This conference is the latest in the series on Ground Based and Airborne Telescopes. Construction of the next generation of extremely large telescopes is underway: ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are becoming reality and involve contributing teams from all over the world. The large numbers of automated survey facilities with custom built small and medium sized robotic telescopes, as well as world-wide collaborations of existing facilities are revolutionizing both the construction paradigmata and scientific opportunities. Automation and robotic systems in construction and operations are either planned for or are being adopted. The sustainability and the societal impact of telescope construction and operations is an important aspect of planning for future facilities and improving existing ones.

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) operating. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is in the final stages of integration. At the Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO), the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST), and the Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) construction and integration are well underway. The Iranian National Observatory (INO) has achieved first light. The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) Observatory received a green light to start construction and antennas are being deployed. The Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) continues to make progress towards the official start of construction. Scientific Balloon programs are pushing altitude boundaries, developing detector technologies, and producing valuable science. Project teams for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) and Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE), amongst others, are developing designs. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) continue to increase their scientific capabilities and productivity. Many operating observatories are making major investments to deploy new instruments, increase efficiency, enable remote observation, or operate with improved performance.

Papers are solicited on the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and upgrade of existing and future ground-based and airborne telescopes and arrays observing in all wavelength bands. We encourage all authors to include aspects of sustainability in their proposed papers. Specific topics include: JOINT SESSION AS103/AS108:

As before at the SPIE Astro conferences, we again look forward to an integrated session on modeling as a driver of observatory design with the Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management Conference on mutually interesting and relevant topics such as: To indicate your interest in participating in this joint session, please select 'Modeling as a Driver of Observatory Design (Joint session with AS103/AS108) from the list of topics during your submission.

Workshop Sessions AS103:

We plan for some sessions during the conference to be held in workshop format with significantly more time for comments and discussion. In doing so, we continue the productive and enlightening conversations of the past conferences. These workshops will utilize a moderated format with short, informal presentations by interested parties and when possible, collection and sharing of meaningful metrics across facilities. Presentations for the workshop sessions shall be selected from the submitted papers. Topics proposed for this conference are: ;
In progress – view active session
Conference 13094

Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes X

View Session ∨
  • 1: Enclosures
  • 2: Mounts
  • 3: Observatory Upgrades & Repairs
  • Monday Plenary Session
  • 4: Observatory Construction Updates
  • 5: Modeling as a Driver of Observatory Design - Joint Session with AS103 and AS108
  • Tuesday Plenary session
  • 6: Commissioning
  • 7: Commissioning & Ops I
  • 8: Commissioning & Ops II
  • Wednesday Plenary Session
  • 9: ELTs
  • 10: Astronomy Community Relationships
  • 11: Gravitational Wave Observatories
  • 12: ELT Enabling Technologies I
  • 13: ELT Enabling Technologies II
  • Thursday Plenary Session
  • 14: Future Observatories I
  • 15: Future Observatories II
  • 16: Robotic Telescopes
  • 17: Metrology & Alignment
  • 18: Alignment & WFS
  • 19: Opto-Mechanical Designs I
  • 20: Opto-Mechanical Designs II
  • Posters - Commissioning
  • Posters - Commissioning & Operations
  • Posters - ELT Enabling Technologies
  • Posters - Enclosures
  • Posters - Future Observatories
  • Posters - Metrology & Alignment
  • Posters - Modeling as a driver of Observatory Design
  • Posters - Mounts
  • Posters - Observatory Construction Updates
  • Posters - Observatory Upgrades & Repairs
  • Posters - Opto-Mechanical Designs
  • Posters - Robotic Telescopes
  • Posters - Site Characterization
Session 1: Enclosures
16 June 2024 • 10:10 - 11:50 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Trupti Ranka, GMTO Corp. (United States), Frank W. Kan, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. (United States)
13094-1
Author(s): Bruce C. Bigelow, Gustavo Arriagada, Christopher Madden, Francisco Meza, Hector Swett, Eduardo Villar, Miroslav Vulinovic, GMTO Corp. (United States)
16 June 2024 • 10:10 - 10:30 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), one of 3 planned extremely large telescopes (ELT), will have a 25.4-meter diameter effective aperture, and will be located on the summit of Cerro Las Campanas in Chile. Here we discuss the latest GMT site master plan, and designs for the site infrastructure, telescope enclosure, and support facilities. In late 2021, GMTO selected IDOM (Bilbao, Spain) to take the preliminary enclosure reference design through to final design and construction documents (drawings and specification). Over the last 2 years, all aspects of the enclosure design, including structures, mechanisms, pier seismic isolation system, and control systems, have been refined as they passed through a 60% critical design review (CDR) in 2023 and approach the final design review (FDR) in 2024. We discuss the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach for the enclosure, application of dynamic 3D models for visualizations, and design of the Building Automation System (BAS) for managing access, security, audio/video monitoring, lighting, HVAC, and related functions. Major work at the GMTO site started in 2015, and here we discuss the latest plans for construction.
13094-2
Author(s): Guillermo A. Blanc, Las Campanas Observatory (United States); Francisco Morales, FRISO Arquitectura (Chile); Felipe Besser, Mauricio Flores, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); Cynthia Froning, The Univ. of Texas McDonald Observatory (United States); Thomas M. Herbst, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Nick Konidaris, Solange Ramirez, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Marcelo Rodriguez, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); José Sanchez-Gallego, Univ. of Washington (United States); Stefanie Wachter, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Carlos Godoy, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); Leon Aslan, Julia Brady, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Francesco DiMille, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); Niv Drory, McDonald Observatory, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States); Juna Kollmeier, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Soojong Pak, Kyung Hee Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Abner Zapata, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); Alan Umoto, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Mingyeong Yang, Kyung Hee Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
16 June 2024 • 10:30 - 10:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Local Volume Mapper instrument (LVMi) is a new facility at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) composed of four 16cm siderostat-telescopes, a fiber-based IFU system, and three medium-resolution optical spectrographs, that allows for extremely-wide-field optical integral-field spectroscopy. LVMi is being used to carry out the LVM survey, one of the core programs in the SDSS-V project, focused on mapping the Milky Way plane, the Magellanic Clouds, and other local volume galaxies with 3D spectroscopy. The LVMi Enclosure hosts all the LVMi sub-systems, and their control, environmental monitoring, and utilities systems. In this article we present the design, construction, and performance of the LVMi Enclosure. In particular, the enclosure includes a thermally insulated environmentally controlled clean room hosting the spectrographs, an adjacent siderostat-telescope platform covered by a roll-off type roof, an automated LN2 delivery system for the LVMi spectrographs, a custom-built HVAC system for ventilation and thermal control, and a metrology and control system that allows for efficient robotic operations.
13094-3
Author(s): Douglas R. Neill, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
16 June 2024 • 10:50 - 11:10 Japan Standard Time
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Rubin Observatory Dome was designed and built by EIE Ground Technologies Srl - Company of EIE GROUP with headquarters in Venice-Mestre, Italy. The Design Phase was completed in February 2016. On-site activities started in the spring of 2017. The Dome is approaching the final completion of testing and integration. The Dome utilizes a steel structure. This supports a bi-parting, two door aperture, a uniquely designed moving Light Windscreen, a Light Baffled Louver System, an overhead bridge crane, a rear access door and numerous platforms. In this paper, we present the status of the final assembly, integration and testing.
13094-4
Author(s): Armado Bilbao Arechabala, Lourdes Cabezuelo, Nerea Castro, Manuel Cuartas Meseguer, Alberto Fernández García, Esther Fernandez, Angel Gomez, Miguel Martin, Juan Martinez, Francisco Sanchez, Paula Sierra, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Gustavo Arriagada, GMTO Corp. (Chile); Bruce C. Bigelow, Christopher Madden, GMTO Corp. (United States); Francisco Meza, Hector Swett, Eduardo Villar, GMTO Corp. (Chile); Miroslav Vulinovic, GMTO Corp. (United States)
16 June 2024 • 11:10 - 11:30 Japan Standard Time
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The GMT enclosure detail engineering design has been consolidated to confidently face the future construction phase. This final detailed design phase has focused on delivering a cost-effective reliable enclosure that can be efficiently built in Las Campanas remote location providing a resilient integrated system that will house and protect GMT telescope against adverse environmental and seismic conditions. A seamless integration of a wide variety of disciplines including concrete and steel structures, mechanisms, mechanical-electrical-plumbing (MEP), telescope specific utilities, control systems and architectural has been vital to comply with the strict requirements of the project. Besides, a thorough validation plan has been produced comprising analytical verification, early prototypes, factory and site assembly and testing plans (FAT & SAT), to guarantee performance and reliability of all subsystems at the site. Furthermore, construction procedures, techniques and logistics have been reviewed and considered when developing design key features together with assembly specifications so that the enclosure is constructed at the site in a safe and effective manner.
13094-5
Author(s): Pascal Martinez, Anja Hofmann, Mark Wallace, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
16 June 2024 • 11:30 - 11:50 Japan Standard Time
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The telescope Main Structure and the Dome of the ELT are being procured by ESO as an integrated system together with the auxiliary building and the service plants and are supplied by the ACe Consortium. The contract was signed in May 2016 and despite various challenges and obstacles – commercial, technical, and other – the progress that has been achieved to date is significant and tangible. Both the Dome (including Auxiliary Building) and the Telescope Structure have passed Final Design Review; manufacture of the structural elements is approaching completion; the first mechanisms have been tested and delivered to site; and the publicly available footage of the construction speaks for itself. In this paper we will describe the advancement reached by the project and discuss some technical aspects associated to the design.
Break
Lunch Break 11:50 - 13:10
Session 2: Mounts
16 June 2024 • 13:10 - 14:50 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Sandrine J. Thomas, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States), Jason Spyromilio, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
13094-6
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Francesco Rampini, Manfredi Amalfi, Riccardo Bressan, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Eric Gabriel, AMOS S.A. (Belgium); Cahir Yesilyaprak, Ataturk Univ. Astrophysics Research & Application Ctr. (ATASAM) (Turkey); Onur Keskin, Isik Üniv. (Turkey); Cristiana Manfrin, Cristina Battistel, Lorenzo Vio, Tiziano Niero, Leonardo Ghedin, Johana L. Martinez, Tommaso Marchiori, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy)
16 June 2024 • 13:10 - 13:30 Japan Standard Time
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The DAG (Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi) Eastern Anatolia Observatory is provided with a 4m-class optical and infrared telescope. Since 2015, the project has seen the crucial contribution of EIE GROUP in the Design, Production and on-site Installation of the mount structure, in contract with AMOS company. . Now, on-site assembly activities have been completed. This document focuses on the on-site assembly activities of the EIE Group, as well as the related internal pre-commissioning, commissioning, and functional and acceptance tests.
13094-7
Author(s): Masahiro Sugimoto, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Yutaka Ezaki, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Kyle Kinoshita, Amir Sadjadpour, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Junji Takaki, Yusuke Saruta, Tomoya Hattori, Hayato Hoshino, Yoshihiro Hosokawa, Makoto Endo, Yusuke Sugie, Masaki Haruna, Noboru Kawaguchi, Yasushi Horiuchi, Masaki Tabata, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Hiroshi Terada, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Seiichi Tazawa, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Hirofumi Okita, Subaru Telescope, NAOJ (United States); Koji Omata, Hiroshi Kusumoto, Koichi Okamoto, Masao Saito, Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
16 June 2024 • 13:30 - 13:50 Japan Standard Time
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National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is responsible for procuring the Telescope Structure System (STR) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to conduct the preliminary/final design and pre-production work since 2012. The final design was successfully matured through the multiple design reviews covering mechanical, controls, auxiliary systems like the Segment Handling System (SHS), Aerial Service Platform (ASP), Elevator (ELV), safety, and the seismic isolation system. TMT STR is currently is the pre-production phase and already passed the pre-production reviews for major rotating mechanical structures. In this paper, we present the design overview of the TMT STR and current programmatic status.
13094-8
Author(s): Brian Stalder, Freddy Munoz, Bruno C. Quint, Douglas R. Neill, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
16 June 2024 • 13:50 - 14:10 Japan Standard Time
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The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is an integrated survey system, currently under construction in Chile, to accomplish a 10-year optical survey of the southern sky. The 8.4m Simonyi Survey Telescope mount is nearing completion and undergoing final verification and performance testing. Since the system is optimized for etendue, the telescope mount slewing performance is particularly critical to overall survey efficiency. For example, this high performance mount is capable of slewing 3.5 degrees in a 3-second period. An overview of the mount subsystems is presented and selected dynamic performance results from on-site testing are described.
13094-9
Author(s): Samuel Park, Keath Beifus, Chris Echols, Colby Gottschalk, King-Ming Lam, GMTO Corp. (United States); Nathan P. Loewen, Sightline Engineering Ltd. (Canada); Byron Smith, X Double Dot, LLC (United States); William S. Burgett, GMTO Corp. (United States)
16 June 2024 • 14:10 - 14:30 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) Mount is the structural, mechanical, hydraulic, and electronic system that provides the overall framework for mounting and alignment of optics and science instruments, supports payloads and utilities, and provides the three main axes of motion consisting of azimuth, elevation, and Gregorian Instrument Rotator (GIR) rotations. The GMTO Corp. has selected OHB Digital Connect and Ingersoll Machine Tools to supply the final design, fabrication, and installation of the GMT Mount. The Final Design Review of the Mount subsystem was successfully passed in June 2023. The first phase of fabrication has begun starting with the Azimuth Track Segments. This paper will describe the final design configuration of the Mount, major subassemblies, fabrication and test phasing, fabrication highlights to-date, and an overview of the prototype testing that validated the final design parameters.
13094-10
Author(s): Eberhard Sust, Dietmar Koch, Jens Langguth, Ulrich Weis, Benjamin Hauska, Arne Mann, Aleksej Kiselev, Alexander Rohr, Alexei Ippa, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany)
16 June 2024 • 14:30 - 14:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope mount is under design and development at OHB Digital Connect since 2019. It passed final design review in June 2023. To fulfill the challenging accuracy and functionality requirements, complex design solutions needed to be developed. In order to support and validate the design of those subsystems and to provide reliable data and parameter for performance analysis, a variety of prototyping tests have been performed during the design phase on critical subsystems like support interface to the concrete foundation, the earthquake damping system , the hydrostatic bearings and direct drive system. Optimization of vibration sources like cable wraps and electronic cabinets have been done supported by tests. The covers of the primary mirrors with a diameter of more than eight meters were developed and tested in full scale. The presentation provides an overview on the main subsystem development test activities and shows test setups and results of the main prototyping tests supporting the subsystems design and analyses.
Break
Coffee break 02:50 - 03:20
Session 3: Observatory Upgrades & Repairs
16 June 2024 • 15:20 - 17:40 Japan Standard Time
13094-11
Author(s): James Hoag, Paul F. Jeffers, Heather Marshall, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (United States)
16 June 2024 • 15:20 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
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The DKIST Enclosure Azimuth Mechanism is responsible for accurate positioning of the Enclosure in azimuth and provides a second degree of freedom to the altitude movement of the Enclosure Shutter which enables an overall position accuracy of 19 arcmin point-to-point at the Enclosure Aperture. The mechanism is primarily comprised of sixteen track rail segments, eight driven bogies, and two idler bogies, and it serves as the interface between the fixed support building Ring Girder structure and the rotating Enclosure structure. Visual observations and control system torque data have shown evidence of a loss of contact at the interface between the individual bogie wheels and the track rail sections. As a result, a project was initiated to improve the overall flatness of the azimuth track rails to improve performance of the Enclosure and reliability of the mechanism components.
13094-12
Author(s): Eric J. Grigel, David Adriaanse, Gercia A. Falcon, M3 Engineering & Technology Corp. (United States); Dana Chandler, Eric Chandler, Andrew Dean, The Chandler Companies (United States)
16 June 2024 • 15:40 - 16:00 Japan Standard Time
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Ground-based telescope observatories are typically located in harsh environments. Due to their location, they are subject to a wide range of severe environmental conditions such as seismic events, strong winds and large diurnal temperature swings including freeze/thaw cycles. It is common for telescope observatories to experience fatigue and degradation as a result of their unique dynamic use within these harsh environmental conditions. One specific result of this degradation includes rainwater leakage into the rotating telescope enclosure. This water leakage has the potential to cause serious damage to interior components of the telescope enclosure, including the telescope and its sensitive instruments. Using the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope on Maunakea in Hawaii as a case study, this paper will present innovative and traditional techniques for detection of rainwater leakage into the rotating telescope enclosure and other sensitive areas.
13094-13
Author(s): Aleksej Kiselev, Matthias Reichert, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Tony Mroczkowski, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
16 June 2024 • 16:00 - 16:20 Japan Standard Time
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In the proposed paper, an energy recuperation system for main drives of large telescopes is presented. The system consists of supercapacitors, integrated in the DC-link of motor inverters through bidirectional DC-DC converters. The paper deals with hardware challenges arising from the use of supercapacitors as well as power flow control optimization. The proposed system increases the efficiency of main drives significantly, contributing to the idea of future sustainable observatories.
13094-14
Author(s): Joel Payne, John S. Hudek, Jason N. Worden, Dennis McBride, Robert L. Meeks, W. M. Keck Observatory (United States); Bernardo C. Lopez, Timothy C. Sink, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Samuel Park, GMTO Corp. (United States)
16 June 2024 • 16:20 - 16:40 Japan Standard Time
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Each of the Keck telescopes incorporates a 3” thick layer of grout which serves as the primary load path between the steel azimuth journal and the main body of the reinforced concrete pier. Keck has observed increased journal deflections of the Keck 1 telescope under load, affecting performance. Investigation into the source of the deflections found deterioration of the cementitious grout, which is believed caused by a combination of exposure to oil and cyclic loading from the telescope. The JPL team responsible for the Deep Space Network antennas solved a comparable issue by changing from a cementitious grout to an oil impervious epoxy grout, so a similar approach was investigated at Keck. This paper presents: 1) Background and history. 2) Material qualification testing of the replacement epoxy grout. 3) Procedural validation leading up to a trial repair of a 16 degree section of the Keck 1 pier. 4) Lessons learned from the trial repair which occurred in October 2023—including preliminary performance monitoring, as available. The potential for material creep is a specific topic of interest.
13094-15
Author(s): Nimesh A. Patel, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Satoki Matsushita, Philippe Raffin, Pierre Martin-Cocher, Chih-Wei L. Huang, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Klaus J. Willmeroth, CPI Vertex Antennentechnik GmbH (Germany); George Nystrom, Jun-Yi Koay, Cristina Romero-Canizales, Keiichi Asada, Ming-Tang Chen, Johnson Han, Paul T. P. Ho, Teddy Huang, Derek Kubo, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Timothy J. Norton, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); T. K. Sridharan, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States)
16 June 2024 • 16:40 - 17:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Greenland Telescope (GLT) currently achieves a blind pointing accuracy of 2 arcseconds rms, sufficient for 230 GHz VLBI operations at Pituffik Space Base. Plans to relocate the antenna to Summit Station are underway to enable observations at >=690 GHz, which requires improving pointing accuracy due to smaller beam sizes at higher frequencies. Since achieving the ALMA-standard referenced pointing accuracy of less than 1 arcsecond for single-dish operations is impractical due to limited sensitivity, GLT's strategy involves real-time adjustments using data from metrology sensors, following the Systematic Pointing Error Model (SPEM) by the antenna manufacturer (Vertex Antennas). This paper highlights our metrology system's role in predicting pointing corrections through real-time monitoring of inclinometers, linear, and temperature sensors. Additionally, we introduce a night-viable optical guidescope system for astrometric referencing of star-fields, aiming to enhance pointing precision for high-frequency VLBI with the GLT.
13094-16
Author(s): Thomas Schneider, Gemini Observatory (United States); Myung Cho, Gary Poczulp, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Charles Cavedoni, Heather Carr, Gemini Observatory (United States); Ron Harris, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Katie Smither, Gemini Observatory (United States); Slawomir Bucki, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Clayton Ah Hee, Gemini Observatory (United States)
16 June 2024 • 17:00 - 17:20 Japan Standard Time
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In October 2022, there was an accident with Gemini North Primary Mirror (M1) during routine mirror movements that caused it to come in contact with its washcart. The M1 came into contact with an earthquake restraint on the washcart as it was being moved in preparation for stripping and recoating activities. After the incident, analyses were conducted to determine the extent of the damage and the necessary steps to restore the telescope to normal operations. This paper provides detailed explanations how the Gemini North telescope was returned to normal operations.
13094-17
Author(s): Albert Tomás, Antonio Marzoa, Joan Manel Casalta, Oscar Maroto, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain)
16 June 2024 • 17:20 - 17:40 Japan Standard Time
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During the last SPIE congress, SENER presented a novel concept of a system for cleaning of optical surfaces, initially conceived for ground-based astronomical observatories. The proposed concept is based on laser cleaning, a technology broadly used in industrial application, which has been carefully adjusted to gently cleaning the mirror while guarantee the integrity of the coating and, even more important, the substrate. This paper reports the obtained results during the system tests and presents the conclusions and summarises the following steps in the product development.
Monday Plenary Session
17 June 2024 • 08:30 - 10:00 Japan Standard Time
Join us for the Monday morning plenary talks.
Break
Coffee Break 10:00 - 10:20
Session 4: Observatory Construction Updates
17 June 2024 • 10:20 - 12:30 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Bruce C. Bigelow, GMTO Corp. (United States), Maria Grazia Labate, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom)
13094-18
Author(s): Victor Krabbendam, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
17 June 2024 • 10:20 - 10:50 Japan Standard Time
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Vera C. Rubin Observatory is the combination of a 8.4-m telescope, a 3.2 gigapixels camera and a sophisticated data pipeline and it is now in the final stage of construction/commissioning in Chile. In the last couple of years, every single part of the observatory has gone through tremendous progress. The telescope is fully populated with its components except for the glass mirrors and moving, the LSSTCamera is undergoing final performance testing before being shipped to Chile and the data pipeline is ready to receive and reduce the first on-sky images. Meanwhile, the Education and Public Outreach team has paved the way to operations by successfully finishing construction and started implementing their full program.
13094-19
Author(s): Stuart McMuldroch, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Germany); Roberta Zanin, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Italy); Stefan Schlenstedt, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Germany); Stefano Stanghellini, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Italy); Volker Heinz, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Chile); Paolo Calisse, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Spain); Nick Whyborn, Federico Ferrini, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Italy)
17 June 2024 • 10:50 - 11:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very high energies. The CTAO is entering the construction phase of the project, and the development of telescopes and observatory infrastructure is already underway. With an expected completion later this decade, the CTAO will be an order of magnitude more sensitive, have a wider field of view, and have unprecedented accuracy detecting high-energy gamma rays compared to existing smaller observatories. With both northern (La Palma, Canary Islands) and southern (Paranal, Chile) sites, the CTAO will provide full sky coverage over energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Efforts on all major subsystems are progressing, with designs based on prototypes or operational heritage, and we will begin operating the first accepted telescopes in 2025.
13094-20
Author(s): Joseph P. McMullin, Philip Diamond, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom), The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Andrea Casson, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom); Tracy Cheetham, SKA Observatory (South Africa); Peter Dewdney, Robert Laing, Maria Grazia Labate, Ben Lewis, Nick Rees, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom); Antony Schinckel, SKA Observatory (Australia); Luca Stringhetti, Gerhard Swart, Andre van Es, Marco Caiazzo, Lewis Ball, Antonio Chrysostomou, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom); Lindsay Magnus, SKA Observatory (South Africa); Sarah Pearce, SKA Observatory (Australia); Simon Berry, Robert Braun, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom)
17 June 2024 • 11:20 - 11:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Square Kilometre Array Observatory will be the world's largest radio telescope facility and will operate across the frequency range of 50 MHz to 15.4 GHz through a pair of interferometric arrays, SKA-Low (Australia; 50-350 MHz) and SKA-Mid (South Africa; 350 MHz - 15.4 GHz). With the construction approved in July 2021, and permitting access provided to both sites by December 2022, we report on the infrastructure development, manufacturing, early integration activities and initial array deployments. We highlight the progress against the planning and the trajectory for completion across the budget, schedule and performance baselines. We note the challenges encountered and navigated in the execution of large research infrastructure construction as well as the broader impacts for such investments, beyond the planned scientific research.
