyer, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States)
    On demand | Presented Live 20 April 2021
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    The Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at LCLS pioneered the use of the hard X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) in combination with high-power optical lasers to advance high energy density science. Commissioned in 2012 as an open-access scientific capability, this application of the powerful XFEL diagnostic has driven a rich array of high-profile scientific results, providing new insight into atomic and structural properties of dynamic plasma and high-pressure material states. Aided in part by the success of MEC and other high power laser facilities, there has been a strong call from the research community over the past 5 years for increased national investments in high power lasers combined with existing national lab infrastructure. In response to a mission need statement from the US Department of Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences, SLAC has developed a conceptual design for a project to build a new HED science facility combining high rep-rate (10Hz) petawatt laser systems and high energy (1kJ) long pulse lasers with the LCLS XFEL. Combined with flexible and high efficiency experimental systems, this facility will enable a world-unique set of scientific capabilities complementing the new emerging generation of high-power laser facilities, including the pillars of ELI and new HED end stations at European XFEL and SACLA. In this talk, I will present an overview of the facility conceptual design and place it in the context of the growing field of high-power laser science.
    Session PL5: Wednesday Plenary Presentation V
    Livestream: 21 April 2021 • 17:00 - 18:00 CEST | Zoom
    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)

    Welcome and Introduction
    Ivo Rendina, CNR/Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (Italy)
    Symposium Chair
    11775-605
    Author(s): Mona Jarrahi, UCLA Samueli School of Engineering (United States)
    On demand | Presented Live 21 April 2021
    Session PL6: Thursday Plenary Presentation VI
    Livestream: 22 April 2021 • 09:00 - 10:00 CEST | Zoom
    Times for this live event are all Central European Summer Time, CEST (UTC+2:00 hours)


    Welcome and Introduction
    Saša Bajt, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
    Symposium Chair
    11776-606
    New research opportunities with FELs (Plenary Presentation)
    Author(s): Claudio Masciovecchio, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (Italy)
    On demand | Presented Live 22 April 2021
    Session 1: Keynote Session
    11775-1
    Author(s): Mengxi Tan, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia); Xingyuan Xu, Bill Corcoran, Monash Univ. (Australia); Jiayang Wu, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia); Andreas Boes, thach Nguyen, RMIT Univ. (Australia); Sai T. Chu, City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China); Brent Little, Xi'an Institute for Physics (China); Roberto Morandotti, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (Canada); Arnan Mitchell, RMIT Univ. (Australia); David J. Moss, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia)
    On demand
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    Micro-combs - optical frequency combs generated by integrated micro-cavity resonators – offer the full potential of their bulk counterparts, but in an integrated footprint. The discovery of temporal soliton states as a means of mode-locking micro-combs enabled breakthroughs in many fields including spectroscopy, microwave photonics, frequency synthesis, optical ranging, quantum sources, metrology and more. One of their most promising applications has been optical fibre communications where they have achieved massively parallel ultrahigh capacity multiplexed data transmission. We use a new and powerful class of soliton micro-comb called “soliton crystals” to achieve the highest data transmission over standard optical fibre from a single chip source, at 44.2 Tb/s over the 1550nm C-band and, most importantly, a high spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz [1]. Soliton crystals are robust to generate and operate without stabilization or feedback and are very efficient. Together with the low comb spacing of 48.9 GHz this enabled a very high coherent modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission over 75 km of standard optical fibre in the lab and a field trial over a metropolitan network. We also demonstrate a new approach [2, 3] to optical artificial neural networks (ONNs), analog computing hardware tailored for machine learning, that is programmable, highly scalable and ultra-high speed. We report [3] a convolutional accelerator that operates at 11 TeraOps/s, fully 1000 times faster than any optical neuromorphic processor. We also demonstrate a deep convolutional neural network operating beyond a Terabit/s, and use it to achieve handwritten digit recognition of all 10 digits, with an accuracy >88%. Our approach is scalable using off-the-shelf technology for applications such as real-time massive data processing for unmanned vehicle and aircraft tracking. This work shows the capability of micro-combs to out-perform other approaches for demanding applications to optical data communications and neural networks.
    Session 2: Novel Principles, Effects, and Approaches
    11775-6
    Author(s): Robert Halir, Jose Manuel Luque-González, Alejandro Sánchez-Postigo, Carlos Pérez-Armenta, Pablo Ginel-Moreno, Abdelfettah Hadij-ElHouati, Daniel Pereira-Martin, Antonia Torres-Cubillo, Jonas Leuermann, Jose de Oliva Rubio, Juan Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, Alejandro Ortega-Moñux, Íñigo Molina-Fernández, Univ. de Málaga (Spain); Jens Schmid, Pavel Cheben, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Jiri Ctyroky, Institute of Photonics and Electronics of the CAS, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Aitor Villafranca Velasco, Alaine Herrero-Bermello, David González-Andrade, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain); Antonio Dias-Ponte, Alcyon Photonics S.L. (Spain); Milos Nedeljkovic, Goran Mashanovich, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
    On demand
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    Silicon photonic waveguides patterned at the subwavelength level behave as metamaterials whose optical properties, including refractive index, dispersion and anisotropy can be tuned by judiciously designing the subwavelength geometry. Over the past years, the added design freedom afforded by these structures has enabled a wide variety of novel high performance devices, ranging from high efficiency fibre-to-chip couplers, to on-chip polarization and mode management, and ultra-broadband waveguide couplers covering several optical communication bands. In this invited keynote talk we will revisit the physical foundations of these structures, explore some of the latest advances in the field with applications in both telecommunications and sensing, and discuss some of the outstanding challenges to move these structures from research labs to large-scale commercialisation.
    11775-7
    Author(s): Sonia M. García-Blanco, Ivo Hegeman, Jinfeng Mu, Carlijn M. I. van Emmerik, Carlos E. Osornio Martinez, Meindert Dijkstra, Univ. of Twente (Netherlands)
    On demand
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    The monolithic integration of active materials providing optical gain and optical non-linearities is instrumental to increase the functionality of integrated photonic circuits. A double layer integration scheme has been experimentally demonstrated, exhibiting transition losses between the two materials of less than 0.2 dB. Furthermore, a single layer integration scheme is proposed, which decreases the number of process steps, reducing fabrication cost, and also decreasing the sensitivity to fabrication tolerances. In this paper, we will overview our recent developments on the monolithic integration of both, Al2O3 and TiO2 onto the passive Si3N4 and Al2O3 platforms for the development of on-chip amplifiers and lasers.