13094-21
Author(s): Tony D. Travouillon, Jamie Soon, Anna Moore, Ken Freeman, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Orsola De Marco, Stuart Rider, Simon Ellis, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Alexander Heger, Monash Univ. (Australia); Jeffrey Cooke, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia); Jonathan Bland-Hawthorn, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Michael C. B. Ashley, The Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Hadrien Devillepoix, Curtin Univ. (Australia); Jarek Antoszewski, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia); Roberto Soria, Chinese National Astronomical Observatory (China); Mansi M. Kasliwal, Caltech (United States); Robert Simcoe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
17 June 2024 • 11:50 - 12:10 Japan Standard Time
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The Dynamic REd All-sky Monitoring Survey (DREAMS) is a near-infrared fully automated all-sky survey that will be conducted using a custom built 0.5m telescope that will be located at the Australian National University’s Siding Spring Observatory. The telescope feeds 6 individual InGasAs cameras spanning a total field-of-view of 3.8sq.deg using a novel optomechanical design. Here we present the finished details of the telescope construction and its measured performance as well as details of the survey it will perform of the Southern transient sky.
13094-22
Author(s): Stephen C. Parshley, Cornell Univ. (United States); Ronan Higgins, Univ. zu Köln (Germany)
17 June 2024 • 12:10 - 12:30 Japan Standard Time
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The Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST) is a 6-meter diameter, clear aperture, submillimeter (submm) / terahertz (THz) telescope for the CCAT Observatory. The crossed-Dragone optics are modified to correct for coma, resulting in a 7.8° field of view across a roughly 2-meter diameter focal plane. The primary and secondary mirrors are of comparable size and are composed of aluminum tiles set on a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer backup structure. The completed mirrors are mounted inside an Invar tipping structure, which is supported by a steel yoke. The system will deliver a total wavefront error of less than 22 microns at the focal plane. The observatory is located at an exquisite site for submm astronomy at 5600 meters above sea level on Cerro Chajnantor in the Atacama Desert. The site is classified under Chilean law as extreme altitude and has restrictions on working time, as well as specific safety issues and efficiency concerns. To help mitigate this, the project has elected to do a full trial assembly of the telescope in Germany before shipping to Chile. We discuss the trial assembly progress and acceptance testing of FYST.
Break
Lunch Break 12:30 - 13:50
Session 5: Modeling as a Driver of Observatory Design - Joint Session with AS103 and AS108
17 June 2024 • 13:40 - 17:30 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Breann N. Sitarski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Bernhard Lopez, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Germany)
13094-23
Author(s): David S. Ashby, GMTO Corp. (United States); Jorgen Rogstram, EKA, Energi & Kylanalys AB (Sweden); Oliver Mcirwin, Gary Muller, Michael Gardiner, Barbara Fischer, Trupti Ranka, GMTO Corp. (United States)
17 June 2024 • 13:40 - 14:00 Japan Standard Time
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The authors describe the Giant Magellan Telescope CO2-based refrigeration system used to thermally condition the 8.4-meter diameter borosilicate primary mirror segments. The thermal control architecture, the motivations for specific design choices, and the associated control strategies are discussed in detail. The work presented here is part of an effort to build a full-scale prototype mirror cell into which a mirror segment will soon be installed and optically tested at the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab on the campus of the University of Arizona.
13094-24
Author(s): Maria Begoña García-Lorenzo, Julio Castro-Almazán, Donaji Esparza-Arredondo, Jose A. Acosta-Pulido, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
17 June 2024 • 14:00 - 14:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Earth´s atmosphere disturbs and blurs astronomical observations from the ground. To mitigate these distortions, we must comprehend the optical characteristics of atmosphere turbulence, including key parameters like seeing, coherence time, isoplanatic angle, and outer scale. The prevailing seeing and outer scale of turbulence predict the expected image quality in ground-based observations, crucial for decisions in queue-based operations. Moreover, enclosure-induced turbulence, usually much lower than natural seeing, also contributes to the final image quality. Our team developed a simple approach using integral field spectroscopy to estimate the outer scale of turbulence while assessing dome-induced contribution across wavelengths. We explored the method’s applicability to multi-frequency images with varying filter bandwidths, offering valuable insights into understanding turbulence effects on astronomical observations. The study presents a robust methodology for characterizing the outer scale and dome-induced turbulence behavior.
13094-25
Author(s): Brialyn Onodera, Sebastien Poupar, Paul F. Jeffers, David M. Harrington, Luke C. Johnson, Stacey R. Sueoka, National Solar Observatory (United States)
17 June 2024 • 14:20 - 14:40 Japan Standard Time
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The National Science Foundation’s Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the largest solar telescope in the world, utilizing a 4-m off-axis primary mirror. The resulting mount size, long optical pathways, various moving components, and complex thermal design leaves DKIST with a very tight optical error budget that is susceptible to vibration-related degradation. There has been an ongoing survey to identify and address vibration sources affecting the optical path of the telescope during DKIST construction and operations. Improvements in this effort within the last year have enabled us to distinguish and categorize several vibration sources, in order to prioritize solutions for those with the highest impact on image motion. Presented herein are recent examples of sources with significant impact, including the details on how we tracked and identified them, and the solutions that were implemented in order to reduce jitter. As DKIST continues operations, future vibration mitigation efforts will be supported by additional data from other instruments in order to identify opportunities for optimization and further isolate localized vibration within our optics systems.
13094-26
Author(s): F. Peter Schloerb, Kamal Souccar, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States); David M. Gale, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Xia Huang, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States); David H. Hughes, Emir Moreno, José Luis Hernández Rebollar, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Grant W. Wilson, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States)
17 June 2024 • 14:40 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
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External environmental conditions lead to thermal deformations of the primary reflector of the 50-m diameter Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). This paper describes efforts to improve the night-time performance of the telescope at millimeter-wavelengths and allow extension of scientific observations into daylight hours, using the LMT's active surface to counteract the effects of thermal gradients within the antenna structure. Several approaches to stabilizing the LMT’s thermal behavior will be described, including operation of a ventilation system in the antenna backup structure and a real-time metrology system to measure and correct large-scale, thermally induced, surface deformations.
13094-27
Author(s): Konstantinos Vogiatzis, Hugh Thompson, Gelys Trancho, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)
17 June 2024 • 15:00 - 15:20 Japan Standard Time
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CFD and conjugate heat transfer models have been developed and/or updated to validate thermal requirements for the TMT enclosure HVAC system, azimuth and cap drive systems, interstitial space volume, as well as the Summit Facilities tunnel, mechanical room, utility room, and chiller exhaust. The resulting thermal environment is assessed and linked to performance, wherever applicable.
13094-28
Author(s): Peter W. G. Byrnes, Mohammad N. Islam, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada)
17 June 2024 • 15:20 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
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The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory’s John A. Galt 26 m radio telescope serves multiple roles for the Canadian radio astronomy community. The attributes of this telescope make it ideal for spectropolarimetric studies of the interstellar medium, however instrumental conversion of unpolarized radiation into a polarized signal can corrupt the astronomical signal as the telescope undergoes various loading conditions. To characterize these effects, a finite element (FE) model of the telescope was constructed, based on available blueprints and supplemented by manual measurements. To validate this FE model, vibration measurements were conducted over four days in September 2022 by NRC-Herzberg engineers. The telescope was instrumented with accelerometers, and vibrations were excited using the step-release and impulse hammer methods. This paper will briefly review the model development and analytical predictions, will describe the instrumentation plan and experimental approach used, and will summarize key results from these tests, in particular the first several vibration modes of the telescope.
Coffee Break 15:40 - 16:10
13099-27
Author(s): Marta Belío-Asin, Angel Mato, Mahy Soler, Jorge Sánchez-Capuchino, Javier León, Jose M. Gonzalez-Cava, Juan Cózar-Castellano, Miguel Núñez-Cagigal, Mary Barreto, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
17 June 2024 • 16:10 - 16:30 Japan Standard Time
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The European Solar Telescope (EST), based on a Gregorian on-axis 4.2-meter solar telescope, will be part of the next generation of large aperture solar telescopes. Due to the open-dome configuration of EST, the primary and secondary mirrors will be directly exposed to ambient conditions, which means that, during operation, the active optics system is crucial to counteract the effect of thermal loads and wind low frequency fluctuations. The correction of misalignments arising from gravity loads, primary mirror figure errors and other potential low order wavefront errors is also within the scope of this system. This contribution describes the status of the active optics system of EST at the Preliminary Design Phase and demonstrates the feasibility of the strategy, which considers as active compensators M1, M2 and M3.
13099-28
Author(s): Weirui Chen, Zheng Wang, Southeast Univ. (China)
17 June 2024 • 16:30 - 16:50 Japan Standard Time
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Leighton Chajnantor Telescope (LCT) will be moved to the new site at Chajnantor Plateau, Chile in 2024. The new site has high wind speed and large temperature difference, which leads to strong wind disturbance and beam offset for LCT due to the lack of a dome and the deformation of the primary reflector. To achieve a high pointing control accuracy, we propose a composite feedforward/feedback control policy (FFCP), which integrates disturbance observer-based feedforward control policy (DOB-FCP) and the robust feedback control policy (RFCP) to compensate the wind disturbance and compress the negative effect caused by the beam offset respectively. The results of simulation experiments on the synthesized model of LCT’s pointing control system reveal that the proposed FFCP can significantly reduce the pointing error during the observations.
13099-29
Author(s): Christoph Dribusch, Rodolphe Conan, Rodrigo Romano, Megan Shabram, Henry Fitzpatrick, GMTO Corp. (United States)
17 June 2024 • 16:50 - 17:10 Japan Standard Time
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The integrated modeling group at GMTO maintains a detailed FE model (mesh) of the entire telescope from foundation to top-end. Representations derived from this model are a very important component of simulations studying the effects of vibrations and misalignments due to wind, gravity, temperature variations, drives, actuators, utilities, and instruments on the image formation process.
13099-30
Author(s): Alexei Ippa, Eberhard Sust, Ulrich Weis, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany)
17 June 2024 • 17:10 - 17:30 Japan Standard Time
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Self-induced vibrations along with wind-induced jitter are considered as most limiting factors for the performance of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The status of dynamic analysis in context of the latest GMT mount design activities will be reported. Particular attention is paid to the vibration error budget, which is used to manage active disturbances in order to meet demanding tracking performance requirements. The vibration budget is based on tracking simulation results combined with contributions from different jitter and vibration sources such as drives, utility wraps, cabinets and many other subsystems. The Mount Transfer Function (MTF) concept as an important tool for analysis of vibration paths from the source to the image motion is introduced and its application in multiple use cases with both modeled and measured disturbances is illustrated.
Tuesday Plenary session
18 June 2024 • 08:30 - 10:00 Japan Standard Time
Join us for the Tuesday morning plenary talks.
Session 6: Commissioning
18 June 2024 • 10:20 - 12:40 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States), Yongtian Zhu, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
13094-29
Author(s): Takashi Miyata, Yuzuru Yoshii, Mamoru Doi, Kotaro Kohno, Takeo Minezaki, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kentaro Motohara, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Shigeyuki Sako, Fumi Egusa, Itsuki Sakon, Masahiro Konishi, Hidenori Takahashi, Takafumi Kamizuka, Kazuya Matsubayashi, Hiroaki Sameshima, Mitsuyoshi Yamagishi, Masataka Imai, Shuhei Koyama, Takashi Horiuchi, Yuki Hirao, Kosuke Kushibiki, Natsuko Kato, Mizuki Numata, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Leonardo Bronfman, Maria T. Ruiz, Rene Mendez, Guido Garay, Andres Escala, Patricio Rojo, Univ. de Chile (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 10:20 - 10:50 Japan Standard Time
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TAO is a project to build and operate a 6.5m telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor. The enclosure passed its rotation test and will be completed at the beginning of 2024. The summit operation building has been completed. The telescope mirrors and mount has already arrived in Chile. The preparation of the instruments are also in-progress, The first light instruments, NICE and MIMIZUKU, are waiting for the transportation from Japan to Chile. SWIMS has returned back from Hawaii to Japan for upgrading. Development of a new optical camera has also started. We will start scientific operation in S24B
13094-30
Author(s): Gordon J. Stacey, Cornell Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 10:50 - 11:20 Japan Standard Time
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We report on the progress of the CCAT-prime Project: the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST), its instrumentation and the associated science program. The FYST system is optimized for wide-field high surface brightness sensitivity in the submillimeter to millimeter-wave telluric windows. Our science program ranges from constraining fundamental properties of the Universe with high frequency CMB polarization studies through studies of reionization, galaxy and structure formation with line-intensity mapping, submillimeter continuum studies and the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect to revealing the physics of star formation in the Galaxy through large field, high frequency velocity-resolved spectroscopy and wide-field submillimeter dust polarization studies. These and other studies are enabled by wide-field polarimetric cameras, broad-band imaging spectrometers and heterodyne receiver arrays. FYST first light is expected in early 2025.
13094-31
Author(s): Paul F. Jeffers, Heather Marshall, National Solar Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 11:20 - 11:40 Japan Standard Time
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The National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the largest solar telescope in the world; it has and continues to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however, due to the off-axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount, enclosure, and observatory have proportions similar to an 8-metre class telescope. This paper provides an overview and discussion of the integration phase of the construction project and the first years of the operations phase. The paper’s perspective is that of the site-based team coordinating the integration schedule and subsequently the Technical site operations in the operations period. The challenges from logistical, management, and technical perspectives will be highlighted along with strategies that worked and those that did not. Also where appropriate there will be discussion on what would be done differently.
13094-32
Author(s): Tomoki Terasaki, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
18 June 2024 • 11:40 - 12:00 Japan Standard Time
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Three small aperture telescopes (SATs) of Simons Observatory, located at an elevation of 5,200 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile, are designed specifically to target the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization pattern from primordial gravitational waves. The SATs incorporate over 30,000 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in six spectral bands centered between 27 and 280 GHz. The three SATs were deployed at the site successively from mid 2023 to early 2024 and commissioning has started. In this work, we present an overview of key technologies of the SO SATs . We also report on the current status of the SATs and highlight results in the commissioning observations.
13094-33
Author(s): Salvatore Scuderi, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy); Gino Tosti, Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Giovanni Pareschi, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy); Carmelo Gargano, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Palermo (Italy); Nicola La Palombara, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy); Matteo Spinola, Gianpietro Marchiori, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 12:00 - 12:20 Japan Standard Time
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The ASTRI Mini-Array is a collaborative international effort led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) to develop, build and operate a facility of nine Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes of the four meters class to study astronomical sources emitting very high energy gamma-rays in the TeV spectral band. The Array is currently under construction on the island of Tenerife at the Observatorio del Teide based on a host agreement with the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. In this paper we report on the on the results of the opto-mechanical characterization of ASTRI-1, the first telescope of the ASTRI Mini-Array installed at the site.
13094-34
Author(s): Ji Hoon Kim, Myungshin Im, Hyungmok Lee, Hyeonho . Choi, Gregory S. H. Paek, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
18 June 2024 • 12:20 - 12:40 Japan Standard Time
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As the main observational facility of Center for the Gravitational-Wave Universe at Seoul National University, the 7-Dimensional Telescope (7DT) is a multi-telescope system designed to identify electro-magnetic (EM) counterparts of gravitational-wave (GW) sources. Consisting of 20 50-cm COTS telescopes along with 40 medium-band filters of 25-nm full width at half maximum, 7DT can obtain spectral mapping images for a large field of view (~1.25 square degrees). This multi-object spectral imaging capability along with flexible operation, real-time data reduction and analysis enable 7DT to follow up GW events quickly and to discover EM counterparts with unmatched efficiency. 12 of the 20 planned telescopes are deployed at El Sauce Observatory located at Rio Hurtado Valley in Chile. Since we obtained the first light of 7DT in October 2023, we started its commissioning procedures including examination of bias levels, master flat production, and spectrophotometric standardization. In this talk, we present details of instruments and their set-up, commissioning procedures and data characteristics of 7DT along with our three-layered surveys which are assumed to initiate in early 2024.
Break
Coffee Break 10:00 - 10:20
Session 7: Commissioning & Ops I
18 June 2024 • 14:00 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (United States), Stephen A. Rinehart, NASA (United States)
13094-35
Author(s): Thomas R. Rimmele, National Solar Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 14:00 - 14:30 Japan Standard Time
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The National Science Foundation’s 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) on Haleakala, Maui is the largest solar telescope in the world. DKIST’s superb resolution and polarimetric sensitivity will enables astronomers to explore the origins of solar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of flares and coronal mass ejections. DKIST operates as a coronagraph at infrared wavelengths, providing crucial measurements of the magnetic field in the corona. During its Operations Commissioning Phase, DKIST has already conducted a significant number of shared-risk observations for community researchers. The complex data obtained from five instruments are calibrated by the DKIST Data Center located in Boulder and distributed to the science community. We’ll present examples of science results, discuss lessons learned and touch on ongoing instrument developments.
13094-36
Author(s): Yukio Katsukawa, Hirohisa Hara, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Sami K. Solanki, Andreas Korpi-Lagg, Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (Germany); Pietro N. Bernasconi, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab., LLC (United States); Jose Carlos del Toro Iniesta, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Spain); Thomas Berkefeld, Leibniz-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS) (Germany); Masahito Kubo, Takayoshi Oba, Yusuke Kawabata, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Toshifumi Shimizu, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan); Fumihiro Uraguchi, Toshihiro Tsuzuki, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); María Balaguer Jiménez, David Orozco Suárez, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Spain); Javier Piqueras Carreño, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Achim Gandorfer, Alex Feller, Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 14:30 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
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SUNRISE III is the third flight of the international stratospheric balloon project Sunrise. The SUNRISE III carries a 1-meter aperture Gregorian telescope and provides a unique platform to perform seeing-free observations at UV-Visible-IR wavelengths. It is designed in the framework of NASA's long-duration balloon program to be launched at ESRANGE, Sweden, and to fly to Canada at float altitudes of 35 – 37 km. For the third flight, the post-focal instrumentation was extensively upgraded to enhance spectro-polarimetric capability; SUSI for 309 – 417 nm, TuMag for 525 nm and 517 nm, and SCIP for 765 – 855 nm. The gondola was also renewed to achieve stable pointing to a target on the solar surface. The team led by NAOJ provided SCIP through international collaboration with the Spanish and German teams. SUNRISE III was launched in July 2022 but was terminated because of a hardware problem. The telescope and instruments were successfully recovered and will be flown again in June 2024.
13094-37
Author(s): David H. Hughes, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); F. Peter Schloerb, Min S. Yun, Grant W. Wilson, Kamal Souccar, Alexandra Pope, Gopal Narayanan, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States); David M. Gale, José Luis Hernández Rebollar, Itziar Aretxaga, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Arturo Gómez Ruiz, David Omar Sánchez Argüelles, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico), Consejo Nacional de Humanidades, Ciencias y Tecnologías (Mexico); Alfredo Montaña, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Iván Rodríguez Montoya, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico), Consejo Nacional de Humanidades, Ciencias y Tecnologías (Mexico); Marcos Emir Moreno, COMIMSA - Corporación Mexicana de Investigación en Materiales S.A. de C.V (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 15:00 - 15:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Alfonso Serrano is a bi-national (Mexico and USA) telescope facility constructed on the summit of Sierra Negra, at an altitude of 4600m, in the Mexican state of Puebla. The LMT is a 50-m diameter single-dish radio-telescope designed, constructed and optimized to conduct scientific observations using heterodyne and continuum receivers, as well as VLBI observations, at frequencies between ~70 and 350 GHz. The LMT has an active surface control-system to correct gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary reflector to enable both night-time and daytime observations. We describe the current status and technical performance of the LMT, the instrumentation development program, and an on-going series of engineering and technical upgrades that will increase the optical efficiency and sensitivity of the telescope which will improve the overall scientific productivity and operational efficiency of the LMT.
13094-38
Author(s): Thomas M. Herbst, Peter Bizenberger, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Guillermo A. Blanc, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Florian Briegel, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Scott Case, Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Niv Drory, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States); Tobias Feger, Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Cynthia Froning, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States); Wolfgang Gaessler, Maximilian Häberle, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Anthony Hebert, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Juna Kollmeier, Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (Canada); Nicholas Konidaris, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Markus Kuhlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Alicia Lanz, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Richard Mathar, Lars Mohr, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Soojong Pak, Kyung Hee Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Solange Ramirez, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Christopher Ritz, Landessternwarte Heidelberg (Germany); David Robertson, Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Ralf-Rainer Rohloff, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); José Sanchez-Gallego, Univ. of Washington (United States); Paula Stępień, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany); Stefanie Wachter, Carnegie Institution for Science (United States); Ross Zhelem, Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie Univ. (Australia)
18 June 2024 • 15:20 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
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The SDSS-V Local Volume Mapper (LVM) survey employs an array of four, 16-cm telescopes feeding 3 fiber spectrographs at Las Campanas Observatory, with the goal of mapping the entire Galactic plane with 37” spatial resolution and R~4000 spectral resolution. The demands of the survey led to some unique challenges and unconventional design and architecture choices: each telescope uses a two-mirror siderostat in alt-alt configuration feeding optomechanical components, including the fiber feed, on a fixed breadboard. After roughly four years of design, development, construction, testing, and commissioning, the LVM telescopes entered regular survey operations in late 2023. This paper presents an overview of the entire project, from input scientific requirements to the actual performance achieved on-sky.
Break
Lunch Break 12:40 - 14:00
Session 8: Commissioning & Ops II
18 June 2024 • 16:10 - 17:30 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Jeffrey R. Kuhn, Institute for Astronomy (United States), Anamparambu N. Ramaprakash, Inter-Univ. Ctr. for Astronomy and Astrophysics (India)
13094-39
Author(s): Gundolf Wieching, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany); Kobus Clote, South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa); Hans-Rainer Klöckner, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany); Fernando Camilo, South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa); Filippo Maria Zerbi, INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); Pontsho Maruping, South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa); Michael Kramer, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 16:10 - 16:30 Japan Standard Time
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The MeerKAT+ (MK+) project will extend the current MeerKAT array at the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) site in the Karoo region of South Africa. The South African MeerKAT telescope is a SARAO precursor to the Square Kilometre Array mid-frequency instrument (SKA-MID). The MK+ project is a partnership between SARAO, the Max Planck Society (MPG, MPIfR), and the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), and is an important milestone towards the SKA-MID array. We will provide details and updates on the MK+ project.
13094-40
Author(s): Sebastián Zúñiga-Fernández, Michaël Gillon, Liège Univ. (Belgium); Daniel Sebastian, Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Peter P. Pedersen, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Artem Burdanov, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
18 June 2024 • 16:30 - 16:50 Japan Standard Time
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The SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars) project aims to detect temperate terrestrial planets transiting nearby ultracool dwarfs (late M-dwarf stars and brown dwarfs). SPECULOOS is a project led by the University of Liege and carried out in partnership with the University of Cambridge, the University of Birmingham, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Bern, and the University of Zurich. It is based on a network of robotic telescopes distributed on two main observatories, SPECULOOS-South in Chile (4 telescopes) and SPECULOOS-North in Tenerife (1 telescope, soon 2), complemented by the SAINT-Ex telescopes (1 telescope in Mexico). We will present the current status of our facilities after 5 years of operations. Additionally we will discuss our latest development, particularly the upgrade of our weather monitoring system and the recently developed module in our pipeline to detect and asses the impact of the new threat to ground-base observations, the low earth orbit (LEO) satellites. We conclude our work by discussing present challenges in the observatory operations and future developments planned for our facilities.