    11775-8
    Author(s): Alicia Ruiz-Caridad, Guillaume Marcaud, Christian Lafforgue, Xavier Le Roux, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France); Joan Manel Ramirez, III-V Lab. (France); Elena Durán-Valdeiglesias, Ludovic Largeau, Thomas Maroutian, Sylvia Matzen, Stephane Collin, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Guillaume Agnus, Sylvain Guerbert, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France); Stephane Monfray, Frederic Boeuf, STMicroelectronics S.A. (France); Vladyslav Vakarin, III-V Lab. (France); Eric Cassan, Delphine Marris-Morini, Philippe Lecoeur, Univ. Paris-Saclay (France); Laurent Vivien, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France), Univ. Paris Saclay (France)
    On demand
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    Silicon photonics has been largely developed as a platform to address the future challenges in several applications including datacom, sensing or optical communications, among others. However, the properties of silicon itself is not enough to overcome all limitations in terms of speed, power consumption and scalability. New strategies have then been encouraged based on the hybrid integration of new materials in the silicon photonics platform. In this paper, we will introduce the recent advances in the hybrid integration of doped crystalline-oxides on silicon and silicon nitride waveguides. Especially, Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with a lattice parameter compatible with the silicon lattice has been considered because it exhibits promising linear and nonlinear optical properties: low propagation loss, no two photon absorption (TPA) due to its large bandgap energy, a large transparency window from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared and a good Kerr effect. Furthermore, YSZ can be doped with many dopants to develop active photonic devices with strong second- and third-order nonlinearities and light emission. We have recently demonstrated propagation loss in YSZ waveguides as low as 2dB/cm at a wavelength of 1380 nm, a nonlinear refractive index (Kerr effect) comparable with the SiN coefficient and light amplification in Er3+ doped YSZ on SiN waveguides. The recent results are very promising to pave the way for the development of low cost and low power consumption devices.
    11775-9
    Author(s): Vito Sorianello, CNIT - Photonic Networks & Technologies National Lab. (Italy)
    On demand
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    We review our recent progress on graphene integrated photonics for next generation optical communications. We present the design principles of graphene photodetectors and optical modulators as well as recent results on Si and SiN photonic platforms. We show optical modulators at communication wavelengths with electro-optical bandwidth up to 30GHz and operation at 50Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). We report on very recent progress about graphene photodetectors with ultra-high bandwidth (>67GHz) based on the photo-thermo-electric (PTE) effect. The last is of particular interest as it enables a zero dark-current direct conversion of the optical signal into a voltage which can be amplified by a voltage pre-amplifier rather than a transimpedance amplifier (TIA). This is a potential breakthrough in scaling the bandwidth of photoreceiver towards increasing bandwidths, as the TIA imposes strict trade-offs between gain and bandwidth. With the proposed device we show direct detection of optical signals exceeding 100Gb/s in a voltage detection scheme without dark current bias.
    Session 3: Devices and Systems
    11775-10
    Author(s): Daoxin Dai, Zhejiang Univ. (China); Zhuoning Zhu, Weike zhao, Yiwei Xie, Dajian Liu, zhejiang university (China)
    On demand
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    Multiplexing/demultiplexing technologies have been used widely in data transmission systems to improve the link capacity significantly. As it is well known, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) with multiple wavelength-channels is one of the most popular options. More recently, mode-division-multiplexing (MDM) with multiple mode-channels is recognized as a new-rising technology. One of the most important elements in these WDM/MDM systems is the multiplexes/demultiplexers. Silicon photonics provides a very attractive platform for realizing high-performance WDM/MDM devices. In this paper, we give a review for recent progress of silicon photonic devices for wavelength/mode-division-multiplexing. In particular, it includes the development of multi-channel mode (de)multiplexers, wavelength-selective photonic devices, hybrid WDM-MDM (de)multiplexers, etc.
    11775-11
    Author(s): Yikai Su, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)
    On demand
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    We discuss our recent work on mode division multiplexing (MDM) silicon devices for on-chip optical interconnects. First, we demonstrate a 4-channel MDM device based on directional couplers. The crosstalk values are below -13.3 dB at 1550 nm for the TE0, TM0, and TM1 channels. The TE1 channel experiences the largest crosstalk at 1553 nm of -6.5 dB and the highest loss of 2.6 dB. Four channels of 40Gb/s signals in the form of 20-Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) are multiplexed through MDM to test the device The 160-Gb/s data is transmitted through a multi-mode waveguide and then de-multiplexed for bit-error ratio (BER) measurement. By using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital processing, error free operation is achieved. Second, to further increase the capacity, we design and implement an 11-channel MDM device by employing subwavelength grating (SWG) couplers. The main limiting factor in the number of MDM channels is the susceptibility of the effective waveguide refractive index to the width variation due to the fabrication errors, and the index curves of for the multi-mode bus waveguide and the single mode access waveguide are of different slopes. Through index engineering by duty cycle optimization of the SWG access waveguide, the index curves of the two different waveguides can be matched and thus the phase matching condition in the MDM process is maintained with the similar fabrication errors imposed on the two waveguides. The crosstalk values of such a SWG based 11-channel MDM device remain lower than -7 dB for all channels, and the loss is below 13.7 dB for the worst channel. We then use 30-Gbaud 16-quadrature amplitude-phase modulation (QAM) signals to test the device, and the BERs are below the 7% feedforward error correction threshold after MIMO processing. A total transmission capacity of 1.23 Tb/s on a single wavelength is achieved.
    11775-12
    Author(s): Daniel Benedikovic, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Leopold Virot, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Guy Aubin, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Jean-Michel Hartmann, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Farah Amar, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Bertrand Szelag, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Xavier Le Roux, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Paul Crozat, Eric Cassan, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Frederic Boeuf, STMicroelectronics S.A. (France); Jean-Marc Fedeli, Christophe Kopp, CEA-LETI (France), Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Laurent Vivien, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France)
    On demand
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    Silicon nanophotonics hold promises for many applications, including optoelectronics, information and communication technologies, sensing or health monitoring. Thanks to the low-cost, dense integration, and compatibility with semiconductor microelectronics, many functionalities are nowadays available in silicon nanophotonics, leveraging the maturity of silicon foundries and epitaxial germanium integration. This encompasses light generation, electro-optical modulation, and photodetection. Germanium-based photodetectors are essential building blocks within the silicon nanophotonic library, with performances on par with that of III-V-based devices. Germanium waveguide photodetectors on silicon chips are promising for future on-chip interconnections in terms of compactness, speed, energy consumption and cost. In this work, we present our advances concerning p-i-n photodetectors based on lateral silicon-germanium-silicon heterojunctions. Our hetero-structured photodetectors were fabricated on top of 200-mm silicon-on-insulator substrates using industrial-scale manufacturing processes. P-i-n photodetectors operated at low voltages exhibited low dark-currents (~100 nA), cut-off frequencies beyond 50 GHz, and photo-responsivities of 1.2 A/W. Measured photodetector sensitivities of -14 dBm and -11 dBm were achieved for conventional bit rates of 10 Gbps and 25 Gbps. P-i-n photodetectors with lateral heterojunctions operated in an avalanche regime offer additional performance improvements. High-speed and low-noise characteristics were indeed obtained with a gain-bandwidth product of 210 GHz and a low carrier impact ionization ratio of about 0.25. Measured sensitivity was -11 dBm for direct detection of 40 Gbps signals. Hetero-structured p-i-n photodetectors are thus promising for use in future data centers and optical interconnects.
    11775-13
    Author(s): David González-Andrade, Instituto de Óptica "Daza de Valdés" (Spain); Diego Pérez-Galacho, Univ. Politècnica de València (Spain); Miguel Montesinos-Ballester, Xavier Le Roux, Eric Cassan, Delphine Marris-Morini, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Pavel Cheben, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Nathalie Vulliet, Stephane Monfray, Frederic Boeuf, STMicroelectronics S.A. (France); Laurent Vivien, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France); Aitor Villafranca Velasco, Instituto de Óptica "Daza de Valdés" (Spain); Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Ctr. de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (France)
    On demand
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    The large mode size mismatch between standard single-mode optical fibers and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides poses a significant challenge to efficiently couple light from the optical fiber to the chip, and vice versa. Surface grating couplers are often used for this purpose, however, their operational bandwidth is limited to a few tens of nanometers, as a consequence of the wavelength-dependent radiation angle. This constraint seriously hampers the use of surface grating couplers for next-generation passive optical networks (PONs), in which the wavelengths used for the upstream and downstream channels are separated more than 150 nm. In this work, we present a dual-band grating coupler for 10 Gbit symmetric PONs. Our device operates as a wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer, simultaneously coupling and combining/splitting two optical signals at the wavelengths of λ_1=1270 nm and λ_2=1577 nm. The coupler is based on engineering a surface grating coupler to obtain opposite radiation angles for the two respective wavelengths. To achieve a higher coupling efficiency, the material platform thicknesses were optimized as a tradeoff between the waveguide propagation loss and the substrate reflectivity. By judiciously choosing the period (Λ=500 nm) and the duty cycle (DC=55%) of the grating section, an efficient dual-band grating coupler is designed with a minimum feature size of 225 nm. The coupler was fabricated in ST Crolles using their 300 mm SOI platform and 193-nm deep-ultraviolet lithography, demonstrating that large-scale fabrication is feasible. Measured fiber-chip coupling efficiencies were -4.9 dB and -5.2 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth of >27 nm and 56 nm at λ_1=1270 nm and λ_2=1577 nm, respectively.
    11775-14
    Author(s): Raquel Fernández de Cabo, David González Andrade, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain); Pavel Cheben, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Aitor Villafranca Velasco, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain)
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    Efficient power splitting is a fundamental function in silicon photonics integrated circuits and, consequently, compact power splitters with low losses over a broad bandwidth are sought after. Symmetric Y-junctions, consisting of a stem waveguide branching into two diverging arms, are typically used. However, the finite resolution of current photonic fabrication technologies results in a limited minimum feature size (MFS) of the tip between the splitter arms, penalizing fundamental transverse electric mode (TE0) since its intensity maximum coincides with the central region of the splitter. In this work, we propose a novel high-performance power splitter based on a symmetric Y-junction incorporating subwavelength metamaterials. Our device performance was simulated using 3D finite-difference time-domain method, considering two different fabrication resolution limits. In the worst-case resolution scenario (i.e., MFS of 100 nm), the device shows excess loss (EL) as low as 0.5 dB for both the TE0 mode and the first-order transverse electric mode (TE1) in a 300 nm bandwidth (1300 nm - 1600 nm). For the high-resolution fabrication process (i.e., MFS of 50 nm), total EL is further reduced under 0.3 dB over a bandwidth of 250 nm (1350 nm - 1600 nm). A proof-of-concept device was fabricated with electron beam lithography using SOI wafers with a 220-nm-thick Si layer and a SiO2 upper cladding. Preliminary experimental results show negligible losses for the TE0 mode over a broad bandwidth of 180 nm (i.e., 1500 nm - 1680 nm), for both fabrication scenarios (100 nm and 50 nm MFS).
    11775-16
    Author(s): Qian Qian Song, Kai Xin Chen, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China)
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    We propose a novel three-dimensional (3-D) continuously tunable delay line based on high performance 3-D tunable directional couplers (DCs) driven by graphene heaters. The device includes a continuously tunable delay line section and 2 bit discrete tunable delay line section. We set the maximum delay tuning range of the continuously tunable delay line section equal to incremental delay step ∆t of discretely tunable delay line section, so that the tuning is continuous over the entire delay range. The continuously tunable delay line section can be operated by varying continuously the coupling ratios K of two switches from 0 to 1. The switches, which provide the reconfiguration of the light traveling paths and hence different delays, are based on 3-D tunable DC and driven by a graphene electrode heater. The use of the graphene electrode heater by placing it in direct contact with the upper waveguide core can improve the heating efficiency. To further improve the heat utilization efficiency and hence reduce the electric power consumption, two air slots with etching depth of 9.5 μm on both sides of graphene heater are introduced. Thanks to the bent waveguides used in delay unit, the proposed delay line has an optimal dimension of 25 mm × 7 mm (length × width). The simulation results show crosstalks are less than -21.6 dB over the whole C-band and less than ~-45.2 dB (OFF state) at 1550 nm. And the continuously tuning delay range is from 0 to 200 ps over minimum 3 dB bandwidth of >10 GHz. The minimum 3 dB bandwidth of our proposed device is four times larger than that of the common continuously tunable delay line constructed with a typical 2×2 asymmetric MZI with the same delay time range. Our proposed configuration can be easily scaled to M bit in discrete delay line section by cascading more delay units and switch units, which conduces to more large delay time without sacrificing the 3 dB operation bandwidth, here the scalability of the proposed delay line is decided by the refractive index contrast of materials used, propagation loss, and delay time.