13094-41
Author(s): Johan D. Floriot, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS (France); François Dolon, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS (France); Simona Lombardo, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS (France); Samuel Ronayette, Pascal Gallais, AIM, CEA Paris-Saclay (France); Stéphane Basa, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS (France); Alan M. Watson, Jorge Fuentes, Salvador Cuevas, Instituto de Astronomia, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 16:50 - 17:10 Japan Standard Time
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COLIBRI is a 1.3m robotic telescope dedicated to the transient sky and is part of the ground follow-up system of the Sino-French SVOM space mission. COLIBRI is developed by a French-Mexican team (LAM/OHP/CEA/CPPM/IRAP for the French part and UNAM/OAN for the Mexican part). The telescope has been extensively tested at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France) during 3 years from its full integration and alignment to its preliminary acceptance. The telescope has now been shipped to Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN), Baja California, Mexico during the Summer of 2023 and will be installed at the first semester of 2024 for final acceptance and commissioning. The current paper presents all the performance results (pointing/tracking and optical) obtained during the preliminary acceptance in France. The paper is also presenting the final acceptance performance in OAN and first commissioning results.
13094-42
Author(s): Feng Gao, Gundolf Wieching, Monika Rutowska, Tobias Glaubach, Hans-Rainer Klöckner, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany); Sean Passmoor, Adriaan Peens-Hough, George Smit, Scarre Celliers, South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa); Kobus Cloete, South African Radio Astornomy Observatory (South Africa); Mattieu de Villiers, South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa)
18 June 2024 • 17:10 - 17:30 Japan Standard Time
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The MeerKAT+ (MK+) Project will incorporate 16 additional radio dishes to the current MeerKAT radio telescope array in the Karoo area in South Africa. With the MK+ dishes currently under production and on-site testing and commissioning plans to start in early 2024, we will present the planned dish verification and commissioning framework, instrument setup and testing procedures, including optical pointing, radio frequency pointing, holography etc. Example results from the first MK+ dish will also be included.
Break
Coffee Break 15:40 - 16:10
Wednesday Plenary Session
19 June 2024 • 08:30 - 10:00 Japan Standard Time
Join us for the Wednesday morning plenary talks.
Session 9: ELTs
19 June 2024 • 10:20 - 12:10 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Breann N. Sitarski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Amir Sadjadpour, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)
13094-43
Author(s): Roberto Tamai, Bertrand Koehler, Michele Cirasuolo, Fabio Biancat-Marchet, Mauro Tuti, Juan-Carlos González, Suzanne Ramsay, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
19 June 2024 • 10:20 - 10:50 Japan Standard Time
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The construction of the ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) passed it 50% completion milestone in 2023. There has been good progress on all fronts over the past two years. The construction site at Armazones (Chile) went from a flat landscape dominated by rocks and lean concrete to a mountain top housing finished structural concrete foundations and an 80m-high dome steel structure. In Europe, the manufacturing of the telescope structure is half complete; Tens of M1 segments have been polished to excellent optical quality; the M2 mirror is quickly approaching its final figuring accuracy; the M4 adaptive mirror has received all its six Zerodur® thin shells and is progressing to full laboratory integration; the M5 has reached a critical step with the brazing of the six CVD-coated SiC petals; the two large Pre-focal Stations are close to start their final testing; the four instruments are all in final design phase with some having started procurement and more. This paper summarizes the current status of the ESO’s ELT Construction.
13094-44
Author(s): Fengchuan Liu, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Yuko Kakazu, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States), National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
19 June 2024 • 10:50 - 11:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is an extremely large optical-infrared telescope with diffraction-limited performance that will shape astronomy research for decades from its northern hemisphere vantage point. The TMT International Observatory (TIO) is a public-private-international partnership that unites the scientific, instrumental and industrial communities of Japan, Canada, India and the USA for this endeavor. TIO is part of the US Extremely Large Telescope Program (US-ELTP) that received the top ranking for the ground-based program in the National Academies’ decadal survey report Astro2020. This paper will describe latest progress in TMT’s design and development in all partner countries, the recent NSF Preliminary Design Review, and the many challenges and opportunities of managing a truly global collaboration. The paper will also discuss in depth our completely new approach since 2021 on community engagement in Hawai’i, genuine listening and learning from the native Hawaiian community including hundreds of people who protested against the Project, and our collaborative efforts with the community to build long-term trust and relationships.
13094-45
Author(s): William S. Burgett, Rebecca Bernstein, David S. Ashby, Bruce C. Bigelow, Glenn Brossus, Marianne Cox, Rick Demers, Francisco Figueroa, Barbara Fischer, Frank Groark, Robert Laskin, Rafael Millan-Gabet, Samuel Park, Robert Turner, Brian Walls, GMTO Corp. (United States)
19 June 2024 • 11:20 - 11:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is one of three planned ground-based optical/IR Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Our schedule responds to evolving programmatic factors, and we are engaged in a process to obtain US federal support for part of the construction and operations scope. Of the seven 8.4 m diameter mirror segments comprising the primary mirror, three have been completed and four others have been cast and are in fabrication. The telescope mount has started fabrication. The first off-axis adaptive secondary mirror system is being tested. Two adaptive optics and phasing testbeds are being used for risk reduction with results validating the GMT phasing strategy. Science instruments are in various stages from design through early fabrication. Hard rock excavation of the foundations for the enclosure and telescope pier is complete, and the final design of the enclosure is complete. Residence buildings and other facilities and infrastructure needed to support construction at the Las Campanas site in Chile are complete and in operation.
13094-46
Author(s): Marie Lemoine-Busserole, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Rebecca Bernstein, GMTO Corp. (United States); Steven Berukoff, André-Nicolas Chené, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Christophe Dumas, Kim K. Gillies, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Robert W. Goodrich, GMTO Corp. (United States); Richard F. Green, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Scot J. Kleinman, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Lucas Macri, Eric Peng, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Gelys Trancho, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Brian Walls, GMTO Corp. (United States)
19 June 2024 • 11:50 - 12:10 Japan Standard Time
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The US Extremely Large Telescope Program (US-ELTP) is a joint initiative of the organizations building the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), and the NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory (NOIRLab). The US-ELTP will enable all U.S. astronomers to carry out transformational research that fully leverages the diverse capabilities of both the GMT and TMT, as well as the two-hemisphere system. In this paper, we present an overview of the program's scientific goals, the high-level roles and responsibilities of the US-ELTP partners, and the operating modalities of the joint program, including science and engineering operations for science investigators and archival research support.
Break
Coffee Break 10:00 - 10:20
Session 10: Astronomy Community Relationships
19 June 2024 • 12:10 - 12:30 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Breann N. Sitarski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Amir Sadjadpour, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)
13094-47
Author(s): Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. (United States); Rich Matsuda, W. M. Keck Observatory (United States)
19 June 2024 • 12:10 - 12:30 Japan Standard Time
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Our profession is at a turning point in its history and in its relations with the indigenous peoples on whose land several of our main observatories are located. The Maunakea controversy in Hawaiʻi is probably the most significant and publicized conflict between a scientific community and a local community. As a result of our actions and activities, elders were arrested, families are divided. Astronomy could lose part of its access to one of its most emblematic sites. This situation challenges our professional practice, the projects we build on indigenous lands, our relationship with the people who occupy them and with society in general. This talk will address the situation in Hawaiʻi, present Maunakea Observatories’ efforts to define a long-term vision for community-astronomy, as advocated by the Astro2020 report from the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and suggest ways for the profession to commit to this long-term vision.
Session 11: Gravitational Wave Observatories
19 June 2024 • 13:30 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States), Sandrine J. Thomas, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
13094-48
Author(s): Gabriele Vajente, Caltech (United States)
19 June 2024 • 13:30 - 14:00 Japan Standard Time
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The LIGO gravitational-wave detectors are currently in the middle of the forth observing run, and are routinely detecting multiple gravitational-wave signals from the coalescence of compact objects such as black holes and neutron stars. In this talk I will discuss the technologies that enabled LIGO to reach its unprecedented sensitivity, and the prospects for future improvements.
13094-49
Author(s): Shinji Miyoki, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
19 June 2024 • 14:00 - 14:30 Japan Standard Time
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KAGRA gravitational wave telescope in Japan started the 4th international gravitational wave observation(O4) with Advanced-LIGO and Advanced Virgo in May 2023, after repairs, upgrades, and commissioning for 3 years from May 2020. Under the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA O4 scenario, KAGRA restarted its commissioning from July 2023 to upgrade and improve its sensitivity and to rejoin O4 around Spring 2024. We will present the processes of the improvements and commissioning in KAGRA for O4 and the one-month observation status of KAGRA from 24th May to 21st July 2023.
13094-50
Author(s): Fabio Garufi, Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy)
19 June 2024 • 14:30 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Virgo detector contributed to the observations in the O3 observing run and increased its sensitivity from the initial 46 up to 60 Mpc during the run. The detector has undergone to a series of improvements since the end of the O3 observing run in view of O4. Some criticalities have emerged mainly due to the presence in Virgo of marginally stable cavities. This resulted in a delayed joining the O4 run due to a longer than expected commissioning phase. At present the detector is running with a lower laser power (and a lower sensitivity w.r.t. the project design). A new stop of about 2 yr is planned between O4 and O5 starting in 2027, to implement new upgrades (phase II). We are also considering a further large upgrade to introduce stable cavities. . The aim is to reach a 200Mpc (horizon) sensitivity. A new collaborative effort has born under the name of Virgo_nEXT with the aim to keep and push the infrastructure and maintain alive the community.
Break
Lunch Break 12:30 - 13:30
Session 12: ELT Enabling Technologies I
19 June 2024 • 15:00 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States), Sandrine J. Thomas, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
13094-51
Author(s): Andreas Reinacher, Babak Sedghi, Martin Dimmler, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
19 June 2024 • 15:00 - 15:20 Japan Standard Time
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The primary mirror of ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope contains 798 hexagonal segments, which are equipped with position actuators (PACT) for segment piston-tip-tilt actuation and edge sensors (ES) to measure the relative segment displacement. PACT and ES are used for M1 figure control, i.e. for maintaining the reference shape of the primary mirror. Due to the sheer number of used sensors (4524), ES failures are likely to occur frequently. In order to minimize the influence of such failures on observations, an automated approach for ES failure detection has been developed. The figure loop position actuators (PACTs) are hybrid actuators, combining brushless DC motors for a large range of motion with Piezo actuators for high accuracy and fast settling. Motions larger than the Piezo range (~ 10 µm) are restricted to a maximum velocity of 100 µm/sec. Since the figure loop is controlled in modal space such a rate limit introduces nonlinearities in this large Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system resulting in cross-coupling of modes and undesirable transient behavior. A custom management scheme for MIMO systems with output nonlinearities has been developed and successfully tested.
13094-52
Author(s): Trupti Ranka, Barbara Fischer, Christopher Contaxis, David S. Ashby, Tomas Krasuski, GMTO Corp. (United States); David J. Zeller, Steward Observatory, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Gary Muller, Michael Gardiner, Jose Soto, Oliver McIrwin, Austin Everman, Neil Mills, GMTO Corp. (United States); John Ford, Michael Sibayan, Steward Observatory (United States); Thomas Salanski, Steward Observatory, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Hector Swett, GMTO Corp. (United States)
19 June 2024 • 15:20 - 15:40 Japan Standard Time
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GMTO has developed a full-scale prototype of the cell that can house an 8.4 meter borosilicate mirror. This test cell is populated with all the active support control hardware and a mass simulator that simulates the mirror weight and the moment of inertia. GMTO has implemented the control software with all the core features needed to operate the active support system. A series of tests have been carried out to verify the functions, performance, and safety of the active support control system. The tests were carried out at several different orientations of the cell to demonstrate that the active support system will work with the changing zenith angle and location of the mirror on the mount. This paper describes the results of important safety and dynamic response tests of the active support system. The paper also discuss current the status of the testing program and plans of using the test cell to optically test an 8.4-meter borosilicate in the near future.
Session 13: ELT Enabling Technologies II
19 June 2024 • 16:00 - 18:20 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Jason Spyromilio, European Southern Observatory (Germany), Anamparambu N. Ramaprakash, Inter-Univ. Ctr. for Astronomy and Astrophysics (India)
13094-53
Author(s): Omata Yoshihiko, Ohara Inc. (Japan)
19 June 2024 • 16:00 - 16:20 Japan Standard Time
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Ohara was selected to be the supplier of segment blanks for the primary mirror on an extremely large telescope project, notably the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Ohara has been producing and supplying near zero expansion mirror blanks for this project and more than 350 pieces of 1.5 m diameter blanks of CLEARCERAM®-Z HS, of the total quantity required of 574 blanks,were completed. In this paper we will report the measurement data and evaluation results on the 1.5 m diameter CLEARCERAM®-Z HS blanks targeting the TMT Specifications for M1 Primary Mirror Segment Banks, which includes data on the CTE, CTE uniformity, residual stressand internal quality.
13094-54
Author(s): Ralf Jedamzik, Thomas Werner, Thomas Westerhoff, SCHOTT AG (Germany)
19 June 2024 • 16:20 - 16:40 Japan Standard Time
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ZERODUR® production for the Extremely Large Telescope mirror substrates concludes in 2024. The ELT M1 substrate blank contract is by far the largest serial production ever undertaken for an astronomical telescope, as well as for SCHOTT ZERODUR® manufacturing. The production results demonstrate the maturity and reproducibility of the production process in terms of material properties and dimensional processing capabilities. The installed ZERODUR® manufacturing capacities enabled a continuous ELT M1 blank production on high quality level in parallel to an extraordinary increase in ZERODUR® demand of the IC Lithography equipment industry. This paper reflects the SCHOTT contribution to the ELT. It reviews the excellent data on the coefficient of thermal expansion and the dimensional characteristics achieved for the complete set of 949 M1 segment blanks, vastly better than specified.
13094-55
Author(s): Asier Larringan, Gaizka Murga, Amaia Ormaetxe, Manuel Roldán, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Paul Jolley, Steffan A. E. Lewis, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
19 June 2024 • 16:40 - 17:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) hosts two Prefocal Stations, one on each of its Nasmyth Platforms A and B. Both units will alternately distribute the light collected by the telescope’s giant optical system into the science instruments and other test equipment, deliver the focal surface images and pupil images of three natural guide stars for acquisition, guiding and wavefront sensing purposes and provide optical sensing to support phasing of the ELT primary mirrors, diagnostics, and maintenance of the optics. The system also hosts the Phasing and Diagnostic Station (supplied by ESO). The status of each of the subsystems differs. With the PFS Main System fully assembled, the Factory Assembly and Testing (FA&T) campaign is coming to a conclusion. The compliance with the requirements include functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, control system tests, thermal tests, vibration tests and the creation of a calibration pointing map. We also briefly report on the status of the items hosted in the PFS: imaging and wavefront sensing cameras, metrology equipment, and the Phasing and Diagnostic station.
13094-56
Author(s): Albert Tomás, Miguel Redondo, Ferran Grañena, Juan Bernardino, Joan Manel Casalta, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain); Jean-François Pirard, Pablo Zuluaga, Babak Sedghi, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Alexandre Pages, Jocelyn Rebufa, CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES SA (France); Oscar Maroto, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain)
19 June 2024 • 17:00 - 17:20 Japan Standard Time
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Being the fifth mirror (M5) of the ESO Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) the biggest tip-tilt mirror ever developed for a telescope, a key factor of the M5 Cell is the dynamic capability provided by tip-tilt actuation to reject residual image motion. To deal which such a challenge, the M5 tip-tilt capacity is based in amplified piezoelectric stacks and a control strategy implementing two nested control loops: a position control operating at medium frequency and an active damping control operating at high frequency which provides the cell dynamics above the required bandwidth (10Hz). This paper describes in detail the developed tip-tilt capacity for the M5 Cell and its verification methodology, presenting the obtained results and corresponding discussion.
13094-57
Author(s): Ulrich Weis, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Raffaele Tomelleri, Tomelleri S.r.l. (Italy); Alexei Ippa, Peter Eisenträger, Eberhard Sust, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Amedeo Todeschini, Tomelleri S.r.l. (Italy)
19 June 2024 • 17:20 - 17:40 Japan Standard Time
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The GMT will be a 25 meter optical telescope located in Chile. The main axes are supported by a hydrostatic bearing system (HBS) which provides an uniform load distribution, an almost stick slip free motion and a kinematic mount. Deep analyses as FEA, “End to End Simulation” and hydraulic investigations have been performed to design the system and verify the static and dynamic behavior of the overall telescope under different scenarios and disturbances as there are: Wind loads, geometrical deviations and seismic events. The paper will provide the major results and some special features of the bearing system as the pad grouping with tilting and levelling capability, the extensive oil return & coverage system and the demanding section joints of the bearing tracks with their re-adjustability.
13094-58
Author(s): Armando Bilbao Arechabala, Nerea Castro Hurtado, Alberto Fernández García, Iñigo Hernandez Alonso, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Ricardo Bustamante, Gilberto Mosqueda, Claudio Sepulveda-Contreras, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
19 June 2024 • 17:40 - 18:00 Japan Standard Time
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The GMT telescope is a high precision large optical device. The telescope will be installed at Las Campanas in Chile, one of the highest seismicity areas worldwide. To protect the high value optical system and instrumentation, a sophisticated seismic isolation system (SIS) has been devised. The SIS will have a double function, needing to provide a high stiffness during the observation while allowing the telescope to move freely during an earthquake filtering the seismic ground accelerations transmitted to the telescope, mirrors, and instruments. To achieve these two opposite functionalities a combined system has been developed comprising: single friction pendulums, viscous dampers, shear pin fuses, a recentering system and a health and safety monitoring system. The system has been validated through Opensees Finite Element (FE) models considering the system multiple non-linearities as well as construction tolerances and accidental torsional effects.
13094-59
Author(s): Olivier Pirnay, Christian Bastin, Vincent Lavielle, Jean-Marc Schumacher, Laurence Méant, Laurent Wéra, Eric Gabriel, AMOS S.A. (Belgium)
19 June 2024 • 18:00 - 18:20 Japan Standard Time
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In October 2023, The TMT International Observatory (TIO) contracted AMOS to develop the Secondary Mirror Support System and Positioner (M2SSP). The M2SSP was indeed identified as a critical sub-system for which early design was necessary to secure the overall TMT project development plan. The M2SSP is composed of a semi-active mirror support assembly (M2CA) and a positioner (M2POS) that consists in a hexapod with tracking capabilities. In this paper is presented the design of the M2SSP elaborated by AMOS to comply with the demanding performances imposed by the operational cases and the environment of TMT. The verification plan is also presented as it is keystone of the work to conduct critical development to the success. Acknowledgement: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. 2331108
Break
Coffee Break 15:40 - 16:00
Thursday Plenary Session
20 June 2024 • 08:30 - 10:00 Japan Standard Time
Join us for the Thursday morning plenary talks.
Session 14: Future Observatories I
20 June 2024 • 10:20 - 12:20 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Heather K. Marshall, National Solar Observatory (United States), Trupti Ranka, GMTO Corp. (United States)
13094-60
Author(s): Matthaeus Leitner, Jessica N. Aguilar, Robert Besuner, Julian Borrill, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); John E. Carlstrom, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Brenna Flaugher, Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (United States); John E. Ruhl, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States); James Strait, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Jeff Zivick, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Zeeshan Ahmed, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Kam Arnold, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States); Amy N. Bender, Argonne National Lab. (United States); Bradford Benson, Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Nick Emerson, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Gunther Haller, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Kelly Hanzel, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); John Kovac, Harvard Univ. (United States); Kevin Long, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Laura Newburgh, Yale Univ. (United States); Hogan Nguyen, Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Erik Nichols, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Michael D. Niemack, Cornell Univ. (United States); Mauricio E. Pilleux, EONS SpA (Chile); Joseph H. Silber, Aritoki Suzuki, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); John G. Thayer, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Dianna Jacobs, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
20 June 2024 • 10:20 - 10:50 Japan Standard Time
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The ground-based Stage-4 Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment (CMB-S4) will map the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with unprecedented sensitivity to answer fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the universe. The project is proposed to be jointly pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, along with international partners. CMB-S4 will deploy the largest arrays of superconducting microwave detectors ever built at the best developed sites for CMB observations on Earth, the high and dry Antarctic plateau at NSF’s South Pole Station and the Atacama Desert Plateau in Chile. The main elements of the CMB-S4 construction project and key technologies required to build the highly optimized survey telescopes are described. The paper introduces the CMB-S4 project organization and discusses in detail the proposed project construction schedule which maps out mass-producing large quantities of superconducting components. Telescope construction and site installation timelines plus project risks are also described.
13094-61
Author(s): Roland M. Bacon, Observatoire de Lyon (France); Vincenzo Maineiri, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Sofia Randich, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy); Andrea Cimatti, Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Jean-Paul Kneib, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Jarle Brinchmann, Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço (Portugal); Richard Ellis, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Eline Tolstoi, Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Rodolfo Smiljanic, Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Ctr. (Poland); Vanessa Hill, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Richard Anderson, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Paula Sanchez Saez, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Cyrielle Opitom, Ian Bryson, UK Research and Innovation (United Kingdom); Philippe Dierickx, Ctr. de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Bianca Garilli, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy); Oscar Gonzalez, UK Research and Innovation (United Kingdom); Claudio Melo, Steffen Mieske, Angel Otarola, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Pietro Schipani, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (Italy); Tony D. Travouillon, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Joel Vernet, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Marc Casali, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Matthew Colless, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Warrick Couch, Swinburne Univ. of Technology (Australia); Simon Driver, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia); Adriano Fontana, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy); Matthew Lehnert, Ctr. de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Laura Magrini, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy); Ben Montet, The Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Luca Pasquini, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Laurence Tresse, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Ruben Sanchez-Janssen, UK Research and Innovation (United Kingdom); Matthias Steinmetz, Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (Germany); Bodo Ziegler, Univ. Wien (Austria)
20 June 2024 • 10:50 - 11:20 Japan Standard Time
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WST – Widefield Spectroscopic Telescope: Many strategic plans for the future of astronomy have highlighted the demand for deeper widefield spectroscopic surveys for a broad range of key science cases in the areas of Galactic, extra-galactic, time domain and cosmological science. WST will provide simultaneous Multi-object and panoramic Integral Field spectroscopy, initially at visible wavelengths. In each observation the WST Facility aims to provide spectroscopy of >20,000 objects over more than 2.5 square degrees and a central MUSE like integral field of 3*3 arcminutes. We summarise the recent Science White Paper that describes the science drivers, the resultant top-level requirements. We also briefly present the current concept design and the current plans for adoption and implementation.
13094-62
Author(s): Anthony J. Beasley, Eric Murphy, Robert Selina, Willem Esterhuyse, William Hojnowski, Pieter Kotze, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States)
20 June 2024 • 11:20 - 11:50 Japan Standard Time
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In this talk we will provide an overview of the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA), project, including the current project design and prototyping status. ngVLA will open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolutions, and broadband continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes.
13094-63
Author(s): Andrew I. Sheinis, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. (United States)
20 June 2024 • 11:50 - 12:20 Japan Standard Time
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MSE is a massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility that will replace the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope in the coming decade. This 12-m plus telescope, with its 1.5-2.0 square degree field-of-view, will observe 18,000 astronomical targets in every pointing from 360 nm through H-band at low/moderate resolution (R=3,000/7,000) and high (R=30,000). MSE will contribute to nearly every field of astrophysics across all spatial scales, from individual stars to the largest scale structures in the Universe, including (i) the ultimate Gaia follow-up facility for understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the Milky Way, including the outer disk and faint stellar halo (ii) galaxy formation and evolution at cosmic noon, (iii) derivation of the mass of the neutrino and insights into inflationary physics through a cosmological redshift survey that probes a large volume of the Universe. The instrument suite, dedicated to large-scale surveys, will enable MSE to collect massive data, equivalent to a full SDSS Legacy Survey every several weeks. We present an update to MSE along with the plan to develop a Pathfinder instrument at CFHT to fast-track the development of the MSE technology.