    11775-17
    Author(s): Patrick Steglich, Andreas Mai, IHP GmbH (Germany)
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    In this work, we analyze a horizontal slot waveguide configuration, which evaluates the potential for an integration of barium titanate (BTO) based modulators into a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The waveguide configuration consists of a doped crystal silicon layer, a Ba_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}TiO_3 (BST) template layer, a barium titanate (BTO) layer and a doped poly-silicon layer on top. In contrast to current approaches, we analyze the performance of this waveguide-structure by using a vertical electrode configuration that is formed by the doped silicon layer. In this way, the electric field strength is dramatically increased compared to current horizontal electrode configuration.
    Session 4: Lasers and Active Devices
    11775-18
    Author(s): Zhenguo Lu, Khan Zeb, Jiaren Liu, Youxin Mao, Guocheng Liu, Philip Poole, Pedro Barrios, National Research Council Canada (Canada); John Xiupu Zhang, Concordia Univ. (Canada)
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    In order to achieve ultrahigh data capacity and to overcome the wireless spectrum crunch, 5G is going to adopt millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies (30 GHz – 300 GHz). To generate high-quality mmW signals by lasers, it requires optical sources with ultra-narrow optical linewidth and low relative intensity noise (RIN). In recent years, we have developed InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) multi-wavelength lasers (MWLs) around 1550 nm with the frequency spacing from 10 GHz to 1000 GHz. Those QD MWLs have very low RIN, ultra-narrow optical linewidth, small timing jitters, compact size, low power consumption and the ability for hybrid integration with silicon substrates. In this paper we present a buried heterostructure (BH) C-band InAs/InP 25-GHz QD MWL with phase noise and RIN of less than 500 kHz and -130 dB/Hz for its individual channel, respectively. By using this QD MWL a photonic aided radio-over-fiber (RoF) quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signal wireless delivery at 25 GHz is successfully demonstrated through 25.22 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with a data capacity of 16 Gbit/s (16QAM x 4GBaud). We have also presented a monolithic BH QD dual-wavelength (DW) DFB laser as an optical beat source for mmW signal generation. The BH QD DW-DFB laser with the optical linewidth of 16 KHz and the RIN of -158 dB/Hz is capable of generating spectrally pure mmW signals between 46 GHz and 48 GHz. By using it, we have demonstrated a real time 24-Gbit/s (64QAM x 4GBaud) data bandwidth wireless communication system operating at 47.2-GHz carrier over 25-km SSMF.
    11775-19
    Author(s): Weidong Zhou, The Univ. of Texas at Arlington (United States)
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    Free-space coupled membrane photonic devices are highly desirable for 3D optical interconnects, free space communications, imaging, sensing, and ranging applications. Based on transfer printing processes, heterogeneously integrated active photonic crystal devices can be built on the common silicon platform. In this talk, I will report recent progresses related to hybrid integrated photonic crystal surface-emitting membrane lasers on silicon substrate, based on QW gain material and transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Issues to be discussed related to thermal performance, charge injection, and scaling towards energy efficient optical interconnects.
    11775-20
    Author(s): Sofiane Haffouz, National Research Council Canada (Canada)
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    Sources that can produce single photons in the telecom band, capable of traveling long distances over optical fibers, are of great interest for long-haul quantum communications. In recent years, there has been a major drive to demonstrate single-photon sources (SPSs) for quantum key distribution to provide secure communications over long distances. Nanowires containing a single quantum dot emitting around 1μm have been proven to be viable source to emit a very pure photon with multiphoton probability below 1% [1]. Extending the emission wavelength to the telecom window seemed inevitable to fully exploit the available architecture of long-haul fiber-based quantum optical networks. In this invited talk, we will report on our recent results on the fabrication of InAsP single quantum dot embedded within an InP photonic waveguide nanowire for single photon emission at telecom band. In particular, we outline the importance of the photonic waveguide design for optimum photons generation and coupling to the external optics. Manipulating the dot growth conditions as well as engineering the band structure around the dot (dot-in-a-rod configuration) are some of the approaches [2, 3] that have been applied to achieve emission at 1310nm and will be presented. SPS operating at 1310nm with multiple photon probability below 2% is achieved 4K. [1] D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, X. Wu, P. J. Poole, G. Bulgarini, V. Zwiller and M. Reimer, Nano Letters 12, 5919 (2012). [2] S. Haffouz, K. D. Zeuner, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, K. Mnaymneh, X. Wu, M. Couillard, M. Korkusinski, E. Schöll, K. D. Jöns, V. Zwiller, and R. L. Williams. Nano Letters 18, 3047 (2018). [3] S. Haffouz, P. J. Poole, J. Jin, X. Wu, K. Mnaymneh, D. Dalacu, and R. L. Williams., Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 113102 (2020).