Break
Coffee Break 10:00 - 10:20
Session 15: Future Observatories II
20 June 2024 • 13:20 - 15:20 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Brialyn Onodera, National Solar Observatory (United States), Bernhard Lopez, Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Germany)
13094-64
Author(s): Xiangyan Yuan, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China), Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ding-qiang Su, Nanjing Univ. (China), Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Hua Bai, Xiangqun Cui, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China), Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Chen Xu, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
20 June 2024 • 13:20 - 13:40 Japan Standard Time
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The concept design of an extremely large spectroscopic survey telescope is presented in this paper. The main optical system of this telescope is a four-mirror anastigmatic system delivering good image quality and very compact structure. It provides a 16m aperture primary or even larger, a field of view (FOV) about 5 square degree, and a f-ratio around 4. The main Nasmyth focus is for massively-multiplexed spectroscopic survey with lens-prism strips atmospheric dispersion corrector, which delivers polychromatic encircled energy EE80 in diameter within 0.6 arcsecond across the full field of view at Zenith angle up to 60⁰. Another fold mirror can be moved in before the ADC to feed the light to refine observation instruments or for wide FOV infrared observations. A coude system optimized for ground layer adaptive optics with FOV 6arcmin can be designed to give a gravity invariant focus for very high resolution spectrograph or giant IFUs. Some experimental results related to the manufacture of the lens-prism strips ADC and the supporting structure will be given in this paper too.
13094-65
Author(s): Alberto Pellizzoni, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy); Enea Boria, Francesco Cavaliere, William Merli, Bruno Paroli, Federico Pezzotta, Marco Potenza, Luca Teruzzi, Elena Vignati, Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Massimo Gervasi, Andrea Limonta, Andrea Passerini, Lorenzo Scalcinati, Mario Zannoni, Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Stefano Della Torre, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy), Univ. degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Gabriella Pizzo, Univ. degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata" (Italy); Marco De Petris, Antonio Miriametro, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Marco Buttu, Elise Egron, Marco Marongiu, Sara Mulas, Alessandro Navarrini, Pierluigi Ortu, Tonino Pisanu, Caterina Tiburzi, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy); Ivan Bruni, Francesco Cuttaia, Sara Ricciardi, Maura Sandri, Daniela Vergani, Fabrizio Villa, INAF - Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio (Italy); Mauro Messerotti, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste (Italy); Luca Stringhetti, SKA Observatory (Italy), INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy); Maria Noemi Iacolina, Andrea Saba, Giampaolo Serra, Giuseppe Valente, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy); Simona Righini, INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia (Italy)
20 June 2024 • 13:40 - 14:00 Japan Standard Time
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Solaris is a scientific and technological project aimed at the development of a smart Solar monitoring system at high radio frequencies based on innovative single-dish imaging techniques, recently approved as a permanent observatory in Antarctica. Solaris can perform continuous Solar imaging observations nearly 20h/day during Antarctic summer with optimal sky opacity. In perspective our system could be implemented also in the northern hemisphere to offer Solar monitoring for the whole year.
13094-66
Author(s): Chad F. Bender, J. Roger Angel, Joel Berkson, Erich Bugueno, Gilberto Chavez Lopez, On To Sonja Choi, James Dibelka, Nick Didato, John Ford, Warren B. Foster, Nestor Garcia, Kevin Gilliam, Peter Gray, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Samuel Halverson, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Yiyang Huang, Buell Jannuzi, Dean Ketelsen, Daewook Kim, Andrew J. Monson, Chang Jin Oh, Jason Patrou, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Christian Schwab, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Melanie Sisco, Richard Wortley, Andrew Young, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
20 June 2024 • 14:00 - 14:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Large Fiber Array Spectroscopic Telescope (LFAST) will provide a large, scalable collecting area, equivalent to or greater than other ELTs under construction, at a much reduced cost. LFAST will carry out scientific investigations that require spectroscopy with high-signal-to-noise or of faint objects. LFAST is an array telescope, combining light from hundreds of 0.76m diameter prime focus telescopes into a single fiber-fed spectrograph. Twenty telescopes will be mounted on a common alt-az mount, and we are currently constructing the first prototype twenty-unit system. In this talk we will present status and updates from the first 2.5 years of the LFAST project, and describe plans for large arrays, including a 200-unit system in the next few years and a 2,640 unit system in the future.
13094-67
Author(s): Dominic W. Pesce, Lindy Blackburn, Sheperd S. Doeleman, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States), Black Hole Initiative, Harvard Univ. (United States); Garret Fitzpatrick, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Michael D. Johnson, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States), Black Hole Initiative, Harvard Univ. (United States); Aaron Oppenheimer, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Jonathan Weintroub, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States), Black Hole Initiative, Harvard Univ. (United States)
20 June 2024 • 14:20 - 14:40 Japan Standard Time
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The next-generation Event Horizon Telescope (ngEHT) will be a transformative upgrade to the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), capable of making real-time and time-lapse movies of supermassive black holes on event horizon scales. These movies will resolve complex structure and dynamics in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon, bringing into focus not just the persistent strong-field gravity features predicted by General Relativity (GR), but details of active accretion and relativistic jet-launching that drive large scale structure in the Universe. This effort builds upon recent results by the EHT: the first image of M87’s supermassive black hole and its magnetic field structure, as well as resolved images of Sgr A*, the central black hole at the heart of the Milky Way.
13094-68
Author(s): Matthias Reichert, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Tony Mroczkowski, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Claudia Cicone, Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Hans J. Kaercher, Independent Consultant (Germany); Martin Timpe, Erik Dahl, Aleksej Kiselev, Manuel Groh, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Patricio A. Gallardo, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Mike Macintosh, Pamela Klaasen, UK Astronomy Technology Ctr., The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pierre Dubois-dit-Bonclaude, Johann Boleininger, Daniel Bok, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany)
20 June 2024 • 14:40 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Atacama Large Aperture Submm Telescope (AtLAST) is a concept for a novel 50-meter class single-dish telescope operating at sub-millimeter and millimeter wavelengths (30-950 GHz). The telescope will provide an unprecedented wide field of view (FoV) of 1 – 2deg diameter with a large receiver cabin housing six major instruments in Nasmyth and Cassegrain positions. The high observing frequencies, combined with the scanning operation movements with up to 3deg/s, placing high demands on accuracy and stability of the optical and structural components. The planned site location is in the Chilean Atacama Desert at approximately 5100 meters above sea level, near Llano de Chajnantor. The paper gives an overview on the optical, structural, and mechanical design concepts. It explains the flow down from key science requirements to technical design decisions as well as showing design analogies from other existing large radio and optical telescopes. Results from structural and performance analyses are presented.
13094-69
Author(s): Prasanna G. Deshmukh, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India); S. Sriram, CHRIST Deemed to be Univ. (India), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India); Chand Totan, Muthahar R. Mohammed, Ramya Sethuram, Ravi Joshi, Bharat Kumar Yerra, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India)
20 June 2024 • 15:00 - 15:20 Japan Standard Time
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A wide-field optical IR spectroscopic survey telescope is designed to deliver spectra of several millions of astronomical sources. The baseline design of the telescope is a 6.2m segmented primary mirror with 19 hexagonal segments, 84 edge sensors, & 57 soft actuators. The telescope is designed to provide a 2.5deg FOV achieved through a system of wide field corrector lenses with a design residual <0.2". Also, it delivers an f/3.6 beam suitable for directly feeding optical fibres. A mechanical concept of the telescope is designed with a truss-based mirror cell to support the segmented primary mirror and keep deformation to a minimum. As the primary mirror is segmented, the deformation due to different disturbances like wind, vibration and thermal effects must be corrected to a nanometer accuracy to make it act like a monolithic primary mirror. A simulation tool, codeSMT, is built using the state-space model to incorporate dynamic wind disturbance from the IAO Hanle site and vibration effects. A detailed parameter sensitivity & error multiplier analysis is performed numerically using this tool. This paper presents an Optical, Mechanical and Active Control system design of telescope.
Break
Lunch Break 12:20 - 13:20
Session 16: Robotic Telescopes
20 June 2024 • 15:50 - 17:50 Japan Standard Time
13094-70
Author(s): Nicholas Law, Hank Corbett, Alan Vasquez Soto, Ramses Gonzalez, Lawrence M. Machia, Jonathan Carney, William Marshall, Glenn Walters, Shannon Fitton, Amy Glazier, Thomas Procter, The Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)
20 June 2024 • 15:50 - 16:10 Japan Standard Time
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The Argus Array will be the first large optical telescope capable of exploring the entire sky simultaneously. Consisting of 900 small-aperture telescopes with ultra-low-noise detectors multiplexed into a 55 GPix array, Argus will have the equivalent collecting area of a 5m telescope but will explore the sky in a very different way from conventional survey telescopes. Each Argus exposure covers 8,000 square degrees with a sampling of 1.4"/pixel; this enormous field of view allows the Array to achieve deep imaging by observing every part of the sky at cadences as fast as one second – for 6-10 hours each night. Realtime transient detection systems will process the incoming images at TB/sec speeds on a high-speed GPU cluster. Over five years, the Array will build a publicly-available, two-color, million-epoch movie of the northern sky, giving the astronomical community the unprecedented ability to follow the evolution of every deep time-variable source across the sky simultaneously. We will detail the current status of the Argus project, including construction plans and first results from the on-sky Argus Pathfinder hardware and software prototype system.
13094-71
Author(s): Martin J. Dyer, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Kendall Ackley, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom); Felipe Jiménez Ibarra, Monash Univ. (Australia); Joe Lyman, Krzysztof Ulaczyk, Danny Steeghs, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom); Duncan K. Galloway, Monash Univ. (Australia); Vik Dhillon, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paul O'Brien, Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Gavin Ramsay, Armagh Observatory & Planetarium (United Kingdom); Kanthanakorn Noysena, National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (Thailand); Rubina Kotak, Univ. of Turku (Finland); Rene Breton, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Laura K. Nuttall, Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Enric Pallé, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Don Pollacco, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom); Tom Killestein, Univ. of Turku (Finland); Amit Kumar, David O'Neill, The Univ. of Warwick (United Kingdom)
20 June 2024 • 16:10 - 16:30 Japan Standard Time
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The Gravitational-wave Optical Transient Observer (GOTO) is a project dedicated to identifying optical counterparts to gravitational-wave detections using a network of dedicated, wide-field telescopes. After almost a decade of design, construction, and commissioning work, the GOTO network is fully operating today with two antipodal sites: La Palma in the Canary Islands and Siding Spring in Australia. Both sites host two independent robotic mounts, each with a field-of-view of 40 square degrees formed by an array of eight 40cm telescopes, resulting in an instantaneous 80 square degree field-of-view per site. All four telescopes operate as a single integrated network, with the ultimate aim of surveying the entire sky every 2-3 days and allowing near-24-hour response to transient events within minutes of their detection. In the modern era of transient astronomy, automated telescopes like GOTO form a vital link between multi-messenger discovery facilities and in-depth follow-up by larger telescopes. Already GOTO is producing a wide range of scientific results, assisted by a robust discovery pipeline and a successful citizen science project: Kilonova Seekers.
13094-72
Author(s): Franck Marchis, Thomas Esposito, Ryan Lambert, Ariel Graykowski, Lauren Sgro, SETI Institute (United States); Guillaume Blaclard, Unistellar SAS (France); Ian Weaver, SETI Institute (United States); Josef Hanuš, Josef Durech, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic)
20 June 2024 • 16:30 - 16:50 Japan Standard Time
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Since launching in 2019, Unistellar's enhanced vision telescope, the first robotic, smart, and user-friendly digital telescope, has seen over 10,000 units sold globally. These telescopes, with an 11.3cm aperture and Sony CMOS detectors, achieve a magnitude limit of 17.1 in under 10 minutes of exposure, even from urban areas. Their high sensitivity and ease of use have enabled significant scientific contributions in planetary defense, cometary activity, exoplanet transits, asteroid occultations, and transient events. In 2022, over 4,000 observations by our network contributed to notable studies like the DART impact (Graykowski et al., 2023), Kepler-167e's 16-hour transit (Perrocheau et al. 2022), the dimensions of Near-Earth Asteroids (Lambert et al. 2023), and a detailed supernova light curve in the Pinwheel galaxy (Sgro et al. 2023). We will discuss these achievements, our network's expansion, and future prospects in citizen science, education and outreach.
13094-73
Author(s): Giovanni Pareschi, Stefano Basso, Giacomo Bonnoli, Daniele Spiga, Giorgia Sironi, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy); Luigi Lessio, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy); Nicola La Palombara, Salvatore Scuderi, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy)
20 June 2024 • 16:50 - 17:10 Japan Standard Time
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Observing the sky in gamma rays at very high energy (0.5 TeV - 1 PeV) has become a crucial aspect of astrophysics in recent decades. These investigations enable us to study fundamental physics phenomena that are still poorly understood with unprecedented precision. Two techniques used for this purpose are Imaging Air Cherenkov Technique (IACT) and large extensive air shower (EAS) arrays. This paper proposes a different approach using lobster-eye wide-field telescopes operated as fixed IACT telescopes to monitor the sky in gamma-ray. These telescopes are compound focusing optics derived from the vision systems of lobsters and shrimps and can be implemented as an alternative to EAS detectors to allow us to realize cheap IACT wide-field monitoring arrays at moderate altitudes (about 2000 m).
13094-74
Author(s): Ryan Swindle, Justin Fletcher, Zach Gazak, U.S. Space Force (United States); Leonard Baruela, Sae Song, KBR, Inc. (United States)
20 June 2024 • 17:10 - 17:30 Japan Standard Time
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The rapidly increasing population of Earth-orbiting debris is forcing novel ideas and new partnerships within the US Space Force (USSF). Here the US Space Force presents a concept for a mobile, off-grid, robotic observatory for rapid deployment and observational support. This 1-meter aperture, 3-degree FOV telescope employs state-of-the-art commercial instrumentation in support of both satellite orbit cataloging and closely-spaced object characterization at atmospheric seeing limits, i.e. sub-1" pixels. Its relatively large etendue, high throughput, and up to 50 deg/s slews provides for high survey speeds, be it for lost space debris or astronomical transients. We will detail the design and simulated performance of and near term plans for fielding several such systems around the globe. Furthermore, each system will employ USSF developed observatory control software called SensorKit, completely open-source, enabling robotic operation and, if desired for SDA purposes, communication with the Unified Data Library. Scheduling, tasking, data processing and dissemination and more are a part of the US Space Force MACHINA program, presented separately in these proceedings.
13094-75
Author(s): Reed L. Riddle, Caltech (United States)
20 June 2024 • 17:30 - 17:50 Japan Standard Time
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Time domain astronomy is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe. One of the biggest issues with the flood of temporal data is following up on the plethora of discoveries. There just is not enough telescope time available to observe the new objects in detail, especially spectroscopically. Building a new 3 meter class telescope is very expensive, but a telescope that size would be ideal to observe a large fraction of the objects. We propose to create a custom 3 meter telescope, using 1 meter mirrors mounted on the same telescope frame. Each mirror would feed a dedicated fiber optic, and the whole telescope would be designed to be easily replicable and maintainable, as well as have high optical throughput and be fully automated. Once the first "multiple telescope telescope" has been commissioned, multiple copies would be built and stationed around the world, creating a new network of spectroscopic telescopes that can continually monitor the sky. Versions of this technology could be used to build 6 or 8 meter telescopes for far less than a single monolithic mirror.
Break
Coffee Break 15:20 - 15:50
Session 17: Metrology & Alignment
21 June 2024 • 08:30 - 10:10 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Bruce C. Bigelow, GMTO Corp. (United States), Stephen A. Rinehart, NASA (United States)
13094-76
Author(s): Ronan Higgins, Univ. zu Köln (Germany); Stephen C. Parshley, Cornell Univ. (United States)
21 June 2024 • 08:30 - 08:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST) is a 6-meter diameter telescope currently being built by the CCAT consortium at a height of 5600m on Cerro Chajnantor. The telescope is designed to operate in the millimeter to submillimeter (100 GHz – 1.5 THz) range. It It will deliver a total wavefront error of less than 10.7 microns at the focal plane. The optics follow a modified crossed-Dragone configuration, yielding a 4.4 degree field of view at 850 GHz across a ~2 meter diameter focal plane. This two mirror configuration requires precise bulk mirror and mirror panel alignment to meet the total wavefront error requirements. Using a laser metrology system we will measure the mirror and mirror panel alignment to a precision of 2 micron. Given the unique configuration of CCAT, with the enclosure rotating in elevation with the mirrors, it is possible to measure the alignment at all elevation angles. This is not possible with other alignment methods such as holography or photogrammetry. This real time system will allow measurements of gravity and thermal effects in the telescope. In this paper we present the system design and initial results from the trial assembly in Germany.
13094-77
Author(s): Javier Castro López-Tarruella, Mireia Rosado Rubio, Benjamin Siegel, Alfonso G. Cardell Bilbao, Aday Pérez García, Germán Prieto Labra, Gran Telescopio de Canarias, S.A. (Spain)
21 June 2024 • 08:50 - 09:10 Japan Standard Time
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COALA is an instrument aimed to measure the relative alignment and piston of any three adjacent segments of the primary mirror of the GTC during day, without using stellar light. A quasi-puntual white light source placed at the telescope focus generates a collimated beam that is analysed by COALA, which is attached to the telescope dome. Combined motion of COALA and telescope mounts permit to scan the full aperture of the telescope without the need of an intruder mechanical system in front of the primary mirror.
13094-78
Author(s): Hanshin Lee, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States); Herman J. Kriel, Chris E. Robison, Shane Henk, Jayton Lindley, Hobby Eberly Telescope (United States)
21 June 2024 • 09:10 - 09:30 Japan Standard Time
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The primary mirror (M1) of the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) consists of 91 mirror segments in a regular hexagon shape. The M1’s center of curvature can be accessed from the top of a 90ft-tall tower just outside the HET dome. The current alignment metrology system in this tower, called the Center of Curvature Alignment System (CCAS), keeps the 91 segments into a single smooth 11-meter diameter surface. This critical alignment function is at risk due to the obsolescence and deficiencies of the aging system. There are many reasons to upgrade the CCAS. The upgrade includes a suite of advanced metrology instruments to provide improved alignment precision and metrology. In particular, the upgrade features a new dispersed fringe sensing (DFS) technique capable of measuring the piston error of all 240 segment edges across the HET’s 11m primary mirror in a single-shot exposure based on wavelength multiplexing, arrayed diffractive components, and spatial filters. This paper summarizes the electro-opto-mechanical design of the system and other design features to be implemented in the upgrade.
13094-79
Author(s): Alessandro Attoli, Sergio Poppi, Franco Buffa, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy); Giampaolo Serra, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy), INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy); Antonietta A. R. Fara, Pasqualino Marongiu, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy); Giannina Sanna, Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy); Francesco Gaudiomonte, Mauro Pili, Tonino Pisanu, Gian Paolo Vargiu, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy)
21 June 2024 • 09:30 - 09:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Sardinia Radio Telescope performance upgrade is completed and now it has the capabilities to scan the universe up to a maximum radio frequency of 116 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of 2.6 mm. Nevertheless, observing at the highest frequencies for which SRT has been designed, requires a tighter control of the pointing and main reflector surface accuracy than before. This is possible through the mitigation of effects produced by environmental loads that were previously negligible. Therefore, a new metrology system, called SMS, has been implemented to face the new challenges. This paper aims to provide a description of strategies conceived to use the SMS system instrumentation, in order to achieve the planned functional objectives.
13094-80
Author(s): Bo Xin, GMTO Corp. (United States); Bijan Nemati, Tellus1 Scientific LLC (United States); Patricio Schurter, Hugo Chiquito, William Schoenell, Josema Filgueira, Juan Pablo Haddad, Richard Demers, Peter Thompson, GMTO Corp. (United States); Antonin Bouchez, W. M. Keck Observatory (United States); Breann Sitarski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Joel Nissen, Contractor (United States); Heejoo Choi, Wyant College of Optical Sciences (United States), Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (United States); Guillermo Gonzalez, David Nemati, Peter Williams, Tellus1 Scientific LLC (United States)
21 June 2024 • 09:50 - 10:10 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope is a 25.4-m visible/infrared telescope being built as one of the next-generation Extremely Large Telescopes. The size of the GMT and its doubly segmented design creates a unique set of challenges for telescope alignment, including initial alignment during the assembly, integration, verification and commissioning phase and operational alignment between and during the telescope exposures. GMT is developing a Telescope Metrology System (TMS) that uses networks of laser trackers and absolute and differential distance-measuring interferometers for improved alignment efficiency and phasing of the mirror segments. The TMS has successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review and entered the Final Design phase. The current design of the TMS is presented and the expected performance is discussed.
Session 18: Alignment & WFS
21 June 2024 • 10:40 - 11:40 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Yongtian Zhu, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China), Matthew M. Colless, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
13094-81
Author(s): Jeffrey R. Kuhn, Ian Cunnyngham, Institute for Astronomy (United States); Natalia Marrero, Nicolas Lodieu, Rafael Rebolo, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Ryan Swindle, Odyssey Systems Consulting Group Ltd. (United States); Pradip Gatkine, Caltech (United States); Stuart Jefferies, Fabien Baron, Georgia State Univ. (United States); Andres Ramos, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (Spain); Kevin Lewis, MorphOptics, Inc. (United States); Maud Langlois, Gil Moretto, Ctr. de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France)
21 June 2024 • 10:40 - 11:00 Japan Standard Time
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The advantage of large optical telescopes from the ground for high contrast direct imaging relies on creating very large apertures with exquisite control of the incident optical wavefront. Since the exoplanet problem almost always has a bright star within a small FOV there are usually ample photons for measuring the atmospheric and telescope-distorted wavefront. A 5-year ERC-funded Laboratory for Innovation In Optomechanical systems (LIOM) has just begun at the IAC in Tenerife. Measuring the wavefront using Machine Learning techniques in combination with a photonic lantern offers the possibility of fully common-mode wavefront sensing for combining the Fizeau telescope subapertures to minimize scattered light and to perform accurate wavefront nulling ("dark spot" or "vortex" nulling) in the image plane. Here we describe our progress in implementing this approach by numerical and laboratory simulation.
13094-82
Author(s): Matthias Schöck, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Mitchell Troy, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Gary Chanan, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Scott Michaels, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)
21 June 2024 • 11:00 - 11:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Alignment and Phasing System (APS) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will use Shack-Hartmann-type measurements to determine the relative alignment and shapes of the segments of the primary mirror (M1). These measurements are required to be made with minimal errors in order for M1 to act as a diffraction-limited mirror. As TMT commissioning time will be limited, full performance must also be achieved as quickly as possible. From the earliest stages of the design, the TMT APS team has therefore emphasized work that ensures that APS will work as well and as close to out of the box as possible and reduces the associated risks. We describe efforts on algorithm and software development, analytical studies and simulations, on-sky and laboratory experiments, and prototyping. We explain how they have affected the design of the APS hardware and software and why we are confident that this critical subsystem of TMT will achieve its goals.