    11775-21
    Author(s): Natalia V. Kryzhanovskaya, Eduard Moiseev, Alexey Nadtochiy, HSE Univ. (Russian Federation); Mikhail Maximov, HSE Univ. (Russian Federation), Alferov Univ. (Russian Federation); Anna Dragunova, HSE Univ. (Russian Federation); Marina Fetisova, Alferov Univ. (Russian Federation); Marina Kulagina, Julia Guseva, Sergey Mintairov, Nikolay Kalyuzhnyy, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Mingchu Tang, Mengya Liao, Jiang Wu, Siming Chen, Huiyun Liu, University College London (United Kingdom); Alexey Zhukov, HSE Univ. (Russian Federation)
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    We study the integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers on silicon that either retain the native substrate or are separated from the substrate using a sacrificial layer. Injection-pumped 40 μm in diameter InAs/InGaAs microdisk lasers transferred onto a silicon wafer with the help of indium soldering demonstrate CW lasing at room temperature. Microdisk lasers are individually addressed via separate contact pads. The current–voltage and thermal resistance of the hybridly integrated microlaser correspond to that of QD microdisk lasers on initial GaAs substrate. Also we transferred microdisk lasers with InAs / GaAs quantum dots to a silicon substrate by attaching them with transparent glue and then separating the microdisks from the GaAs substrate by the method of selective etching using an AlGaAs stop layer with a high Al composition. A disk 6 μm in diameter on the Si substrate demonstrated lasing at room temperature with a threshold optical pumping power of 320 μW. The quality factor of the whispering gallery mode of such a microdisk above the lasing threshold exceeded 27000. Despite the fact that the surface recombination can affect the characteristics of microlasers, QD-based microdisk lasers turned out to be very resistant to operations of transfer to other substrates, keeping the initial parameters of lasing. We believe, the results presented provides a simple technique for integration of ready optical micro-emitters with various electronic and optoelectronic systems embodied on substrates of different types.
    11775-23
    Author(s): Anwer Hayat, Beijing Univ. of Technology (China); Tianrui Zhai, Beijing Univ. of Technology (China)
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    Lasing properties of the two-dimensional (2D) distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can be engineered by replacing either the gain medium or periodic structures necessary for the feedback mechanism. Quasicrystals are the intermediate class between the periodic and random structures. They have high rotational symmetry and more favorable for the generation of photonic bandgap as compared to periodic structures. In our experiment, we designed a pentagonal prism for the holographic lithography to construct a long-range 10-fold rotational symmetry, which exhibits 2D quasiperiodic structures. A solution-processable colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) was spin-coated on the resultant 2D quasicrystals. An analytical model based on the cavity mode coupling effect was developed to predict the output performance of the 2D DFB CQDs photonic quasicrystals laser. The respective optically pumped 2D photonic quasicrystal samples exhibit multi-wavelength lasing emission in different directions due to long-range rotational symmetry. The five DFB lasing spots are symmetrically distributed in the 2D space, the center of the lasing spots is similar to a star shape. The derived analytical model predictions are in line with the experimental results.
    11775-24
    Author(s): Alexander M. Smirnov, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation), M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Oleg V. Butov, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)
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    Features of the all-fiber heavily erbium-doped laser operation in passive Q-switched regime with a repetition rate of pulses up to 700 kHz and pulse duration 70 ns without the use of an additional nonlinear optical elements have been investigated. The generation dynamics of the heavily erbium-doped fiber laser assembled according to the classical Fabry-Perot scheme with two mirrors under continuous direct core pumping at the 976 nm and 1490 nm wavelength was studied. Passive Q-switching in heavily erbium-doped lasers is realized due to effect, which is opposite to the saturable absorption. The absorption grows with the field intensity instead of being saturated. The reason for the appearance of pulses is the existence of ion pairs at high erbium concentrations. This creates an effective absorption dependent on levels’ populations of ion pairs. Additionally, we have carried out an accurate study of the short-cavity heavily erbium-doped fiber laser by comparing of the generation features in the case of 976 nm and 1490 nm wavelength pumping; in the case of Q-switched laser operation we have analyzed the frequency and the pulse duration depend on power and wavelengths of pump. The feature we revealed is determined by the growth in absorption due to the up-conversion at the lasing wavelength which leads to the pulsed generation regime occurrence. The stable laser operation was demonstrated and the laser cavity heating was analyzed under both high heat sink performance (77K and 297K liquid cooling) and low heat sink performance (297K passive air cooling).
    11775-25
    Author(s): Cuo Wu, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Fei Ding, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Zhiming Wang, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China); Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark)
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    We propose a new concept of versatile polarized emission generation based on a quantum metasurface platform that combines quantum emitters with metasurface-decorated waveguides. By tailoring the size and orientation of the meta-atom on the waveguide.
    11775-26
    Author(s): Oleg Shakin, Vasily I. Kazakov, Saint-Petersburg State Univ. of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation)
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    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) based on a paratellurite crystal for tuning the radiation wavelength of a copper vapor laser has been calculated and manufactured. The geometry of acousto-optic interaction in AOTF for performing wide-angle spectral-selective diffraction is based on the parallelism of the incident and diffracted light tangents to the wave surfaces. The system of equations for the above conditions is solved and the maximum numerical aperture of the filter in the scattering plane is determined. It has been found that the required angle of deviation of the acoustic wave vector from the [110] direction leads, due to the large elastic anisotropy of paratellurite, to a significant deviation of the group velocity vector, or energy flux. This angle between the vectors of the phase and group velocities can be tens of degrees, which makes it necessary to manufacture an acousto-optic cell of a special shape. In addition, when deviating from the [110] direction, this also leads to a change in the velocity of elastic waves, in this case to its increase and, as a result, to a decrease in the efficiency of acousto-optic interaction. It is calculated that the maximum numerical aperture in the diffraction plane is obtained at an angle of deviation of the elastic wave vector from the [110] direction by approximately 18 degrees. In this case, the numerical aperture in the diffraction plane is almost twice the numerical aperture in the orthogonal plane. Therefore, for the case of the same numerical aperture, it is sufficient to choose an angle of about 10 degrees. The paper presents a mathematical description and calculation results for the main characteristics of an acousto-optic tunable filter. Based on the performed studies, an acousto-optic tunable filter for controlling the parameters of a copper vapor laser at two radiation wavelengths 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm was fabricated and experimentally investigated.
    Session 5: Design and Simulation
    11775-27
    Author(s): Aswani Natarajan, Guillaume Demésy, Gilles Renversez, Institut Fresnel (France)
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    A fully integrated efficient surface plasmon coupler composed of a non-tapered waveguide is designed for the infrared through rigorous numerical and theoretical studies. To study such structures, a general methodology to study rigorously discontinuities in open waveguides is used. It relies on a full vector description given by Maxwell’s equations in the framework of the finite element method. In our case, the discontinuities are provided by the graphene patches that are modelled as 2D conductivity pieces. The leaky modes of the invariant structure are first computed and then injected as incident fields in the full structure with the graphene patches and sheet using a scattered field approach. This method we recently published allows to compute all the field and energy quantities needed to characterize the investigated couplers. These couplers are designed to work on the far infrared regime. TAS, a special chalcogenide glass is considered for the guiding layer. The studied waveguide is a rib waveguide. The input part of the studied device is the bare rib waveguide. Following the propagation axis, the device is composed of the coupler region, made of a finite number of graphene patches located just above the core guiding layer. The role of this coupler is to generate electromagnetic fields in the next continuous graphene sheet (also located on the top of the core layer) where the surface plasmon polariton part of the field is propagating. The graphene properties are the ones provided by the Kubo formula. The studied device is fully integrated and no out of plane waves have to be considered, only electromagnetic fields propagating inside the structures are considered. Parametric numerical studies as a function of the waveguide thickness and of the duty cycle parameter describing the coupling patches have been conducted in order to maximize the plasmonic part of the generated field near the graphene layer. Several waveguide and coupler configurations with realistic parameter have been obtained proving a highly efficient and fully integrated coupler. Among these configurations, one where the mode coupling between the main mode and higher orders modes is minimized is of particular interest for practical applications.
    11775-28
    Author(s): Patrice Salzenstein, FEMTO-ST (France); David Bassir, Univ. de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard (France), Ctr. de mathématiques et de leurs applications, ENS Cachan (France)
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    One of the essential steps in setting up an optoelectronic oscillator based on an optical resonator is to master the coupling step between the core of a stretched optical fiber and an optical resonator. We use a finite element based method to achieve an optimization of this step of the process of placing the elements of the optoelectronic oscillator. This is justified by the need for a good control of the alignment so that the optical signal can invest the resonant element by evanescent field while ensuring that it is sufficient for an adequate storage period and a possibility of comparing the phase. between the signal transmitted through the fiber and that which has been delayed. We propose through this poster to come back in more detail on this phenomenon of coupling and optimization.
    11775-29
    Author(s): Dmitriy R. Anfimov, Igor L. Fufurin, Igor S. Golyak, Andrey N. Morozov, Bauman Moscow State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)
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    We consider a setup designed to study infrared radiation reflected from liquid and solid substances located on various substrates in this work. We describe the optical and principal scheme for the experimental setup. We use a laser setup that contains one Alpes Lasers quantum-cascade laser chip with a tuning range 1000 - 1300 1/cm with peak power up to 480 mW and 1 MHz repetition rate. Setup includes two HgCdTe thermoelectrically cooled sensors as reference and signal detector. Each sensor is equipped TEC controller, and the amplifier is mounted. The signal is digitized using a 24-bit ADC with a frequency of 1.5 MHz. The main task was to create a portable device for out-of-laboratory research. Measurement time is about 1 sec. Recently experimentally reached sensitivity is less than one microgram per square cm on various substrates. We estimate the device's possible weight to about 5 kg and the sensitivity of about nanogram per square cm. This work presents the results of processing the diffusely reflected spectra. The diffuse reflectance spectra have low selectivity. So, we use calculational algorithms based on Kramers-Kronig transformations with extrapolation of spectra and phase correction. For substance identification using diffuse reflectance spectra, we use database consists of about 20 substances.
    Session PS: Poster Session
    11775-22
    Author(s): Dmitry A. Korobko, Dmitry Stolyarov, Pavel Itrin, Valeria Ribenek, Ulyanovsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Artem Sysa, Yuriy Shaman, Scientific-Production Complex "Technological Ctr." (Russian Federation); Andrei Fotiadi, Ulyanovsk State Univ. (Russian Federation), Univ. of Mons (Belgium)
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    Saturable absorbers (SA), the key elements of passively mode-locked lasers, can be divided into two large groups: artificial and real SAs. The first group includes saturable absorbers employing Kerr lens, nonlinear loop mirror, and nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR). Though demonstrating ease of use, the lasers based on such SAs are environmentally sensitive and require adjustment at startup, thus limiting their practical application. Semiconductor mirrors (SESAM) or SAs based on topological insulators, graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) belong to the group of real SAs. Apart from lower cost and ease of use, the CNT technology is advantageous over the SESAM technology in ability to implement transmitting SAs greatly facilitating the development of laser circuits based on ring fiber resonators. As a result, CNT-based saturable absorbers have replaced SESAMs in a number of fiber laser schemes. In this work, we focus on the microfiber method of SA fabrication, in which CNTs are deposited on a fiber thermally drawn up to the diameters compared with the radiation mode area. Such absorbers are simple to manufacture and use, but suffer from specific drawbacks. Due to a small taper waist diameter (~ 10 μm), when coated with CNTs at a high concentration or from a liquid phase, SA experiences high losses induced by the fiber deformation. We push forward development of the microfiber method for fabricating CNTs-based SAs. For this purpose, the fiber couplers commonly used in fiber circuits are employed. A method of their fabrication includes simultaneous thermal drawing of two parallel fibers down to the diameters close to the mode field size followed by fusion. Thus, the fibers fused into a coupler are elongated enough to enable interaction of radiation with the CNT film on their surface and saturable absorption. Besides, a fiber coupler is mechanically stronger than a standard microfiber, thus, allows for a simplified technology of CNT-film deposition in a polymer composition while maintaining a high saturation absorption coefficient. In particular, simplification of the technology within this approach allows for less sophisticated (e.g., aerosol) methods of coating with nanomaterials, which, in turn, enables deposition of larger CNT volumes and optimization of SA properties.