13094-83
Author(s): Radhika Dharmadhikari, Padmakar Singh Parihar, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India)
21 June 2024 • 11:20 - 11:40 Japan Standard Time
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For a segmented mirror telescope, the desired resolution can only be achieved when all its mirror segments are precisely co-aligned, co-focused, and co-phased. Co-phasing is one of the most stringent tasks in handling the segmented mirror telescope, and so far, many different phasing techniques have been developed. The OTF-based phasing technique samples light from the center of the segments and uses the magnitude transfer function (MTF) to derive the phase/piston error. Through realistic simulations, we have attempted to explore this OTF-based phasing of segmented mirrors. The effect of different kinds of noises, filter-detector spectral response, sampling aperture, presence of optical losses, signal strength, and atmospheric conditions on the accuracy of the piston measurement has been studied in detail. OTF is also found to be sensitive to segment tip/tilt errors, and hence we have tried to study the cross-talk between piston and tip/tilt errors. In addition to simulation, we also attempted to conduct laboratory experiment so that simulation results can be validated. In this paper, we present the results of our extensive simulation as well as experimentation.
Break
Coffee Break 10:10 - 10:40
Session 19: Opto-Mechanical Designs I
21 June 2024 • 13:00 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Mario Tapia, European Southern Observatory (Chile), Jeffrey R. Kuhn, Institute for Astronomy (United States)
13094-84
Author(s): Patricio A. Gallardo, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Roberto Puddu, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Chile (Chile); Tony Mroczkowski, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Martin Timpe, Pierre Dubois-dit-Bonclaude, Matthias Reichert, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Claudia Cicone, Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Hans J. Kaercher, Independent Consultant (Germany)
21 June 2024 • 13:00 - 13:20 Japan Standard Time
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The Atacama Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (AtLAST) aims to be the premiere next generation large diameter (50 meter) single dish observatory capable of observations across the millimeter/submillimeter spectrum, from 30 GHz to 1 THz. The large primary diameter, the 2-degree field of view and its large four-meter focal plane give AtLAST a high throughput (aperture size times field of view) and grasp (throughput times spectral reach), with the ability to illuminate > O(10^7) detectors. The optical design concept of AtLAST consists of a numerically optimized two-mirror Ritchey-Chrétien system with an additional folding mirror, which enables a quick selection of any of its six instruments. We present the optical design concept and discuss the optical performance of AtLAST. We then present design concepts that can be implemented in the receiver and instrument optics to correct for astigmatism and mitigate the high degree of curvature of the focal plane in order to recover significant fractions of the geometric field of view at submillimeter wavelengths.
13094-85
Author(s): Bruno C. Quint, Felipe Daruich, Petr Kubanek, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Adrian Shestakov, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Alysha Shugart, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Benjamin Levine, Stony Brook Univ. (United States); Brian Stalder, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Craig Lage, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); David Sanmartim, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Dominique Boutigny, Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS (France); Doug Neil, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Elana Urbach, Harvard Univ. (United States); Erik Dennihy, Freddy Muñoz, Holger Drass, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); HyeYun Park, Duke Univ. (United States); Karla Aubel, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Ignacio Sevilla-Noarbe, Ctr. de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (Spain); Ioana Sotuela, Jacques Sebag, Jeffrey L. Carlin, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Markus Rabus, Univ. Católica de la Santísima Concepción (Chile); Matthew Dowicz, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Merlin Fisher-Levine, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Peter Ferguson, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Prakruth Adari, Stony Brook Univ. (United States); Roberto Tighe, Sandrine J. Thomas, Tiago Ribeiro, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Yijung Kang, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States)
21 June 2024 • 13:20 - 13:40 Japan Standard Time
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The Vera C. Rubin Observatory, advancing towards its goal of a 10-year Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), recently installed the M1M3 cell and steel mirror surrogate onto the Simonyi Survey Telescope's Mount Assembly. This primary/tertiary mirror, crucial for image quality, was tested under conditions simulating rapid observation field changes, essential for the observatory’s ambitious sky mapping schedule. These tests, extending from 1-100% of the designed telescope slew performance, assessed the M1M3 system’s stability, hardpoint behaviors, and the efficacy of the dynamic compensation forces provided by the support system. Preliminary results suggest the system meets operational requirements, ensuring safety and effectiveness at full speed and precise control of mirror figure.
13094-86
Author(s): Roberto G. Abraham, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Pieter van Dokkum, Yale Univ. (United States); Deborah M. Lokhorst, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Seery Chen, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Imad Pasha, Yale Univ. (United States)
21 June 2024 • 13:40 - 14:00 Japan Standard Time
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We describe our plan to continuously evolve the Dragonfly Telephoto Array into the world's most powerful spectral line mapping machine. Dragonfly has recently been upgraded to have the sensitivity needed to map out the distribution of diffuse gas in the circumgalactic medium of local galaxies. Our next upgrade will focus on increasing the size of the array to allow imaging of the dark matter Cosmic Web.
13094-87
Author(s): Antonio de Ugarte Postigo, Tristan Guillot, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Mansi M. Kasliwal, Roger M. Smith, Caltech (United States); Tony D. Travouillon, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Lyu Abe, Karim Agabi, Sarah Antier, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Michael C. B. Ashley, The Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Philippe Bendjoya, Benoit Carry, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Luca Casagrande, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Ilaria Caiazzo, Caltech (United States); Cenko Brad, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Matthew Graham, Timothee Greffe, Nicholas Earley, Jason Fucik, David Hale, Caltech (United States); Elena Pian, INAF (Italy); Olga Suarez, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Amaury Triaud, Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bob Weber, Caltech (United States); Julien de Wit, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
21 June 2024 • 14:00 - 14:20 Japan Standard Time
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Dome-C in the Antarctic Plateau is a privileged site for Astronomy, with one of the lowest concentrations of water vapor in the world, providing a pristine atmospheric window for IR observations. Together with the long winter nights, this allows for extended continuous observational campaigns. At the Concordia Station, ASTEP has taken advantage of the weather and long nights to observe long-period transiting exoplanets for over a decade. With the Cryoscope Pathfinder we now plan to take advantage of the dark IR window between 2.35 and 2.55𝜇m. The unique design of Cryoscope Pathfinder is optimized for a very wide field of view and very thermal background. It is a cryogenic 0.26 m telescope designed for observations in K-dark with a field of view of 16 deg^2. This is the first step for a much more ambitious project, the full scale 1-meter class Cryoscope telescope, with a field of view of 50 deg^2. The initial science drivers are the study of exoplanets and of the infrared transient sky, where it will play a major role in the localization of gravitational wave sources. Furthermore, many other science topics will be enabled by Cryoscope and through synergies with other surveys.
13094-88
Author(s): Carlos Quintero Noda, María Jesús Martínez González, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain); Silvia Regalado Olivares, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Manuel Collados Vera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain)
21 June 2024 • 14:20 - 14:40 Japan Standard Time
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The European Solar Telescope has a primary mirror of 4.2 m, and will bring many new technologies, such as a multi-conjugated adaptive optics system, a polarisation-free optical design, and an instrument suite with imaging and integral field spectropolarimeters. In this contribution, we present the conceptual design and the expected performance of the infrared Integral Field Spectropolarimeter. The instrument has an integral field unit composed of a mirror-based image slicer as input to a Czerny-Turner spectrograph. It will have a polarisation module unit to record the polarisation degree of light on a dual-beam configuration to ensure high precision spectro-polarimetry.
13094-89
Author(s): Holger Drass, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Austin Roberts, Brian Stalder, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Bruno C. Quint, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Doug Neil, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Enrico Giro, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy); Felipe Daruich, Freddy Munoz, Franco Colleoni, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Gabriele Rodeghiero, INAF - Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio (Italy); Jacques sebag, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Kevin Siruno, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Luca Rosignoli, INAF - Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio (Italy); Mostafa Lutfi, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Pablo Zorzi, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Peter Ferguson, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Roberto Tighe, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Rodolfo Canestrari, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Palermo (Italy); Russel Owen, Sandrine J. Thomas, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Te-Wei Tsai, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Tiago Ribeiro, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Yijung Kang, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile)
21 June 2024 • 14:40 - 15:00 Japan Standard Time
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The M2 secondary mirror of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory will be the first 3.4 m active mirror to see the sky in 2024. Here, we report on the integration, testing and verification of the M2 surrogate with the M2 cell, initially in the integration hall and subsequently on the Telescope Mount Assembly, including the M2 light baffle installation inside the dome. We report on the complex installation procedure and the three test campaigns that encompass the characterization of a wide spectrum of M2 cell functionalities, such as the actuator's behavior in terms of maximum stroke and force limits, inner and outer control loop mode behavior, active and un-powered support of the M2, rigid body motion repeatability, motion limits, and lookup tables optimization.
Break
Lunch Break 11:40 - 13:00
Session 20: Opto-Mechanical Designs II
21 June 2024 • 15:30 - 17:10 Japan Standard Time
Session Chairs: Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States), Jason Spyromilio, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
13094-90
Author(s): Carlos Quintero Noda, Manuel Collados Vera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain); Silvia Regalado Olivares, Jonai Bienes, Francisco González Pérez, Claudia Ruiz de Galarreta, Jorge Quintero Nehrkorn, Antonio Matta-Gómez, Mary Barreto Cabrera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
21 June 2024 • 15:30 - 15:50 Japan Standard Time
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The Gregor Infrared Spectrograph is installed at the Gregor telescope at Observatorio del Teide. The instrument started observations in 2012 and currently it is experiencing the most significant upgrade so far, which includes adding two optical channels to perform simultaneous multi-wavelength observations. One of the elements we need to modify to optimise the performance of the instrument on the new spectral channels is the Polarisation Module Unit (PMU). We present in this contribution the first-light results of the new version of the PMU.
13094-91
Author(s): Patricio A. Gallardo, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The Univ. of Chicago (United States)
21 June 2024 • 15:50 - 16:10 Japan Standard Time
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CMB-S4, the next-generation CMB observatory will deploy hundreds of thousands of detectors to enable mapping the millimeter-wavelength sky with unprecedented speed. The large-aperture telescopes for CMB-S4 consist of six-meter diameter crossed Dragone designs to be deployed in Chile and an innovative five-meter diameter three-mirror anastigmat to be deployed in the South Pole. The two-mirror crossed Dragone requires instrument corrections as demonstrated earlier in these proceedings. We discuss biconic lens corrections for the CMB-S4 crossed Dragone telescope camera optics and we give an overview of the camera optics for the three mirror anastigmat as the optical designs of the cameras for these telescopes are prepared for manufacture.
13094-92
Author(s): Marta Belío-Asin, Jorge Sánchez-Capuchino, Álvaro Pérez-Garcia, Sergio Bonaque-González, Esther Soria, Noelia Feijoo, Claudia Ruiz de Galarreta, Juan Cózar-Castellano, Miguel Núñez Cagigal, Manuel Collados Vera, Mary Barreto Cabrera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
21 June 2024 • 16:10 - 16:30 Japan Standard Time
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The preliminary optical design of EST has been optimized to maximize throughput, balance the instrumental polarization and to reduce the image rotation due to the change in orientation during operation. The optical system consists of a 4.2 m active primary mirror and an adaptive secondary mirror. Followed by four deformable mirrors conjugated to different layers of the atmosphere and a dioptric system, housed in a vacuum vessel, to transfer the secondary focal plane to the science focus. Finally, the light is delivered to the Scientific Instrumentation by a dedicated distribution system. This contribution outlines the optical design of EST, details its subassemblies and discusses its final performance.
13094-93
Author(s): Ali Ranjbar, David Copley, Astrophysics Research Institute (United Kingdom); Mauro Ghigo, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy); Adam Garner, Iain A. Steele, Astrophysics Research Institute (United Kingdom); Carlos M. M. Gutiérrez, Miguel Torres, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Stuart D. Bates, Astrophysics Research Institute (United Kingdom)
21 June 2024 • 16:30 - 16:50 Japan Standard Time
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The New Robotic Telescope (NRT) is an autonomous telescope that can operate multiple instruments at the Cassegrain focal station and the straight-through port. The optical beam is directed to the ports by a fold mirror subsystem in the focal station assembly. The fold mirror is elliptical in shape, manufactured by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), and polished down to RMS surface deformation of λ/20. An optomechanical analysis is performed to simulate the effect of gravity over the mirror surface deformation and the results have been compared to the interferometry plots to optimize the Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) process to polish the mirror aperture. The design and manufacturing of the mirror assembly, including the gluing process, will be summarised as part of this presentation.
13094-94
Author(s): Alexander Diaz, Gaizka Murga, Maialen González, Borja Vega, Afonso Teixeira, Juan Francisco Márquez, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Santiago Royo, Noel Rodrigo, Pau Santos, Carles Pizarro, Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain); Andreas Förster, Sebastian P. Schmid, Samuel Lévêque, Philippe Gitton, Martin Dimmler, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
21 June 2024 • 16:50 - 17:10 Japan Standard Time
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The ELT M1 Local Coherencer is a non-contact metrology system aimed to simultaneously measure the relative pistons on the six sides of a target M1 segment with respect to neighbouring ones (reference segments) with an accuracy below 300nm in a range of ±250μm while it is supported by the M1 Segment Manipulator hanging from the M1 Segment Crane. For this purpose, the Local Coherencer is equipped with six Sensing Modules integrating, - a patented partially coherent light interferometer, - an absolute tip-tilt sensor and a fine local alignment system to orient the system normal to the reference segment, and - a coarse alignment detection system composed of a distance sensor and a border visualisation camera. The Preliminary Design described in a precedent paper has been further optimized to provide a better performance of the interferometer. Additonally, as a part of the Final Design effort, an Early Unit of a Sensing Module has been built and tested to validate the expected performance, check the correct operation of its three measurement systems as well as the local alignment system and test the latency of the measurements. This paper covers the Design and results discussion.
Break
Coffee Break 15:00 - 15:30
Session PS1: Posters - Commissioning
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-95
Author(s): Emaad Paracha, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Steven J. Benton, Princeton Univ. (United States); Christopher J. Damaren, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Spencer W. Everett, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); Aurelien A. Fraisse, Princeton Univ. (United States); Ajay S. Gill, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); John W. Hartley, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); David Harvey, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bradley Holder, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Eric M. Huff, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); Mathilde Jauzac, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); William C. Jones, Princeton Univ. (United States); Jason S.-Y. Leung, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Lun Li, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Thuy Vy T. Luu, Princeton Univ. (United States); Richard Massey, Ctr. for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Jacqueline E. McCleary, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Johanna M. Nagy, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States); C. Barth Netterfield, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Susan F. Redmond, Caltech (United States); Jason D. Rhodes, Andrew Robertson, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Jürgen Schmoll, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Mohamed M. Shaaban, Palantir Technologies (United States); Ellen L. Sirks, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Georgios N. Vassilakis, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Philippe Voyer, Institute for Aerospace Studies, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Andre Z. Vitorelli, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Super Pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction limited 0.5m optical-to-near-UV telescope launched from New Zealand on NASA’s Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) on April 16, 2023 and flew for 39 days. There were several communication links used during SuperBIT’s flight to communicate with the telescope from the ground, including Starlink, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), Pilot, and Iridium. While Starlink bandwidth was suitable for TCP-based communications and downlinking, the other links were only capable of supporting UDP-based communications. We designed a file transfer algorithm that downlinked files while detecting missing packets in our downlink and requested them automatically, saving limited bandwidth. We also developed a similar mechanism to upload files as 200-byte commands to SuperBIT. In addition to the downlink and uplink programs, we also created an “autopilot” program to automate observations based on the location, time, and a prioritized list of targets. In this paper, we discuss the communication and observation challenges that were faced and strategies we used to overcome these challenges while operating SuperBIT.
13094-96
Author(s): Seery Chen, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Deborah M. Lokhorst, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada); Imad Pasha, Yale Univ. (United States); Roberto G. Abraham, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Pieter van Dokkum, Yale Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Dragonfly Spectra Line Mapper (DSLM) is a mosaic telescope optimized for ultra low surface brightness imaging of visible wavelength line emission. The design is based on the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, with the addition of ultra narrow bandpass filters in front of each lens. The telescope was constructed in four phases from March 2022 to November 2023. Since the original 10-lens phase, various hardware upgrades were introduced. Here we describe the construction and commissioning of the complete 120-lens array, as well as the implementation of various hardware upgrades. Additionally we present updated characterization of the cameras and filter transmission for the full array. Finally, we reflect on the construction process and remark on the feasibility of a larger 1000-lens array.
13094-97
Author(s): Frank Grupp, Juliana Ehrhardt, Hanna Kellermann, Claus Gössl, Univ.-Sternwarte München (Germany); Florian Lang, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany); Ulrich Hopp, Ralf Bender, Univ.-Sternwarte München (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Wendelstein First Ring (WFR) is an automated multi-focal station that is designed to efficiently and precisely distribute telescope light at one of the Nasmyth ports to various scientific instruments. It will be installed at the 2.1m telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory which is currently equipped with two imaging cameras, the Wendelstein Wide field imager (WWFI), and a three-channel camera (3KK) in addition to a high-resolution comb-calibrated spectrograph (FOCES). The WFR will enable the observer to change within 90s between the latter two instruments or provide calibration light to the devices. Furthermore, it offers the possibility for alignment optimization of the telescope via a wavefront sensor. We will report on the verification of the different light paths and the repeatability of switching between them. Finally, we will describe the commissioning process after mounting the WFR to the telescope.
13094-98
Author(s): Elana Urbach, Harvard Univ. (United States); Chuck Claver, Erik Dennihy, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Kevin Fanning, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Merlin Fisher-Levine, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Patrick Ingraham, Steward Observatory, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Tony Johnson, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Craig Lage, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Robert Lupton, Princeton Univ. (United States); Josh Meyers, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Eske Pedersen, Harvard Univ. (United States); Alysha Shugart, Ioana Sotuela, Brian Stalder, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Christopher W. Stubbs, Harvard Univ. (United States); Gregg Thayer, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Sandrine J. Thomas, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Chris Walter, Duke Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is nearing completion, and we are embarking on a campaign to optimize the image quality for its upcoming 10-year optical survey. Here we present the tools and methods that we are implementing to disentangle and quantify the different sources of image degradation, as well as plans to correct and mitigate these sources where possible.
Session PS2: Posters - Commissioning & Operations
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-162
Author(s): Ellen L. Sirks, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia), Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Richard Massey, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Ajay S. Gill, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Jason Anderson, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Steven J. Benton, Princeton Univ. (United States); Anthony M. Brown, Paul Clark, Joshua English, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Spencer W. Everett, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Aurelien A. Fraisse, Princeton Univ. (United States); Hugo Franco, Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (United States); John W. Hartley, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); David Harvey, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bradley Holder, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Andrew Hunter, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Eric M. Huff, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Andrew Hynous, NASA Wallops Flight Facility (United States); Mathilde Jauzac, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); William C. Jones, Princeton Univ. (United States); Nikky Joyce, Duncan Kennedy, David Lagattuta, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Jason S.-Y. Leung, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Lun Li, Princeton Univ. (United States), StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Stephen Lishman, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Thuy Vy T. Luu, Princeton Univ. (United States); Jacqueline E. McCleary, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Johanna M. Nagy, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States); C. Barth Netterfield, Emaad Paracha, Robert Purcaru, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Susan F. Redmond, Princeton Univ. (United States); Jason D. Rhodes, Andrew Robertson, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Sarah Roth, NASA Wallops Flight Facility (United States); Robert Salter, Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (United States); Jürgen Schmoll, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Mohamed M. Shaaban, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), Palantir Technologies (United States); Roger M. Smith, Caltech (United States); Russell Smith, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Sut Ieng Tam, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Georgios N. Vassilakis, Northeastern Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Super Pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction limited 0.5m optical-to-near-UV telescope. It was launched from New Zealand on NASA’s Super Pressure Balloon on April 16, 2023 and flew for 39 days. Attached to the telescope were four "Data Recovery System" (DRS) capsules, publicly-available toolkits of flight-proven hardware and software designed to retrieve up to 5 TB of data from stratospheric balloon platforms. Before launch, a capsule is attached to the balloon, and rises with it. Upon remote command, the capsule is released and descends via parachute. Data from the telescope were copied to the DRSs, and two were dropped over Argentina. Software to predict the trajectory was used to select safe but accessible landing sites. Once on the ground, the capsules reported their own locations to within a few metres. We recovered the capsules and successfully retrieved all of SuperBIT's data.
13094-163
Author(s): Stephen E. Levine, Lowell Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) is a 4.3-m telescope designed and constructed for optical and near infrared astronomical observation. This report looks at the evolution over time of some of the major components of the facility. We discuss some unforeseen effects of time and wear on these systems, their impact on operations and steps taken to address them. We also look at recent improvements and discuss next steps for the telescope and facility.
13094-164
Author(s): Deborah M. Lokhorst, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada); Seery Chen, Roberto G. Abraham, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Pieter van Dokkum, Imad Pasha, Yale Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Dragonfly Spectral Line Mapper is an innovative all-refracting telescope designed to carry out ultra-low surface brightness wide-field mapping of visible wavelength line emission. Equipped with ultranarrowband filters mounted in Dragonfly Filter-Tilter instrumentation, the Dragonfly Spectral Line Mapper can detect H-alpha, [NII], and [OIII] line emission produced by structures with sizes ranging from ~1 to 1000 kpc in the local Universe. These spatial scales encompass that of the exceedingly diffuse and faintly radiating circumgalactic medium, which is singularly difficult to detect with conventional mirror-based telescope instrumentation. Here we describe our calibration and observing methods which enable the Dragonfly Spectral Line Mapper to reach the unprecedented sensitivity required to image the circumgalactic medium of galaxies in the local Universe.
13094-165
Author(s): Barry Rothberg, Daniel Veillette, Andrew Cenko, Phillip D. Eakens, Christopher M. Kilian, Samuel Mellon, U.S. Naval Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) was established in Washington D.C. in 1844, and moved to its current location north of Georgetown in 1893. In addition to the generation of astronomical almanacs produced by USNO, the institution has contributed significantly to astronomical research over the last 180 years. As the city expanded and the new electric lightbulb created ever-increasing light pollution, USNO moved much, but not all, of its astronomical instrumentation to its field station in Flagstaff, Arizona by the mid-1950s. Among these were the 1.0 m Ritchey-Chretien (RC) reflector, the largest telescope built by George Ritchey. Astronomical observations continue in Washington D.C. to the present day with the Alvan Clark 26" Great Equatorial refractor, and other telescopes, which over the years have operated from the original site of the 1.0 m RC reflector. The latest is the 70cm Capital Astronomical Telescope (70CAT), a wide-field Riccardi Large Astrograph. In this presentation, we discuss the commissioning and testing of the 70CAT, and its capabilities for making significant contributions to astronomical research from the heart of Washington D.C.
13094-166
Author(s): Joe Llama, Lowell Observatory (United States); John Brewer, San Francisco State Univ. (United States); Andrew Szymkowiak, Debra Fischer, Yale Univ. (United States); Lily Zhao, Flatiron Institute (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The signal induced by a temperate, terrestrial planet orbiting a Sun-like star is an order of magnitude smaller than the host stars' intrinsic variability. Understanding stellar activity is, therefore, a fundamental obstacle in confirming the smallest exoplanets. Here we present observations of the Sun with the Lowell Observatory Solar Telescope (LOST), a small telescope that acquires high-cadence, disk-integrated observations of the Sun continuously throughout the day using the EXtreme PREcision Spectrograph (EXPRES). These observations will allow us to monitor the solar RV and correlate these data with disk-resolved images of the Sun. Using NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we will examine concentrated regions of faculae that are known to drive RV variations on the Sun and whose RV impact remains little studied. We will reconstruct the RV of the Sun from SDO images, seen as though it were a distant, point-like star.
13094-167
Author(s): Susan F. Redmond, Caltech (United States), Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Ajay S. Gill, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); C. Barth Netterfield, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Steven J. Benton, Princeton Univ. (United States); Christopher J. Damaren, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Spencer W. Everett, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Aurelien A. Fraisse, Princeton Univ. (United States); John W. Hartley, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); David Harvey, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bradley Holder, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Eric M. Huff, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); William C. Jones, Princeton Univ. (United States); David Lagattuta, Mathilde Jauzac, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Jason S.-Y. Leung, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Lun Li, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Thuy Vy T. Luu, Princeton Univ. (United States); Richard Massey, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Jacqueline E. McCleary, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Johanna M. Nagy, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States); Emaad Paracha, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Jason D. Rhodes, Andrew Robertson, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Jürgen Schmoll, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Mohamed M. Shaaban, Palantir Technologies (United States); Ellen L. Sirks, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Georgios N. Vassilakis, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Andre Z. Vitorelli, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Super-pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction limited 0.5m optical-to-near-UV telescope that was designed to study dark matter via cluster weak lensing. SuperBIT launched from Wanaka, NZ via NASA’s super pressure balloon technology in 2023 and remained in the stratosphere for 39 days. SuperBIT obtained multi-band images for 30 targets; data analysis to produce shear measurements for each target is ongoing. We provide an overview of the instrument commissioning process and performance. The first two days of the flight were used for payload characterization and telescope alignment after which the flight was dedicated to science observations. There are three subsystems for which we provide performance data: pointing, power, and thermal. SuperBIT consists of three nested frames which enable telescope pointing stability of 0.34” as well as a fine guidance sensor which produces a focal plane image stability of 0.055” over 300s exposures. The power system reached full charge every day and did not ever drop below 30%. All components remained within their temperature limits and actively controlled components remained at their set point within ~0.1K.
Session PS3: Posters - ELT Enabling Technologies
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-168
Author(s): John W. Miles, Brent Ellerbroek, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Hugh Thompson, Thirty Meter Telescope (Canada); Hainan Zhang, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China); Ian Welle, Nathaniel Green, Polar Engineering (Canada); Adam Densmore, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper discusses the refrigerant services infrastructure in development for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), to remove waste heat generated by electronics on the telescope top end, cool the adaptive optics enclosure to -35°C, and cool the telescope hydrostatic bearing oil to -21°C. We discuss the trade study that led to the choice of carbon dioxide as the refrigerant. We describe the TMT refrigeration cooling capacity requirements, concept of operations, and conceptual design.
13094-169
Author(s): Christopher J. Carter, James M. Johnson, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Mark M. Colavita, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Primary Mirror Control System (M1CS) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) incorporates 1476 precision electromechanical soft actuators that are used to perform closed-loop control of the position of the 492 primary mirror segments in tip, tilt and piston. This paper describes the evolution of the M1CS Actuator design from the early concept through several prototype rounds and towards a design suitable for production-at-scale. Key design decisions, refined through prototyping and testing to ensure optimum performance, reliability and serviceability are highlighted. Particular insight is given into the activities undertaken by TMT partners and vendors in India, especially as part of the vendor selection and vendor qualification that was undertaken as part of TMT’s Production Qualification Phase (PQP) process. In conclusion, TMT’s next steps are discussed as the actuator design leaves its prototyping phase and prepares for production.
13094-170
Author(s): Alexander Rohr, Alexei Ippa, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Andrej Bolender, igus GmbH (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The GMT telescope is equipped with three large utility wraps for the main axes. From the very beginning of the design phase, these were considered to be critical sources of vibration. Since no information was available on the vibration behaviour of the utility wraps at low speeds during tracking, a great deal of effort was put into the planning and execution of a test campaign using a 1:1 scale test bench. One of the special features was a novel structure identification technique using unbalanced motors as a cost-effective yet reliable alternative to the commonly used shaker actuators.
13094-171
Author(s): Pablo J. Barriga, Nick Kornweibel, Martin Dimmler, Andres Ramirez, Ronald Guzman, Jose A. Abad, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The ELT M1 Segment Concentrator cabinet grew from the need to optimize the power consumption of the control electronics for all M1 Segment Assemblies. These, are located below the segment assemblies the main challenges were the demanding heat dissipation requirements while keeping the electronics within reasonable working temperatures. To minimize the heat dissipation bespoke heat exchangers were design and tested. A PLC based Power Distribution and Control Unit was design to control and monitor a 24VDC power supply that distributes power to all subsystems pertaining to 7 segments subunits hosted by the M1 Segment Concentrator. It provides feedback to the M1LCS at all times, but more importantly during maintenance operations, and in particular during the segment exchange operation. 132 M1 Segment Concentrators distributed across the M1 Cell host the control electronics of the 798 M1 Segment Subunits that shape the ELT primary mirror. This paper presents the challenges during the design phase of the segment concentrator and how they were solved in order to finalize its design, their production and currently their integration during the ELT AIV phase.
13094-172
Author(s): Albert Tomás, Aura Amoros, Jose Angel Andion, Manuel Canchado, Joan Manel Casalta, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain); Michael Mueller, Yannick Lammen, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Oscar Maroto, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper outlines a methodology for verifying the surface error (SFE) of the ESO Extremely Large Telescope's 4-meter class secondary and tertiary Mirror Cells (M2M3). Gravity and thermal effects are assessable analytically, but manufacturing and integration tolerances pose further complexity. Force measurements on Mirror supports are used together with measurement uncertainty reduction techniques to reliably assess compliance. Results and discussions are presented.
13094-173
Author(s): Marie Lemoine-Busserolle, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Christophe Dumas, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Bob Goodrich, GMTO Corp. (United States); Lucas Macri, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The United States Extremely Large Telescope Program (US-ELTP) is a joint initiative of the organizations building the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the NSF’s National Optical and Infrared Astronomy Lab, NOIRLab. The US-ELTP will provide the US astronomical community with open access to observing and archival science with the GMT and TMT via a user services platform supporting the lifecycle of scientific inquiry. In this contribution, we summarize the status of the development and design of the program’s components, highlighting key advances and remaining technical challenges, and describing the next steps in bringing this initiative to fruition.
13094-174
Author(s): Gary Muller, David S. Ashby, Christopher Contaxis, Marianne Cox, Austin Everman, Barbara Fischer, GMTO Corp. (United States); John Ford, Steward Observatory, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Michael Gardiner, Tomas Krasuski, Oliver McIrwin, Trupti Ranka, GMTO Corp. (United States); Thomas Salanski, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Jose Soto, Hector Swett, GMTO Corp. (United States); David J. Zeller, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Giant Magellan Telescope primary mirror subsystem consists of seven 8.4 m diameter borosilicate primary mirrors that must be maintained at the ambient nighttime air temperature as the air cools throughout the observing night to prevent seeing effects at the mirror surface. Additionally, thermal gradients internal to the mirrors must be minimized to prevent figure errors. To address these requirements, the GMT primary mirror subsystem (M1S) is prototyping a novel thermal control system design that utilizes a custom, sub-critical, refrigeration system using high pressure (80 bar) CO2 (R744) refrigerant. CO2 was chosen in part for its benign effects on optical surfaces in the event of leaks and its presumed long-term availability over the operational lifetime of the Giant Magellan Telescope, where more environmentally harmful refrigerants are likely to be phased out. This paper describes the design of the primary mirror thermal control system including the challenges of operating a CO2 refrigeration system in a varying gravity vector environment, the advantages and disadvantages of CO2, and the safety risks and mitigations.
Session PS4: Posters - Enclosures
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-175
Author(s): William Miguel Hernández Sánchez, Sergio Rodriguez Rocha, Patricia Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Enrique Martin, Domingo Alonso Diaz, Ignacio De Leon Rodriguez, Maria Martin Calero, Alejandro Leal Gonzalez, Victor Herrera Perez, Gran Telescopio de Canarias, S.A. (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The dome of the Grantecan was delivered after its construction partially inoperative, due to problems with the contractor. The shutters of the dome did not work. The maintenance team managed to get it operational, with opening limitations. The telescope was inaugurated with this restriction in 2009. In 2015, a refurbishment was carried out, changing some of the major hardware and adding a new control strategy for the aperture. With these improvements it was possible to use the full functionality of the dome shutters, with full opening and emergency degraded closing, without relying on all the motors. Another problem was a defective assembly and design of the rotation bogies. It was decided to upgrade and correct them in 2023 to avoid wear of the bogies and the rail and to reduce vibrations towards the telescope. This could not be carried out in the previous months due to the ash caused by the Cumbre Vieja volcano. The bogie correction was then carried out progressively without affecting the scientific operations. The poster presents these advances that have strengthened the GRANTECAN dome without negatively impacting science operations.
13094-176
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Tommaso Marchiori, Matteo Spinola, Lorenzo Vio, Alessandro Colovini, Francesco Rampini, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Massimiliano Tordi, EIE S.r.l. (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A novel high performance clamshell system is presented. The design is scalable to medium sized 4m class telescopes, and allows the installation of complex system for ventilation, wind screening, telescope maintenance, and thermal control. The rsults of the firtst products realized at EIE are also presented.
13094-177
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Massimiliano Tordi, EIE S.r.l. (Italy); Leonardo Ghedin, Johana L. Martinez, Cristiana Manfrin, Cristina Battistel, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Renè Messing, Ernesto Doelling, European Space Operations Ctr., European Space Agency (Germany); Riccardo Bressan, Tommaso Marchiori, Tiziano Niero, Lorenzo Vio, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Near-Earth Object Survey TELescope (also knowm as "Flyeye") represents a key element of S2P. Its role consists of providing a real-time monitoring system from the ground of potential impactors, generating an early-warning signal with a maximum delay of three days from detection to alert generation. Due to the peculiarities of the "Flyeye" telescope, the hosting astronomical observatory shall comply with specific and tight requirements. Advanced, modular, highly reliable dome systems and auxiliary building solutions for observatories dedicated to space debris and NEO detection are presented.
13094-178
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Francesco Rampini, Manfredi Amalfi, Riccardo Bressan, Cristiana Manfrin, Cristina Battistel, Johana L. Martinez, Lorenzo Vio, Tiziano Niero, Leonardo Ghedin, Tommaso Marchiori, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Cahir Yesilyaprak, Ataturk Univ. Astrophysics Research & Application Ctr. (ATASAM) (Turkey); Onur Keskin, Isik Üniv. (Turkey)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The DAG (Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi) observatory is the largest observatory in Turkey. This presentation refers to the DAG Rotating Enclosure. At the beginning of November 2023, EIE carried out all acceptance tests with the end customer and delivered the rotating enclosure to ATASAM. This paper will provide the results of the final erection and reports the procedures and results of the Acceptance Tests performed by EIE for the DAG Rotating Enclosure
13094-179
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Tommaso Marchiori, Alberto Callegaro, Cristiana Manfrin, Giuseppe Renosto, Cristina Battistel, Francesco Rampini, Cristiano Trabuio, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Chris Salcido, Van Romero, Michelle Creech Eakman, Andres Olivares, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is an astronomical observatory focused on both research and education, located on the Magdalena Ridge in New Mexico, the result of a scientific collaboration between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech – NMT) and the Cavendish Astrophysics Group at the University of Cambridge. MRO will used to support Astronomy, Optical and near-infrared radiation, Space situational awareness, Education and Research. The MRO array will simulate a single-telescope parabola by operating at wavelengths between 0.6 and 2.5 micron, with a baseline of a diameter between 7.8m and 340m.
Session PS5: Posters - Future Observatories
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-180
Author(s): Rudy Wijnands, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steven Bloemen, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rik Ter Horst, ASTRON (Netherlands); André Young, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mattijs Bakker, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Paul Groot, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rasjied Sloot, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Paul Vreeswijk, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We present the Near-Ultraviolet eXplorer (NUX), which will consist out of 4 small (35 cm diameter) ground-based telescopes that are optimized for the shortest wavelengths that are detectable from Earth (i.e., the near-UV [NUV] wavelength range of 300-350 nm). Each telescope will have a field-of-view of ~16.8 square degrees sampled at ~2.5”/pixel, and will reach a NUV magnitude of 20 in 2.5 minutes exposures. The goal of NUX is to improve our understanding of the physical processes that power fast (days) to very fast (hours) hot transients, such as shock-breakout and shock-cooling emission of supernovae and the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events. Each telescope will be an off-the-shelf 14” Celestron RASA telescope, retrofitted with NUV optics. We have already demonstrated that the normal Schmidt corrector of this telescope can be replaced by a custom made one consisting of NUV transparent glass. Currently, a prototype NUX telescope is being fully assembled to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of the NUX concept. Site tests will be held (expected in 2025) at La Silla, Chile and potentially at El Leoncito Astronomical Complex, Argentina.
13094-181
Author(s): Thomas D. Ditto, 3DeWitt, LLC (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Ghost has these redeeming features for a hybrid: • Resides at a fixed sky location totally eliminating the need for any dynamic tracking • Onboard Reference Beacon (ORB) artificial “star” eliminates need for ground lasers • Parked at GEO without significant propellant. Attitude control is by reaction wheel. • Can be used simultaneously from every ground telescope within a GEO footprint • Lateral FoV (Field-of-View) > 10° covers a line of right ascension (LORA) • Objects within a LORA are optically compressed inside a “keyhole” < 2 arc second • Observation of entire LORA is as simple as spectrographic observation of a single star • Ghost can disperse surveyed objects at extreme spectrographic precision R > 1010 • Dense astronomical data is taken locally on the ground. No need for NASA telemetry • Gossamer POG is manufactured and tested on the ground then rolled up as stowage • Deployment lends itself to robotic in-space construction previously studied by NIAC A multiplicity of small ground telescopes can be arrayed along that line. An example for study is the CREOL PolyOculus array of small telescopes which deliver a 2 arc second point on the sky to a common optical fiber.
13094-182
Author(s): Philippe Dierickx, Ctr. de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Gaston Gausachs, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Johan Kosmalski, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Tony D. Travouillon, The Australian National Univ. (Australia); Roland M. Bacon, Ctr. de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (France); Ian Bryson, David Lee, UK Astronomy Technology Ctr. (United Kingdom); Jan Kragt, Eduard R. Muslimov, ASTRON (Netherlands); Kjetil Dohlen, Aix-Marseille Univ. (France), Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Joël Vernet, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Thierry Lépine, Institut d’Optique Graduate School (France), Lab. Hubert Curien (France); Peter Doel, David Brooks, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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WST – Wide-field Spectroscopic Telescope: we summarise the outcome of initial opto-mechanical design activities on a 12m class Telescope that would provide a large (>3 square degree) field of view and enable simultaneous Multi-object (> 20,000 objects) and Integral Field spectroscopy (inner 3x3 arc minutes field of view), initially at visible wavelengths. We describe the outline conceptual design and the associated key features of the Telescope and Dome. Finally we summarise the compliance against the science top-level requirements and the issues to address moving forward.
13094-183
Author(s): Jared May, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Here we describe Taurus, a balloon-borne CMB experiment optimized to map the CMB E-mode polarization and foregrounds at the largest angular scales (ℓ<30) and improve measurements of the optical depth to reionization (τ). The instrument will map 60% of the sky enabled by a mid-latitude launch location and NASA’s super-pressure balloon platform. Taurus will employ more than 10,000 100mK detectors distributed across two low-frequency (150, 220 GHz) and one high-frequency (280, 350 GHz) dichroic receivers. The liquid helium cryostat housing the detectors and optics is supported by a lightweight gondola. The payload is designed to meet the challenges in mass, power, and thermal control posed by the super-pressure platform.
13094-184
Author(s): Roberto Ragazzoni, Silvio Di Rosa, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy); Paolo Spanò, Optical-Design.It (Italy); Demetrio Magrin, Carmelo Arcidiacono, Marco Dima, Jacopo Farinato, Luigi Lessio, Paolo Cerpelloni, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy); Elisa Portaluri, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico d'Abruzzo (Italy); Simone Zaggia, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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MezzoCielo is a project of a monocentric optical system with a spherical glass envelope built up by meniscus arranged onto a Platonic or Fullerene-like structure filled with industrial liquid characterized by high transparency and low refractive index. Optical design of the cameras, implying the choice between large multiplexing and moderate individual field of view vs. a limited amount of cameras aiming to correct a much larger individual field of view is presented, along with the current status of the engineering aspects of its design. A case study for such a telescope as a patrol of GW telescope in order to allow almost real-time pinpointing of the associated multimessengers potential sources is given, showing its capability to explore a unique science.
13094-185
Author(s): Christian Leinz, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany); Pierre Dubois-dit-Bonclaude, Matthias Jost, Jens Gotta, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Christoph Kasemann, Gundolf Wieching, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Square Kilometre Array MPI Prototype Antenna (SKA-MPI) and the current under construction MeerKAT+ project, extending the 64-dish MeerKAT array, are located at the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) site in the Karoo region of South Africa. As a radio quiet zone, the site provides an excellent location for detecting radio signals from weak astronomical sources. Therefore, the requirements on self-induced RFI/EMI emissions are extremely strict. The emission levels of the antennas with their electronic control and drive systems need to be low enough to not interfere with or corrupt the received astronomical signal, which is a clear challenge to the design and on the test equipment for verification. We will present the development and verification of an innovative RFI quiet telescope control and drive system design that forms the basis of the SKA-MPI and MeerKAT+ antennas.
13094-186
Author(s): Jun Nishikawa, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan), The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies (Japan), Astrobiology Ctr. (Japan)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper describes a telescope concept that has an aperture area equivalent to 88 m in diameter by 16 telescopes with an aperture of 22 m placed closely within a 150 m range. The primary mirror uses an off-axis spherical mirror fixed to the ground, and a subsequent correction unit corrects most of the aberrations of the primary mirror which is placed on a high cliff to track diurnal motion for 30 minutes. Multiple correction units can be operated simultaneously in the north-south direction. Wide-field cameras and spectrographs are equipped for every telescope to perform high-speed deep surveys and high S/N spectroscopic observations. All telescopes have laser-guided star adaptive optics, deaylines, and coude paths which allows light from all telescopes to be focused in one location in phase to function as one ultimate telescope for observation of exoplanets and galactic objects with high angular resolution and high sensitivity.
13094-187
Author(s): Samuel C. Barden, Marc R. Baril, Tom Benedict, Gregory A. Barrick, Windell H. Jones, Gregory A. Green, Raycen Wong, Kevin K. Ho, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A quad-mirror (QM) telescope has been designed for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer project. The goal to repurpose the existing CFHT site without changing the footprint of the observatory imposes numerous constraints on the telescope including space constraints limiting the size of the telescope and the space available for the large number of spectrographs required, dimensional constraints (limits the size of any monolithic mirrors), mass limits along with other logistical constraints that wouldn't necessarily exist for a facility designed from first principals. The QM concept offers several scientific and versatility advantages over the original prime focus baseline, but it poses some challenges, such as the size of the tertiary mirror. Ongoing effort is underway to understand how best to implement the QM design and to determine if there are any arising hard show stoppers. We present an overview of the optical design with its benefits, areas of compromise to meet constraints, evaluation of the telescope tolerances and metrology needs, utilization of pre-spectrograph wavelength splitting, and status of progress in this evaluation.
13094-188
Author(s): Roger M. Smith, Caltech (United States); Karim Agabi, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Michael C. B. Ashley, The Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Robert Bertz, Lauren Fahey, Jason Fucik, Timothee Greffe, Caltech (United States); Tristan Guillot, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); David Hale, Mansi M. Kasliwal, Rishi Pahuja, Robert Weber, Ray Zarzaca, Caltech (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Cryoscope will be a diffraction limited 1.2m telescope with 50 deg2 field of view contributing less thermal background than the dark K band sky at the Concordia Base in Antarctica. Cryoscope Pathfinder is 26cm version which has been built and is soon to be deployed at Dome C to retire technical risks. This paper reviews key design choices that make the substantial increase in field of view and reduction in thermal background possible. We address the technical challenges associated with the new approach and with operation over the > 100 C temperature difference between laboratory and winter at Dome C. The athermal window support and bonding are described. The baffling and thermal models are presented along with strategies for preventing condensation on the large vacuum window which radiates significant heat into the cryogenically cooled telescope. We conclude with a vision for a modular prefabricated tower to raise the telescope above the 25-30 m inversion layer, and an approach to image stabilization, so that diffraction limited imaging can be achieved over the full field of view.
13094-189
Author(s): Chiara Scandaglia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Alberto Riva, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (Italy); Lorenzo Casalino, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Mario Gai, Deborah Busonero, Alberto Vecchiato, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The search for extrasolar planets is an important tool for expanding our understanding of the Universe and exploring the possibility of life on other planets. Among the several approaches employed for this purpose, the astrometric method offers significant advantages, as it provides an accurate estimate of the mass of the investigated planet, which is not required to be aligned with the line of sight of the observer as for the transit or radial velocity techniques. This work aims at analysing the pointing manoeuvres required by a future spacecraft carrying an optical instrument such as RAFTER to properly fulfil the objectives of an exoplanet astrometric search mission. RAFTER is an annular field telescope conceived and proposed with the goal of achieving consistent optical response over a wide field of view, which exhibits a compact and scalable design and enforces circular symmetry for each optical element. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of the system and the evaluation of an appropriate guidance and control strategy will be presented. The selection and sizing of actuators will also be discussed, considering relevant issues such as reaction wheel saturation.
13094-190
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Simone De Lorenzi, Leonardo Ghedin, Cristiana Manfrin, Cristina Battistel, Riccardo Bressan, Matteo Spinola, Tiziano Niero, Lorenzo Vio, Tommaso Marchiori, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Massimiliano Tordi, EIE S.r.l. (Italy); Junsen Lao, Lei Huang, Lu Lu, Zheng Cai, Yuchen Zang, Liquan Guod, Tsinghua Univ. (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Multiplexed Survey Telescope (MUST) is 6.5m class optical telescope to be located in mainland China, at Saishiteng Mountain, Lenghu Town, Qinghai Province. The elevation is approximately 4.350m above sea level. The MUST Rotating Enclosure will provide environmental protection and control to the Telescope during operation and standby conditions as well as providing the infrastructure required for the operation of the Telescope. The Auxiliary Building will house plant, maintenance and storage facilities and the coating facility for the primary and secondary mirrors. A non-corotating dome architecture is chosen in order to improve flexibility during telescope maintenance and material handling. The rotating enclosure dome includes a moving wind screen, ventilation doors and a rear access door for main mirror handling. The contract to design and build the rotating dome and design the lower enclosure and auxiliary building was awarded to EIE GROUP in Mestre-Venezia, Italy in 22/12/22.
13094-191
Author(s): Will Saunders, Michael Goodwin, Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie Univ. (Australia)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Given the current financial climate, any new major telescope project must provide an order-of-magnitude improvement in delivered science per unit cost over current projects. We present a design for a wide-field spectroscopic transit telescope with any desired aperture, 3-5 degree Field-of-View (limited only by vignetting losses), delivering tens or hundreds (limited only by cost) of fully AO-corrected images to a gravity-invariant focal plane, feeding fiber-bundle arrays each providing a ~1" FoV. Such a telescope would be uniquely powerful for multiplexed large-area followup of imaging surveys, providing a increase in speed of tens to hundreds over an AO-equipped traditional telescope of the same aperture. The cost of this design might be surprisingly modest. The principal components - mirrors, LGS units, AO correctors, front ends, spectrographs - each have expected costs in the low tens of $M for a 10m-class telescope with say 100 front ends.