    11775-30
    Author(s): Jacopo Pascucci, Fosca Conti, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Sri Krishna Bhogaraju, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany); Raffaella Signorini, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); E. Liu, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany); Danilo Pedron, Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Gordon Elger, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany)
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    Due to assembly processes in microelectronics packaging, semiconductor materials are under undesired stresses. Focus of this study is the monitoring of the local stresses induced on silicon chips after bonding. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used. Silicon chips with thickness of 300 μm were diced from (100) oriented silicon wafers with Boron P/dopant type. The Si-chips present a Ti/Ni/Ag metallization and were assembled onto copper substrates of 1.5 mm thickness. Three different bonding processes were considered: soldering with AuSn alloy, sintering with a commercial silver based paste, and sintering with an in-house developed copper based paste. The sintering paste was obtained from a brass flakes after etching with HCl to remove the zinc and to have nanostructured surface modifications. Polyethylene glycol 600 was used as binder. Raman spectra were acquired using an excitation beam at 514.5 nm at -50° C, 20° C, and 180° C, before and after bonding onto the Cu substrate. To locally characterize the stress, the Raman signals were collected at 100 positions on the surface of the Si-chip. In presence of stress, the sharp peak at ca. 520 cm-1, corresponding to the Si phonon mode at center zone, changes position in frequency. Experimental results indicate that the assembled samples undergo stress phenomena. Maximum values are measured with AuSn samples, ca. 500 MPa, while sintered samples are less stressed, with values between -80 and 200 MPa for Ag-sintering, and between -100 and 200 MPa for Cu-sintering. Thermomechanical stress determinations can be correlated to the physical-chemistry of the bonding process to optimize preparation conditions of optoelectronics devices.
    11775-31
    Author(s): Zhe Xu, Inspur Beijing Electronic Information Industry Co. Ltd. (China), State Key Lab. of High-end Server & Storage Technology (China)
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    We demonstrate the optical trapping of single dielectric nanospheres in a microfluidic water chip using a coupled T-shaped copper plasmonic nanoantenna at 1064 nm wavelength. The T-shaped Cu nanoantenna consists of two identical Cu elements separated by a 50 nm gap and each element is designed with two nanoblocks. The field enhancement results in optical fields to be confined in the spatial slot region, which is in a Fabry–Perot cavity. Our nanoantenna is based on the metal-on-insulator platform. At the trapping wavelength used here, Cu has a very similar permittivity as gold. We perform simulations of the near-field distribution, optical force (via the Maxwell stress tensor method), temperature rise, and fluid velocity during the trapping process. We also demonstrate how the presence of an oxide layer of cupric oxide (CuO) and the heat sink silicon (Si) substrate influence the optical trapping properties of copper nanoantennas. Our optical trapping, which is performed in water space and with an infrared laser, indicates only minor to local fields with surface oxidation. Our low-cost Cu device can provide the same level of optical trapping properties as that of gold and can be conveniently integrated into the lab-on-a-chip devices.
    11775-33
    Author(s): Patrícia Santos, Pedro G. Vaz, Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal); Andreia S. F. Gaudêncio, University of Coimbra, LIBPhys-UC, Depart. of Physics (Portugal); Miguel Morgado, Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research (Portugal), Univ. of Coimbra (Portugal); Nelson A. M. Pereira, Marta Pineiro, Teresa M.V.D. Pinho e Melo, João Cardoso, Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal)
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    Compressive single pixel imaging (C-SPI) is a novel imaging technique able to reconstruct images using only a single pixel detector and a partial measurement of the scene. This technique uses different structured illumination, generated by a spatial modulator, to illuminate the scene and measures the reflected or transmitted light intensities. This compressive stage allows for a sub-Nyquist set of measurements, which significantly increases the technique efficiency, while maintaining a good reconstruction image quality. An experimental setup was developed to study the ability of C-SPI to determine the lifetime and maximum intensity of an oxygen sensitive biomarker (Pt(II) ring-fused chlorins). This biomarker phosphorescence is quenched in the presence of oxygen resulting in less emitted light and smaller lifetimes. The proposed method showed that SPI has the ability to perform simultaneous phosphorescence lifetime and intensity imaging. The introduction of compressive sensing makes this technology more attractive to practical applications because it lowers the amount of time necessary to image the sample. The C-SPI is a simple and less expensive technique because it dismisses the use of a fast two dimensional detector (CCD) and the associated electronics, as well as mechanical scanning procedures. Also, multiple single pixel detectors, sensitive to different wavelengths, can make these instruments versatile and allow for simultaneous phosphorescence biomarkers analysis. The next steps in the research will be to study changes in the sample concentration and different percentages of dissolved oxygen.
    11775-34
    Author(s): Igor L. Fufurin, Iliya Golyak, Sergey Bashkin, Stanislav Knyazev, Larisa Timashova, Andrey N. Morozov, Bauman Moscow State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)
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    In this paper, we consider an integrated optical system designed to analyze the composition of ambient air. The optical system consists of a dynamic Michelson interferometer and a multi-pass White gas cell. We use steady state IR radiation source, that is integrated in the system. IR Radiation is modulated by passing through the interferometer, and then enters a multi-pass gas cell. We use two MCT TE cooled photodetector as reference and signal detectors. To digitize registered signal, we use a 24-bit ADC. For the described system, the sensitivity limit is about ppb levels, that allows detecting volatile substances at the maximum permissible concentrations. Described FTIR spectroscopy systems can be used for ambient air analysis and for breathomics applications.
    11775-35
    Author(s): Arthur Doliveira, Lucas Garnier, Univ. de Rennes 1 (France); Fabrice Mahe, Univ. de Rennes 1 (France); Hervé Lhermite, Univ. de Rennes 1 (France); Etienne Gaviot, Lab. d'Acoustique de l'Univ. du Maine (France); Bruno Bêche, Univ. de Rennes 1 (France)
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    In integrated photonics, the calculation of the solutions regarding the propagation equations modes may be summed up as a problem with eigenvalues and eigenvectors to be solved. Based on such global principle, we have investigated the ability to monitor the impact of a lack of material (or void) on the evolution of eigenvalues of waveguides. To this end, specific families of resonators have been designed with several slits nano-inscribed upon them. The signal resonant light is then characterized while considering the whole geometry taking account of the void: thus, it contains the information regarding the pre-defined recessed volume. The UV 210 polymer is processed (deep UV 248 nm) so as to shape specific slots within a set of waveguides. Then, such waveguides have been re-looped as micro-resonators circuits with a view to measuring experimentally relevant variations of the eigenvalue considering the Free Spectral Range (FSR) associated with resonances. Experiments allowed us to highlight such changes in effective indices clearly correlated to the amount of void. As the lack of material reaches 10% (imprinted within space), a noticeable variation can be observed. It made possible to measure the impact of a given lack of material (defined grooved volume) within the cyclic resonators, on the measured and normalized FSR optical quantity showing then a dynamic evolution close to 1.5%. Moreover, simulations have been carried out so as to confirm the experimental measurements: accordingly, the relevant results allow us to validate a quantified description regarding the hollowed out volume (or mass recessed). Then, by way of the COMSOL software, apt simulations allowed us to confirm the measured evolution in agreement with experiments. This study provides a way to evaluate the global dynamic ranging effect due to a given mass hollowed out from such looped structures as regards the entailed spectral signature linked to the eigenvalues.