13094-192
Author(s): Peter C. Nagler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Lee Bernard, Nat Butler, Michael Line, Jennifer Patience, Logan Jensen, Johnathan Gamaunt, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Kanchita Klangboonkrong, Annalies Kleyheeg, Tim Rehm, Gregory S. Tucker, Brown Univ. (United States); Subhajit Sarkar, Lorenzo V. Mugnai, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Nikole Lewis, Cornell Univ. (United States); Paul Scowen, Kyle Helson, Daniel P. Kelly, Edward Leong, Stephen Maher, Ryan McClelland, Qian Gong, Laddawan R. Miko, Augustyn Waczynski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Vivien Parmentier, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Andrea Bocchieri, Azzurra D'Alessandro, Enzo Pascale, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); John W. Hartley, Steven Li, L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); C. Barth Netterfield, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Quentin Changeat, Billy Edwards, Ingo Waldmann, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The EXoplanet Climate Infrared TElescope (EXCITE) is a 0.5 meter near-infrared spectrograph that will fly from a high altitude balloon platform. EXCITE is designed to perform phase-resolved spectroscopy -- continuous spectroscopic observations of a planet's entire orbit about its host star -- of transiting hot Jupiter-type exoplanets. With spectral coverage from 0.8 -- 4 um, EXCITE will measure the peak of a target's spectral energy distribution and the spectral signatures of many hydrogen and carbon-containing molecules. Phase curve observations are highly resource intensive, especially for shared-use facilities, and they require exceptional photometric stability that is difficult to achieve, even from space. In this work, we introduce the EXCITE experiment and explain how it will solve both these problems. We discuss its predicted sensitivity and stability, then provide a detailed overview of the as-built instrument, including performance data EXCITE achieved from the ground during its 2023 field campaign in Ft. Sumner, NM. Finally, we detail preparations as for a planned 2024 engineering flight from North America and future long duration science flights from Earth's poles.
Session PS6: Posters - Metrology & Alignment
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-193
Author(s): Jacques Sebag, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Roberto Tighe, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile); Sandrine J. Thomas, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A Leica AT960/930 laser tracker with Spatial Analyzer software (SA) from Hexagon has been used to do metrology control during the integration of the Rubin Observatory Simonyi Survey telescope and commissioning camera. It is also the tool to assess the opto-mechanical alignment of the telescope and camera. Here we present metrology data for camera insertion into M2 during integration as well as flexure measurements for the telescope horizon pointing with respect to zenith pointing.
13094-194
Author(s): Jinxin Zhou, Ziming Liu, Rongfeng Chen, Jiahao Zhou, Jiacheng Xie, Congcong Du, Yingfu Wang, Hongzhuan Hu, Jianping Wang, Zhigang Liu, Jiaru Chu, Zengxiang Zhou, Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The key to ensure the accuracy of the closed-loop system is the accurate measurement of the reference fiber position, but the system error of the laser tracker itself, the temperature change and the air flow in the environment have a great influence on the measurement results. A measuring error compensation device based on the relative position of three standard length bars in space is presented. The device is based on three indium steel rods with very small thermal expansion coefficient and accurately verified length. The measuring deviation of rod length and relative position between rod and rod during operation is related to the measuring error of reference fiber. The position error of reference fiber on focal plane can be corrected in real time according to the correlation algorithm. Finally, experiments show that the error of laser tracker in reference fiber position measurement can be effectively reduced by this device.
13094-195
Author(s): Edoardo Maria Alberto Redaelli, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The alignment of optical systems is a crucial aspect to be considered in the design phase of astronomical instruments. As the size of telescopes and the related instruments is increasing, also the needs to have flexible measuring tools is developing in parallel to satisfy the scientific requirements. The development of the alignment techniques for small instruments is well validated throughout the history of the Optomechanical and astronomical instrumentation, nevertheless those techniques cannot be applied on large ones. This thesis proposes a procedure that allows to evaluate the position of optical elements in large volume very precisely. This enables the achievement of the scientific goals by minimizing the alignment procedure duration the costs.The case study presented here is MORFEO which is a first-light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope.
13094-196
Author(s): Luke Gers, W. M. Keck Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Presented in this paper is the latest technique developed at the W.M. Keck Observatory for calculating the optimal warping solution for unwarped segments in the telescopes called BAMM!. The new technique is used to improve the warping solution for challenging segments with a reduction in the segment warping forces. This solver has been in operation for the last 3 years.
13094-197
Author(s): Hanshin Lee, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States); Herman J. Kriel, Steven Janowiecki, Jim Fowler, Chris E. Robison, Juster Pauztke, Hobby Eberly Telescope (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative 10m-class telescope that operates with a fixed altitude segmented spherical primary mirror (M1) while a tracker, located at the top of the telescope, moves the prime-focus spherical aberration corrector (SAC) and instrument package in order to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of celestial objects. In 2016, we completed the wide-field upgrade of the telescope, which includes the Wide-Field Corrector (WFC), the tracker, the prime focus instrument package, and all electro-mechanical hardware and telescope control software. Post the upgrade, we have been monitoring the image performance of the telescope through the in-situ metrology. These metrology streams highlight weak spots of the telescope facility in imaging performance and provide quantitative guidance to specific facility repair and/or upgrades to further improve the HET’s overall performance. This paper summarizes our long-range (7yrs) datasets, specific analysis techniques used, and current outcomes of this effort in the context of specific facility improvement and upgrade plans.
13094-198
Author(s): Mohammad N. Islam, Bruce Veidt, Tim Robishaw, Parmeet Brar, Xuan Du, National Research Council Canada (Canada)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The John A. Galt 26m radio telescope is an important astronomical instrument for the Canadian radio astronomy community. The prime focus telescope is ideal for spectropolarimetric studies of the interstellar medium. Nonetheless, under various gravity loading conditions, the structural deformation in the telescope causes unpolarized radiation into a polarized signal which corrupt the astronomical signal. In addition to that, due to the equatorial mount arrangement, the tripod-shaped feed support structure also changes its position depending on the pointing direction. This variation also affects the reflective surface and the feed position relative to the reflective surface. A detailed finite element (FE) model of the antenna has been created to characterize the effects and related deformation of the structure. Gravity related surface and support structure deformation was studied. As a part of the FE model verification, a photogrammetry-based antenna metrology was conducted. The surface RMS errors are between 3 - 4 mm when compared with a best-fit paraboloid. In addition to the error characterization, the photogrammetry setup and challenges are also discussed in this article.
13094-199
Author(s): Shidong Shen, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Jiao Tong University Spectroscopic Telescope(JUST) is of great significance to Chinese astronomy. The 4.4-meter primary mirror of JUST will adopt segmented mirror active optics to realize co-phasing in near-infrared bands. Co-phasing errors of segmented primary mirror tiled by hexagonal segments are successfully calculated for JUST. Besides, Co-phasing errors including out-plane errors are simulated lonely and comprehensively, so that a lot of simulation results are successfully received which lay a solid foundation for JUST.
13094-200
Author(s): Xiaolong Lu, Zongwen Wang, Sichuan Univ. (China); You Wang, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Guiyun Tian Tian, Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom); Dehua Yang, Yong Zhang, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Inductance-to- Digital Converters (LDC) based differential inductive displacement Sensors with frequency output Xiaolong Lu , Zongwen Wang ,You Wang ,Guiyun Tian, Dehua Yang and Yong Zhang 1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China 2 School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK 3 Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042, China; 4 CAS Key Laboratory of Astronomical Optics & Technology, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology, Nanjing 210042,China Abstract: An edge displacement sensor is one of the most key technologies for building segmented mirror telescopes. Traditional edge displacement sensors mainly use Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) interfaces, and its signal conditioning circuit is complex and high power consumption, which is not conductive to the digital transformation and the Internet of Things (IoT) in particular. This article proposes a frequency output sensor based on Inductive-to Digital Converter (LDC) , which is low-cost, high sensitivity, high stability and consists of a differential structure. The time drift and temperature
13094-201
Author(s): Shuyu Zhu, Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China); Jijun Ni, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Jing Yin, Zhihua Feng, Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We have developed an ultra-stable eddy current edge displacement sensor with a resolution better than 1nm (RMS) within a range of 250μm. During on-site testing at the Guoshoujing Telescope (the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope LAMOST) telescope, the sensor exhibited a temperature drift within ±2nm/℃ after temperature compensation and achieved a drift of less than 25nm over 5 weeks. The test results indicate that, by relying on sensor feedback, the telescope has the potential to achieve high-quality co-focusing over extended periods and significant temperature ranges, thereby enhancing the operational efficiency and observation quality of the telescope.
13094-202
Author(s): Windell H. Jones, Salah E. Fatih, No'eau Instrument Development, LLC (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Star trackers, born in the 1960s, have evolved as precise navigation sensors for space exploration. Applying them to high-altitude balloon flights presents unique challenges, complicating the ideal star field with atmospheric conditions and upper atmosphere scattering. This work addresses complexities in using star trackers for high-altitude balloons. Beyond traditional challenges, atmospheric scattering and mesospheric clouds hinder accurate star field observations. Robust background subtraction is crucial, given variable backgrounds during balloon flights. Sensitive radio payloads demand shielding the star tracker. Designing an electromagnetic shield for the optical window is pivotal, requiring careful attenuation consideration. This paper presents an innovative star tracker in the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations high-altitude balloon experiment. The system navigates challenges, offering a reliable astrometry solution for unique high-altitude balloon conditions.
Session PS7: Posters - Modeling as a driver of Observatory Design
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-203
Author(s): Giacomo Basile, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (Italy), Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Alberto Petrillo, Stefania Santini, Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Pietro Schipani, Salvatore Savarese, Manuel D. Gonzalez, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper is focused on tracking control strategies for a ground-based telescope, comparing model-based solutions to more classical alternatives. To this aim, the state-space representation of the telescope axes is identified by using experimental data and a pre-processor is adopted for the computation of the position trajectories, ensuring that all physical constraints in terms of speed and acceleration are always respected. The case study of the TNG telescope is used in this work. Within this framework, we synthesize a double-layer control adopting a Kalman filter based Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian-Proportional-Integral (LQGPI) controller which ensures the reference position is accurately tracked. The virtual simulations carried out via an ad-hoc simulation platform implemented in Matalb&Simulink, show the effectiveness of the hierarchical control architecture for a representative set of star trajectories, considering several realistic conditions. Then, a comparison analysis with a PI controller is provided to discuss the advantages and benefits of the proposed control solution.
13094-204
Author(s): Heng Zhang, Peng Jia, Lichun Sun, Kaiyang Li, Botong Chen, Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a prominent radio telescope that possesses a wide range of frequencies, high spatial and temporal resolution. Multiple-frequency observations are essential for comprehending the diversity and complexity of astronomical targets in radio bands. In this study, we have enhanced a deep neural network with the CBAM convolutional attention module, which has significantly improved the precision of radio source detection while slightly reducing the recall rate. Subsequently, we have conducted a three-dimensional fitting for detected radio sources, including both point sources and extended sources, at each frequency. This process has yielded crucial parameters for each source, including center position (Center), surface brightness (Ie), effective radius (Re), position angle (Pa), and axis ratio (q). These parameters offer a more accurate and comprehensive description, providing robust support for research in radio astronomy.
13094-205
Author(s): Guillem Megias Homar, Joshua E. Meyers, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, Stanford Univ. (United States), SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Steven M. Kahn, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States), Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, Stanford Univ. (United States), SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States); Andrew J. Connolly, John Franklin Crenshaw, J. Bryce Kalmbach, Univ. of Washington (United States); Tiago Ribeiro, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States); Krzysztof Suberlak, Univ. of Washington (United States); Sandrine J. Thomas, Tei-Wei Tsai, Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is gearing up for its first light in early 2025. The commissioning of the Active Optics System (AOS) is critical for achieving seeing-limited optimal image quality across the field of view. Here we review some recent advancements with the AOS control system, including an innovative approach for addressing camera rotation through double Zernike polynomials. Additionally, a method to minimize the near-degeneracy of the telescope degrees of freedom based on noise levels is presented, providing a comprehensive overview and enhancement of the AOS control system status.
Session PS8: Posters - Mounts
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-206
Author(s): Arne Mann, Benjamin Hauska, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany); Nathan P. Loewen, Sightline Engineering Ltd. (Canada); Peter Eisenträger, Eberhard Sust, OHB Digital Connect GmbH (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Gregorian Instrument Rotator (GIR) is a key component of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) that houses most of the scientific instruments. To achieve precise alignment, the GIR is actively positioned relative to the GMT mirror systems. Due to the design of the telescope, the GIR must remain aligned to the 7 segmented mirrors of the M1 mirror system as well to other optical components. In the following, the requirements for active positioning are examined and opposed to the mount behavior analyzed by FE. Finally, the design and planned implementation of the chosen GIR positioning system is presented.
13094-207
Author(s): Seiichi Tazawa, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Benjamin Irarrazaval, Amir Sadjadpour, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Hirokazu Honda, Makoto Endo, Tatsunori Hirano, Yusuke Kibayashi, Kengo Fujiwara, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Hiroshi Kusumoto, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Jamie Dodge, Josh Church, Fernando Santoro, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Yutaka Ezaki, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Gelys Trancho, Kyle Kinoshita, Thirty Meter Telescope (United States); Hiroshi Terada, Masahiro Sugimoto, Masao Saito, Tomonori Usuda, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) has been responsible for the Telescope Structure Subsystem (STR) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since 2012 and has engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) for preliminary and final design and pre-production work. There are various subsystems on the telescope such as instruments and moving optics. Power and fluids are required for these subsystems and for the telescope drives. TMT defines the Telescope Utility Services (TUS) as the infrastructure which includes the cabling, piping, and support structures used to organize, route and deliver these utility services, as well as the lighting and fire alarms that are integrated onto the telescope structure etc. The TUS components are varied in type and location, and use a multitude of attachment methods to the telescope structure. This paper presents the design implementation of the TUS components onto the telescope structure.
13094-208
Author(s): Oliver Skivington, Critical Software Technologies Ltd. (United Kingdom); Thomas Juerges, SKA Observatory (United Kingdom); Ulrik Pedersen, Observatory Sciences Ltd. (United Kingdom)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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197 mid-frequency radio telescope dishes will stand in the Karoo desert in South Africa. The new dishes contain a PLC based control system exposed via an OPC-UA interface for external control and monitoring. Before they can be integrated into what will be known as SKA MID these dish structures must be subjected to a thorough verification process. This process requires custom software containing three major elements; a GUI application for control and monitoring of key engineering parameters, a Python API for more complex verification activity, and a data logger for recording of parameters published by the PLC into HDF5 files. This paper will describe the development and use of the Dish Structure Qualification software (DiSQ).
13094-209
Author(s): Peter Gray, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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LFAST (Large Fiber Array Spectroscopic Telescope) is planned to provide a cost-efficient way to provide a large collecting area for spectroscopy by duplicating large numbers of small (0.76m aperture “unit” telescopes, each equipped with a prime focus corrector feeding an optical fiber. The design of each telescope is driven by the need to minimize costs while achieving adequate performance, through the innovative use of low-cost commercial components and industrial manufacturing processes. Sets of twenty unit telescopes are mounted together on a single, compact tracking ALT-AZ “20x” telescope mounting, using a lightweight steel truss frame and driven by pairs of commercial slew-bearing worm drives.
13094-210
Author(s): Rubén Sanquirce-Garcia, Gaizka Murga, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Jose Alberto Rubiño, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain); Ángeles Pérez de Taoro, Roger Hoyland, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Ricardo Génova Sántos, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain); Marta Aguiar, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The QUIJOTE experiment comprises two 2.25-m, fully spinning, off-axis telescopes with the Crossed-Dragone optical design, to measure CMB polarization at 10-40 GHz. The next step is the construction of a 6 m class telescope in order to conduct high sensitivity surveys of the radio emission at low frequencies, reaching resolutions of 20 arcmin around 15 GHz. The conceptual design of this telescope provides a lean, lightweight and cost-effective solution to minimize the gravity deflections. An efficient mirror segmentation has been stablished to enhance assembly and aligning procedure. A preliminary approach for operation and maintenance of the infrastructure has been defined.
13094-211
Author(s): Ye Zhou, Dynamic Intelligent Structures Ltd. (Canada)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Small-ELF (SELF), a 3.5-meter telescope entering manufacturing, is a precursor to the larger ELF (Exo-Life Finder). The design aims to significantly enhance exoplanet imaging while maintaining cost-effectiveness through innovations in motion control, shape control, machine learning, and tensegrity techniques. SELF's manufacturing begins in 2024-2025, detailed in this paper. To mitigate risks, a 0.25-meter prototype, MicroELF, is developed in 2024, employing distributed aperture principles and controllable degrees of freedom based on optical feedback and machine learning. Both SELF and MicroELF address cost and scalability challenges, presenting a new paradigm in large telescope structural design.
13094-212
Author(s): Dehua Yang, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The 4-m Shaihai Jiaotong University Spectroscopic Telescope (JUST) is a new optical telescope that will be sited at the Lenghu Observatory in Qinghai Province, China. The mirror is composed of 18 hexagonal concave segments. A novel method is presented for segmenting the hyperbolic primary mirror of the 4m JUST based on the method of rigid body motion of the segments and the principle of maximum likelihood of the shape of the segments. We compare our method with existing methods and show that our method can achieve better results in terms of the likelihood of the edge/chord lengths of the segments.
13094-213
Author(s): Shouwei Hu, Yongjun Liang, Dehua Yang, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The 4-m Shanghai Jiaotong University Spectroscopic Telescope (JUST) is a segmented optical telescope to be sited at the Lenghu Observatory in Qinghai Province, China. The tertiary mirror of the telescope is an elliptical zerodur plano mirror of 1485x1025x160 mm3. A lightweighting scheme to is used to remove up to 60% of the mirror mass. A 12-point Whiffle-tree is used for axial support of the mirror and 4 sets of counter-weight for lateral support, with a central positioning mechanism. The reflecting shape of the mirror is down to 8 nm RMS under gravity in any working direction.
13094-214
Author(s): Gianpietro Marchiori, Matteo Spinola, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy); Salvatore Scuderi, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Milano (Italy); Gino Tosti, Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Carmelo Gargano, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica Palermo (Italy); Giuseppe Leto, Valentina Giordano, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Giovanni Pareschi, Giorgia Sironi, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy); Christine Grivel, Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF (Spain); Tiziano Niero, Cristiano Trabuio, EIE Group S.r.l. (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The ASTRI Mini-array is an international project led by INAF to study the gamma-ray universe within a spectral range of 1 to a few hundred TeV. A cluster of nine Cherenkov telescopes in dual-mirror configuration will be implemented at the Observatorio del Teide in Tenerife, Spain. EIE, under INAF's supervision, is responsible for the electromechanical design, manufacturing, installation, and commissioning of the first 3 telescopes of the ASTRI Mini-array. This followed the successful deployment of the ASTRI-Horn prototype in Sicily in 2014. Each telescope has a primary mirror of 4.3m in size, made up of 18 mirror segments (that mimic a monolith structure) that are aligned by a set of 54 actuators, which have a range of 12 mm and an accuracy of 0.05 mm. They can be removed and displaced from one telescope to another, reducing maintenance costs. In this brief update, we present an overview of the structural, mechanical, and mechatronic solutions that have been developed and implemented in the ASTRI telescopes to achieve the project's technical and scientific objectives.
13094-215
Author(s): Yanbing Chen, Nanjing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications (China), Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China), Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Xiaoyan Li, Zhengyang Li, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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As for an equatorial telescope with a fork mount, if the pointing process were not well designed, Horizontal-Limit(HL) protection processing might be triggered and automated observation might be interrupted. That should be a problem if there is a high requirement for the continuity and rapid responsiveness of the observation. This paper proposes an strategy to optimize the pointing process, including HL-prediction algorithm and HL-avoidance algorithm. The former predicts the potential possibilities of HL trigger before an object is observed and the latter will redesign the pointing process to avoid it happen if the possibility is high. Simulation and real observations have confirmed the effectiveness of this method. It is valuable for improving the continuity and efficiency of astronomic observation on equatorial telescopes.
13094-216
Author(s): Lucio Angelo Antonelli, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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In the context of the Italian Resilience and Recovery Plan (PNRR), INAF and INFN proposed the "CTA+" Program aimed at extending the scope and strengthen the scientific return of the Southern Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) site. The main objective of this program is to realize and implement two end-to-end Large-Sized Telescopes (LSTs) at CTAO-S as part of the LST Collaboration. The approved and full-funded program has formally began on January 1st, 2023 and has a duration of 36 months. The baseline design of the mechanical structure will be based on that of the northern LSTs, apart from some possible changes to fulfil the environmental specifications of the southern site and further reduce the construction risks and costs. The mirrors will be produced using a technology invented in Italy by INAF, via a cold replica of glass slabs to make the 2 m diameter mirrors. The camera will be almost identical to those of LST-N. The production of the cameras, mirrors and mechanical structures will be realized through large industrial contracts that will be supervised by the CTA+ management with the full support of the LST Collaboration.
13094-217
Author(s): David Copley, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Javier Álvarez Martínez, Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías Espaciales de Asturias, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain); Richard Ashley, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Josué Barrera Martín, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Stuart D. Bates, Joao Bento, Sebastian Buntin, Chris M. Copperwheat, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Francisco Javier De Cos Juez, Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías Espaciales de Asturias, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain); Marta Escriche, J. J. Fernandez-Valdivia, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Adam Garner, Beth Garton, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Alejandra Goded, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Javier Gracia Rodríguez, Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías Espaciales de Asturias, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain); Carlos M. M. Gutiérrez, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); David Heffernan, Helen E. Jermak, David Law, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Javier León Gil, Jonatan Martínez Pérez, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Adrian McGrath, Chloe Miossec, Ali Ranjbar, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Cesar Rodríguez Pereira, Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías Espaciales de Asturias, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain); Pablo Rodríguez Gil, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Fernando Sánchez Lasheras, Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías Espaciales de Asturias, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain); Robert Smith, Iain A. Steele, Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom); Miguel Torres, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Key systems within the 4-m New Robotic Telescope are moving through the detailed design phase. This is a major engineering challenge for all project partners to manage the design progress of the high-level interfacing systems while ensuring the delivery of top-level science requirements. Freezing key system architecture at the preliminary design review in 2021 has allowed significant progress and the target of first light at the end of 2026 remains on track. The project’s critical path is currently driven by the optics and the enclosure. Both are novel in design for a four-metre class telescope. The primary mirror will be made up of 18 segments and the enclosure will be a large hemispherical, fully opening clamshell. The enclosure and site design progress is tied closely to an imminent planning application. This presentation will outline the progress over the last couple of years and show how the design of the many systems and sub systems is coming together towards the next major milestone of the critical design reviews for each.
Session PS9: Posters - Observatory Construction Updates
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-218
Author(s): Ryan J. Oelkers, Luke Schmidt, Erika Cook, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Richard Camuccio, Moises Castillo, Alejandro Reyes, The Univ. of Texas Rio Grande Valley (United States); Logan Augustine, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Horacio Rodriguez, Matias Schneiter, Univ. Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Darren DePoy, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Mario Diaz, The Univ. of Texas Rio Grande Valley (United States); Diego Garcia Lambas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Lucas Macri, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Jennifer Marshall, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Transient Optical Robotic Observatory of the South (TOROS) will provide real-time automated follow up to gravitational wave events from the LIGO-Virgo-Kagra collaboration and is expected to start operations in 2024. The TOROS telescope and dome are installed at Cordon Macon in the Argentine section of the Atacama plateau. TOROS will be fully robotic with an operating pipeline which controls all telescope functions such as field prioritization, target acquisition, and observation. Additionally, TOROS boasts an automated photometric data reduction pipeline with automatic image calibration, difference imaging analysis, transient identification through machine learning, and point source photometry. While the survey is ultimately designed to identify and characterize astrophysical transients, we plan to collect and release photometry for a significant number of other variable sources. Here we provide a status report on the survey, a description of the instrument and pipeline, and initial photometric analysis of early observations taken with the telescope.
13094-219
Author(s): Ben Hardesty, Tom Bida, Michael Collins, Frank Cornelius, Ryan Hamilton, Kyler Kuehn, Stephen E. Levine, Lowell Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Lowell Observatory has converted a historic equatorial mount telescope facility into a modern 1m alt-az telescope research facility with preparations for remote operations. The PlaneWave PW1000 Nasmyth mounted commissioning instrument is the Teledyne-PI SOPHIA 4k CCD camera with custom lightweight filter wheel, integral payload support, and optical alignment capability. Design considerations of the vibration optimized support structure, optical coatings and instrumentation, dome renovation, general facility, and initial results are reviewed.