    11775-36
    Author(s): Fabrice Mahe, Lucas Garnier, Bruno Bêche, Univ. de Rennes 1 (France)
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    In this study, we are interested in giant tapers operating in a totally Multi-Mode Interference (MMI) regime capable of producing still an adequate single-mode field at the output. The idea is therefore to provide an answer on a possible giant acceptable limit of such MMI tapers still causing a single-mode output and then determining which opto-geometric parameters on this simple mathematical object and geometry act on the behavior. To this end, we have defined energy criteria per volume at the output. We consider families of tapers with a constant height corresponding to the output rib waveguide and a triangle shape. Each taper is defined by its input size, its length and its output size. The objective is to determine the minimum length of the taper to get enough energy or the desired guided mode(s) in the output waveguide. Two various approaches have been investigated and compared: numerical simulations by a finite element method (COMSOL) and a pure mathematical and geometrical study in conditions of total reflection on the walls of the taper plus a specific plane transformation. When the length of the taper increases, the energy increases in the core up to a limit value and decreases in the cladding. The size of the output guide is fixed to ws=2 microns and the input size of the taper varies from typically 6 microns to ‘giant’ 400 microns. Four kind of behavior were identified. For small lengths all the energy is reflected by the walls of the taper. For first intermediate lengths a part of the light is diffused in the cladding and the other part is guided to the output guide. For following intermediate lengths the major part of the light is guided to the output guide with multi-modes propagation. Lastly for greater lengths only the fundamental guided mode appears in the output guide.
    11775-37
    Author(s): Daniel Schneider, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB (Germany); Abhijeet Shrotri, Technische Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe (Germany); Holger Flatt, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB (Germany); Oliver Stübbe, Technische Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe (Germany); Roland Lachmayer, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany)
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    Visible light communication (VLC) allows the dual use of lighting and wireless communication systems by modulation of illumination devices. However, to increase the performance, typically, beam-forming measures are taken creating pencil beams, thus contradicting the illumination purpose. In order to optimize the performance trade off between efficient illumination and communication, the switching capabilities of illumination LEDs are examined. Illumination LEDs with standard drivers and without beam-forming show limited applicability for communication purposes as they are not optimized for the necessary switching capability (f~11 MHz) and coherence. Methods to enhance the electrical current by pre-equalisation, biasing, carrier sweeping and current shaping are examined in respect to the illumination LED's communication performance. A novel driver scheme is derived which achieves considerably higher switching frequencies (f~100MHz) without employing beam-forming at the illumination LED. This driver is able to obtain a data rate of up to 200 Mbit/s at a distance of 3.2 m, using on-off keying (OOK) modulation technique. Therefore, it is feasible to apply the LED driver by implementing standardised illumination devices in VLC systems.
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    The optoelectronic proliferation of liquid crystals based passive microwave and millimetre-wave reconfigurable technology relies not only upon low-cost micro-fabrication techniques, but also on high-fidelity yet efficient device design and simulation methodologies based on an in-depth understanding of the complex coupling between wave-guiding geometries and multi-material systems through multi-physics models. While closed-form analytical solutions are not possible for multi-volume complex geometries, numerically attempting the problem is of research and development interest, in particular for gaining fundamental insights on the coupling between liquid crystals optoelectronic response and millimetre-wave interactions, hence producing guidelines for in-house code development of specific optoelectronic device prototypes without resorting to commercial off the shelf software. To this end and by way of illustration, this work proposes a novel mixed-signal dielectric-partitioning model for local polarisation and tunability analysis into a liquid crystals based shielded coplanar waveguide tunable delay line targeting applications in the 57-66 GHz band. Due to the transverse electromagnetic nature of the fully enclosed coplanar waveguide structure, the traditional two-step approach (liquid crystals’ quasi-electrostatic simulation in microscopic scale progressing to millimetre-wave simulation in macroscopic scale) could be rearranged into one single stage in terms of the molecular directors with respect to the identical electric vector field distributions. The proposed standalone and quasi-analytical model is verified by experimental measurements implemented on a 0–π tunable true-time-delay phase shifter, with a 7.94% improvement in the predicting accuracy of the effective line length required, and a huge reduction in computational costs as compared with the traditional two-step method. The proposed efficient model is envisioned to inform the development of highly efficient in silico tools with high fidelity for liquid crystals based reconfigurable applications beyond displays.
    11775-44
    Author(s): Vladislav Zaitcev, Samara Univ. (Russian Federation), Image Processing Systems Institute of the RAS (Russian Federation); Sergey Stafeev, Image Processing Systems Institute (Russian Federation); Victor V. Kotlyar, Image Processing Systems Institute (Russian Federation)
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    By simulating tight focusing of vector beams with azimuthal polarization of fractional order, the effect of the deviation of the beam order from m = 2 (i.e., the case when the backflow is observed at the center of the focal spot) was investigated. It was shown that the reverse flow is retained in the center of the spot even with a significant deviation of the beam order from m = 2 - it is retained up to m = 1.55.
    Conference Chair
    National Research Council Canada (Canada)
    Conference Chair
    Institute of Photonics and Electronics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic)
    Conference Chair
    Univ. de Málaga (Spain)
    Program Committee
    Univ. Gent (Belgium)
    Program Committee
    The Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)
    Program Committee
    National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)
    Program Committee
    Acacia Communications Inc. (United States)
    Program Committee
    Daivid Fowler
    CEA-LETI (France)
    Program Committee
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
    Program Committee
    Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada)
    Program Committee
    Institut d'Optique Graduate School (France)
    Program Committee
    Technische Univ. Eindhoven (Netherlands)
    Program Committee
    Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
    Program Committee
    Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
    Program Committee
    Jarmila Müllerová
    Univ. of Žilina (Slovakia)
    Program Committee
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Nachrichtentechnik Heinrich-Hertz-Institut (Germany)
    Program Committee
    Institut d'Électronique Fondamentale (France)
    Program Committee
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)