13094-220
Author(s): Takeshi Sakanoi, Tohoku Univ. (Japan), PLANETS Foundation (United States); Marcelo Emilio, Univ. Estadual de Ponta Grossa (Brazil), PLANETS Foundation (United States); Simone Daflon dos Santos, Observatório Nacional (Brazil), PLANETS Foundation (United States); Svetlana V. Berdyugina, Istituto ricerche solari Aldo e Cele Daccò (Switzerland), PLANETS Foundation (United States); Ryan Swindle, Odyssey Systems Consulting Group Ltd. (United States), PLANETS Foundation (United States); Masato Kagitani, Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Mikio Kurita, Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Yasuhiro Hirahara, Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Jeffery R. Kuhn, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States); Kevin Lewis, Buble Studios (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We are carrying out a 1.8-m aperture off-axis telescope project PLANETS. The PLANETS telescope is characterized by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic capability with low-scattering in the optical system. Our major scientific goal is to detect faint emission surrounding planet and satellite in the solar system as well as exoplanets, such as Jovian satellite Europa’s plume. The 1.8-m primary mirror is currently undergoing the final polishing in Japan. We developed the whiffletree support with warping harness for the primary mirror. We will assemble the whole PLANETS telescope and achieve the first light and technical demonstration in Japan within a year.
Session PS10: Posters - Observatory Upgrades & Repairs
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-99
Author(s): Alessio Trois, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) will consist of two sites (in La Palma, at the Canary Islands, and Paranal, in the Chilean Andes) to cover the northern and southern sky observations. More than 70 telescopes will populate the two sites with three different diameters classes (23 m, 12 m, and 4 m diameter) to cover a wide energy spectral band together, from a few tens GeV to a few hundred TeV. Up to 37 Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) of 4 m diameter, developed and implemented by an international consortium of institutes, will be installed at the southern site to observe the highest energy range of CTAO, from about 1 TeV to up to 300 TeV. The SSTs use a dual-mirror aplanatic polynomial configuration similar to the Schwarzschild-Couder design. They are equipped with a focal plane camera based on SiPM detectors, which covers a field of view of approximately 9 degrees. In this contribution, we will present the progress of the SST programme and the plan up to the on-site integration of all the telescopes.
13094-100
Author(s): David Adriaanse, Eric J. Grigel, Grecia A. Falcon, M3 Engineering & Technology Corp. (United States); John Maclean, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (United States); Piero Anticona, NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Astronomical observatories are pivotal in unraveling the mysteries of the cosmos. To ensure their operation and longevity, Facility Condition Assessments (FCAs) play a vital role in determining maintenance and funding needs for these unique facilities. By prioritizing maintenance needs, guiding and justifying budget allocation, and documenting compliance, FCAs assist in maintaining safety and operational efficiency, help sustain the scientific mission of these facilities, and help sustain their supporting infrastructure. This paper presents the general concept behind an FCA and a case study highlighting the impact of FCAs on several renowned astronomical facilities. As astronomy continues to expand our understanding of the universe, FCAs emerge as a critical tool in supporting the mission of these scientific institutions, fostering long-term sustainability, and justifying funding requirements to stakeholders.
13094-101
Author(s): Enrique Colorado Ortiz, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We present presents the conversion of a 32-meter communication antenna in Tulancingo, Mexico, into the K-Band radio telescope "Tulancingo-I." The project demonstrates the antenna's suitability for K-band applications after a decade of inactivity, detailing the refurbishments and technological upgrades made, including a new control system for remote operation. The findings indicate a successful transformation, highlighting the antenna's potential for astronomical research.
13094-102
Author(s): Manuel D. Gonzalez, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (Spain); Pietro Schipani, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (Italy); Héctor Pérez Ventura, Marcos Hernández Díaz, Adriano Ghedina, Marcello Lodi, José J. San Juan, Nauzet Hernandez, José Guerra, Luis Riverol, Carlos Riverol, Vidal Guerra Padilla, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (Spain); Salvatore Savarese, Mirko Colapietro, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) has successfully deployed its new Telescope Control System (TCS). This paper discusses the technical details of the upgrade, highlighting key improvements and showcasing the enhanced functionality and reliability of the new TCS. The development and deployment were carefully planned, incorporating 3D simulations and overlapping with other maintenance operations to minimize the impact on observational time. With new advanced features, such as a modular architecture and the use of a graphical programming language, the TCS enables on-the-fly testing of control algorithms for future developments.
13094-103
Author(s): Carlos Quintero Noda, Manuel Collados Vera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain), Univ. de La Laguna (Spain); Silvia Regalado Olivares, Jonai Bienes, Francisco González Pérez, Claudia Ruiz de Galarreta, Jorge Quintero Nehrkorn, Antonio Matta-Gómez, Mary Barreto Cabrera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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During the 2022 SPIE conference, we presented the new (and programmed) updates for the Gregor Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) instrument installed at the Gregor telescope. In this contribution, we want to present the final installation of the upgrades, first light results, mainly of the new optical channels, and performance numbers for different observing modes. Additionally, we will explain what new upgrades will be done in the future to keep the instrument updated with new developments in astrophysics.
13094-104
Author(s): Braulio Cancino, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Achieving smooth and efficient slew movements on telescope mounts is crucial for minimizing structural stress, reaching maximum velocities, and ensuring efficient operation. Traditional slew trajectory generation methods often fall short in optimizing trajectories for time, resulting in unnecessarily long slew times that reduce telescope efficiency and potentially affect observation opportunities. Additionally, traditional methods often fail to converge smoothly to tracking velocities, leading to abrupt changes in motion that can compromise settling time. This paper introduces a novel trajectory generator algorithm that effectively addresses these limitations by simultaneously optimizing for constrained position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk while achieving minimum time. The algorithm produces jerk-constrained trajectories that converge to specified position, velocity, and time (PVT) commands, ensuring smooth and efficient telescope movements while minimizing structural stress. The key innovation lies in the algorithm's ability to converge to a constant velocity trajectory, enabling immediate tracking at very low velocities while minimizing overall slew time and settling time.
13094-105
Author(s): Benjamin Greiner, Sonja Hofmann, Jörg Wagner, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The telescope structure of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) was subject to vibration excitation due to aircraft motions and airflow. To contribute to the efforts to meet pointing requirements and improve image stability, an active mass damping system for the primary mirror suspension has been designed and implemented during the early years of observatory operation phase. Various reasons had prevented further development for some time, but we were able to reactivate and operate the damping system for a set of select missions before the premature decommissioning of the observatory. We present analyses from gathered engineering data and from astronomical observations about the effectiveness of the system during those missions and offer a projection on how future SOFIA campaigns would have benefited.
13094-106
Author(s): Erin Clement, W. M. Keck Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The W.M. Keck Observatory’s (WMKO) Hydrostatic Bearing System (HBS) supplies the Keck I and Keck II telescopes with filtered, cooled, and pressurized oil. This system lifts the telescopes up on oil allowing them to float on the bearings and rotate with ease. The pressurized oil supplied by this system is also required to release the brakes, allowing telescope motion. Each telescope has its own independent HBS as well as its own HBS control system. WMKO’s HBS had been running on the original 1980's era relay logic control system. However, in the late summer and early fall of 2023 the HBS control systems for both telescopes were replaced. Replacing and modernizing control systems is nothing out of the ordinary, however both Keck I and Keck II HBS control systems were replaced without any downtime to nighttime operations. In addition to the installation resulting in no loss of observing, there is now a greater capacity for monitoring, troubleshooting and improved energy efficiency as well as remote operations. In this paper, we will describe the equipment and methods used to replace the control system while maintaining nighttime operations and discuss the modernization benefits.
13094-107
Author(s): Felix Diaz Santos, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper showcases the successful development of an altazimuthal control system for a radio telescope using industrial PLC platforms. The high-level programming language, structured text, is employed to perform the essential calculations for converting equatorial to altazimuthal coordinates and orchestrating the independent axis movements for time-based tracking. The tracking strategy is based on correcting the movement speed (variable rate) of each independent axis considering an acceleration ramp S to reduce the jerk, thereby achieving a smooth and uniform movement.
13094-108
Author(s): Fernando Salgado, Jose Baez, Pascual Rojas, Rodrigo Huerta, Victor Cea, Maxime Boccas, Juan Carlos Pineda, European Southern Observatory (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper shows some problems faced in the VLT during last 20 years and some modifications done to avoid some of them, also some ideas to be taken in consideration for new designs, also in ELT. The modification of the heads, the new design for the supports, some recurrent problems in the Adapters, a suggestion for encoders where hydraulic pads are used and the implementation of encoder signals in a new control system for main axes are shown.
13094-109
Author(s): Benjamin Siegel, Gran Telescopio de Canarias, S.A. (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The GTC was recently equipped with a fully integrated lifting work platform providing easy and fast access to all telescope tube focal stations, i.e. one Cassegrain and four Folded Cassegrain Stations. The platform offers a huge and comfortable work area, together with a high load capacity and a very short positioning time, complying with industrial safety standards. The main benefits are safer work conditions and a shorter maintenance time, without introducing fixed elements in the telescope tube which would have degraded the tracking performance of the telescope.
13094-110
Author(s): Ivan A. Look, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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CFHT continues to make strides toward integrating upgrades within our aging facility in many ways; Instrumentation, Software, Science, etc; but this particular paper focuses on the “Operational” Upgrades that have been recently implemented to continue to make CFHT a top-five observatory in the world. The Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT- “3.6 meter”) corporation on the summit of Maunakea continues to lead as the “Model” of success competing against much larger Telescopes (2) (KECK-“10-meter”), (GEMINI- “10-meter”) and (SUBARU-“10-meter”) as far as remote capability, published papers, and “Physical” Observatory Site is concerned. Ongoing improvements to our Telescope and Observatory building are what keeps us at the forefront of World-Class Astronomy.
13094-111
Author(s): Norman Diaz, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (Chile), NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Lab. (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A machine learning compensator for the SOAR active optics control system is proposed to reduce the convergence time. The compensator uses a deep neural network to predict the mirror shape from sensor measurements and generate actuator commands to correct the mirror shape. Results of a simulated SOAR telescope show that the compensator could reduce the convergence time by up to 90%.
Session PS11: Posters - Opto-Mechanical Designs
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-112
Author(s): Simon Tartakovsky, Princeton Univ. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We describe the cryogenic system being developed for Taurus: a super-pressure balloon-born microwave polarimeter scheduled to fly in 2027. The Taurus cryogenic system consists of a 660L liquid helium cryostat which achieves a base temperature of 100mK with the help of a capillary-fed superfluid tank and a closed cycle, solid-state dilution refrigerator. The main tank is supported with fiberglass standoffs and is encased in two layers of vapor-cooled shields which allow Taurus to make full use of the extended flight time offered by the super-pressure balloon platform. The Taurus cryostat is projected to hold for over 45 days while weighing under 1500lbs. We present the design, testing, and thermal analysis of the Taurus cryogenic systems.
13094-113
Author(s): Emilie Bouzerand, Adrian Michael Glauser, Paul Prantl, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We present the final design of the cryostat of the Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) instrument to be operated at ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). The cryostat provides the cold optics of the instrument with the required cryo-vacuum environment. The radiation shields of the cryostat are cooled with liquid nitrogen and the cold optics is cooled via pulse-tube coolers down to temperatures between 35 K and 70 K. The cold-warm interface is provided with G10 blades that build together with the top part of the cryostat vessel the structural interface to the cold optics, the warm support structure, and the warm calibration source. The cryostat design is now finalized with most of the parts already produced and final integration almost complete. We present in this paper the final design as manufactured, the key design considerations, and highlights from the integration phase.
13094-114
Author(s): Edoardo Maria Alberto Redaelli, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy); Marco Scardia, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy), C.2.P.U. - Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Plateau de Calern, France (France); Jean Pierre Rivet, David Vernet, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The new project was called C.2.P.U. (Centre Pédagogique Planète et Univers) and is now dedicated mainly to astronomical and astrophysical research. The old mirrors were discarded because they were cut to observe exclusively in the infrared, and were replaced by new mirrors obtained by reworking, for economic reasons, two 105 cm diameter Zerodur discs existing at the O.C.A. that had been set aside at the end of the project for which they were used. After the optical work was completed, both mirrors were of excellent quality, but one of them, obtained from a plane-convex Zerodur disc, had a meniscus-shaped blank and was relatively thin (62 mm for a total weight of about 140 kg).The intervention, proposed to reduce the astigmatism introduced in the optics consists of replacing the lateral supports that defined the centering of the mirror with a mechanism that supports the mirror from the central hole present in the mirror. This solution made it possible to greatly reduce astigmatism, improving the optical quality of the observations. The article will present the analyses and results before and after the modification.
13094-115
Author(s): Kazuya Matsubayashi, Emon Kodama, Takeo Minezaki, Hidenori Takahashi, Takashi Horiuchi, Shigeyuki Sako, Takashi Miyata, Yuzuru Yoshii, Mamoru Doi, Kotaro Kohno, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kentaro Motohara, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan), The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Fumi Egusa, Itsiki Sakon, Masahiro Konishi, Takafumi Kamizuka, Hiroaki Sameshima, Mitsuyoshi Yamagishi, Masataka Imai, Shuhei Koyama, Yuki Hirao, Kosuke Kushibiki, Natsuko Kato, Mizuki Numata, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Measurement of the alignment error of the telescope mirrors is an essential and demanding task in the telescope assembly phase. One method is to examine the aberration over the whole telescope field of view from sky images with stars, but many imaging sensors must be arrayed on the focal plane. We propose the concept of a low-cost screen camera for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope. This system consists of a transparent screen, a camera lens, filters, and a CMOS sensor, and it obtains sky images through the telescope on the screen. The transparent spherical screen with one side sanded is placed at the telescope focal plane. A camera lens, filters, and CMOS sensor capture the starry sky on the screen. After the telescope mirror alignment, the screen camera will provide focused sky images in the whole field of view, 25 arcminutes diameter.
13094-116
Author(s): Lixin Zheng, Congcong Zhang, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China); Song Yao, Shanghai Science and Technology Museum (China); Lurun Shen, Dan Zhou, Zhendong Chen, Wei Wang, Jianjun Cao, Guoping Chen, Yong Yu, Jie Zhu, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China); Qing Lin, Shanghai Science and Technology Museum (China); Jianqing Cai, Yuanyuan Ding, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China); Zhimao Du, Shanghai Science and Technology Museum (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A double focus optical telescope (DOT) has been built for public observation and scientific research. The unique optical property of DOT is that, both the Ritchey-Chretien (R-C) and Prime Focus are achieved on one telescope, and uses a common primary mirror. Switching between R-C and prime focus system is accomplished by moving the secondary mirror away from optical path. DOT also provide public observation according to the eyepiece system.
13094-117
Author(s): Congcong Zhang, Xinyang Chen, Lixin Zheng, Dan Zhou, Yuanyuan Ding, Chaoyan Wang, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China); Massinissa Hadjara, Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Ctr. for Astronomy (Chile); Lurun Shen, Zhendong Chen, Jianqing Cai, Qi Wang, Nenghong Zhu, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Fizeau type interferometric telescope forms an array of several sub telescopes for direct imaging on the image plane based on the principle of optical interferometry. Comared to the optical long baseline interferometer, this kind of telescope can be used for real time imaging of celestial body due to some excellent characteristics such as sufficient spacial frequencies coverage, single mounting avoided outer optical delay lines and so on. We have built an interferometric imaging telescope with four apertures. Although each aperture size is 100mm, but this telescope can reach a more higher angular resolution which is equivalent to a monolithic telescope of 280mm aperture size through optimal array configuration. Some novel opto-mechanical structure design and error control methods have been applied to this telescope sucessfully. At present, we have finished the final assembly, static co-phasing calibration and verifying of dynamic co-phasing close-loop methods at laboratory. The out-door astronomical observation will be carried out soon.
13094-118
Author(s): Cuc Dinh, John Rayner, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States); Charles Lockhart, NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (United States); Mike Connelley, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We measured the current NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) image quality and seeing as a function of telescope pointing. Using the measured aberrations and seeing, we modeled the image quality improvements that can be expected once the IRTF-commissioned FELIX, an off-axis CCD camera and 2 x 2 S-H wavefront sensor, is available. This will be informative about the required stroke of a planned adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) to remove these low-order aberrations.
13094-119
Author(s): Manon Lallement, Elsa Huby, Sylvestre Lacour, Observatoire de Paris (France); Sebastien Vievard, Subaru Telescope, NAOJ (United States); Olivier Guyon, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States); Nemanja Jovanovic, Caltech (United States); Sergio Leon-Saval, Sydney Astrophotonic Instrumentation Lab. (Australia); Guillermo Martin, Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (France); Harry-Dean Kenchington Goldsmith, Observatoire de Paris (France); Kévin Barjot, Physikalisches Institut, Univ. zu Köln (Germany); Julien Lozi, Vincent Deo, Kyohoon Ahn, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States); Miles Lucas, Institute for Astronomy, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States); Steph Sallum, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Michael Fitzgerald, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States); Christopher Betters, Barnaby Norris, Sydney Astrophotonic Instrumentation Lab. (Australia); Pradip Gatkine, Caltech (United States); Jonathan Lin, YooJung Kim, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States); Guy Perrin, Daniel Rouan, Vincent Lapeyrere, Observatoire de Paris à Meudon (France); Nick Cvetojevic, Frantz Martinache, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Franck Marchis, SETI Institute (United States); Takayuki Kotani, AstroBiology Ctr., NINS (Japan); Gaspard Duchene, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Single-mode (SM) fiber-fed spectrographs offer several advantages such as spatial filtering of the wavefront, high spectral resolution, stability and flexibility in instrument design. We present the integration and applications of a SM fiber-fed spectrograph of resolving power ~4000 at 635 nm on the extreme adaptive optics platform of the Subaru telescope (SCExAO). The spectrograph disperses the outputs of a 19-port visible photonic lantern (PL), a high throughput fiber device that efficiently converts a multimode waveguide to several SM waveguides. With this setup and downstream of extreme adaptive optics, PLs enable high throughput and high resolution spectroscopy. We report on the analysis of the dispersed output flux for image reconstruction of binary sources. The spectrograph also improves the resolution of the Fiber Imager foR a Single Telescope (FIRST), a visible spectro-interferometer providing high-precision, high-angular-resolution spatial coherence measurements. We report on the sensitivity performance of the upgraded instrument on SCExAO.
13094-120
Author(s): Erica Sawczynec, Gregory Mace, Cindy Brooks, Daniel Jaffe, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Cross-dispersing spectra from silicon grisms in NIR imaging-spectrographs will increase the resolution and wavelength coverage of the spectra while maintaining a compact design. We present the optical design for a low-cost prototype monolithic mid-resolution (R~10,000) H-band (1.45-1.58 um) silicon monolithic cross-dispersed grism spectrograph (X-DiGS) for the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory.
13094-121
Author(s): Eduard R. Muslimov, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Jerome Schmitt, Christophe Adami, Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France); Michel Dennefeld, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Univ. (France); Marc Ferrari, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, CNRS (France)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Mistral is a visible and near infrared imager and spectrograph working with the 1.93m telescope at L’Observatoire de Haute-Provence. The goal of the present project is to design and build one custom lens covering the entire working band 370-1000 nm with an enhanced throughput and resolution. The proposed design has the focal length of 100 mm with f/#=2 and consists of 5 lenses with 2 aspheres. The geometrical spot RMS radius is 10 to 12.2 microns across the 39mm linear field of view. The throughput varies from 78 to 96% in the main band of 400-1000 nm with a commercial AR coating and could be yet improved. The image quality with a practically feasible tolerances can be maintained within a 10% margin from the nominal performance. We also discuss possible mitigation of the aspheres steepness and the thermal sensitivity. and present the expected performance in the spectral modes.
13094-122
Author(s): Parvathy M., Arun Surya, S. Sriram, Thirupathi Sivarani, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India); Andrew Skemer, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Ravinder Banyal, S. P. Rajaguru, Manjunath Bestha, Devika Divakar, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Transmission spectroscopy has proven to be an effective technique for characterising exoplanet atmospheres. However, only about 1% of the exoplanets are in transiting configuration; hence, characterising exoplanets in their reflected spectrum of host stars will be helpful for a large number of exoplanets. The upcoming extreme large telescopes will be able to study reflected spectra of exoplanets. Here, we present instrumentation that interfaces the 2.3m Vainu Bappu Telescope prime focus to an existing high-resolution echelle spectrograph with disk-integrated light from solar system objects. One of the primary objectives is to obtain high-resolution, high signal-to-noise reflected spectra from the solar system objects. High-resolution reflected spectra also offer the possibility of resolving the velocity structure in the spectral line profiles arising from exo-moons and exo-rings.
13094-123
Author(s): Andreas Emslander, Florian Lang, Lothar Barl, Sebastian Rabien, Heinrich Huber, Federico Biondi, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany); Michael Krzyzowski, Ilja Aul, Andreas Blömeke, Marcel Bornstein, CryoVac GmbH & Co. KG (Germany); Lenard Spallek, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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MICADO, the Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observation, will be one of the first light instruments for the 39m Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile on the Cerro Armazones mountain. The MICADO instrument will operate with different modes (standard imaging, astrometry, coronagraphy and spectroscopy) in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength range. The continuous LN2 flow cryostat, which will operate at 82 K, is the centerpiece of the instrument, housing all major subsystems such as the cold optics, mechanisms with filters and masks, and the detectors. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the mechanical manufacturing design of the MICADO cryostat and its current status of fabrication.
13094-124
Author(s): Sebastian P. Schmid, Emmanuel Aller Carpentier, Christophe Dupuy, Paulo Ferreira, Stéphane Guisard, Paul Jolley, Andreas Jost, Samuel Lévêque, Steffan A. E. Lewis, Juan A. Marrero Hernández, Heiko A. Sommer, European Southern Observatory (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Detailed Design and First Test Results of the ELT Prefocal Station Hosted Metrology S. Schmid, E. Aller Carpentier, C. Dupuy, P. Ferreira, S. Guisard, P. Jolley, A. Jost, S. Leveque, S.A.E. Lewis, J. Marrero, H. Sommer The ELT prefocal stations provide wavefront sensing to support the active control of the telescope during observations; they also include mirrors to distribute the telescope optical beam to the scientific instrument or diagnostic tool that finally uses the light collected by the ELT. Built in to the prefocal stations is a hosted metrology positioning system where metrology measuring instruments including a laser tracker and alignment telescope will be installed. This metrology will be used during coarse alignment of the ELT, to maintain the internal alignment of the prefocal stations, and to locate them with respect to their surroundings. The detailed design and application of these instruments is described here, together with a first set of test results.
13094-125
Author(s): Albert Tomás, Albert Nieto, Manuel Canchado, Ferran Grañena, Raul Gonzalez, Jordi Martinez, Joan Manel Casalta, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain); Patrick Caillier, Lluis Cavaller, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Oscar Maroto, SENER Aeroespacial S.A. (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Last generation of large telescopes faces several technical challenges in terms of design, manufacturing, and operation, but also in terms of assembly and maintenance. A new generation of multipurpose devices are required to access M1 to make regular and repetitive alignment, cleaning, and mirror manipulation activities in a reliable and productive way. The Segment Exchange Manipulator, which is being developed for the ELT Telescope, is the first generation of a multipurpose device for telescopes M1 assembly and maintenance operations. Its architecture and modularity make it possible to perform many different operations occurring on M1. Modularity, availability, and reliability are key factors for accurate, safe, and trustworthy operations on different M1 telescopes.
13094-126
Author(s): Andrew J. Monson, J. Roger Angel, Chad F. Bender, Joel Berkson, Erich Bugueno, Gilberto Chavez Lopez, On To Sonja Choi, James Dibelka, Nick Didato, John Ford, Warren B. Foster, Nestor Garcia, Kevin Gilliam, Peter Gray, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Samuel Halverson, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Yiyang Huang, Daewook Kim, Chang Jin Oh, Jason Patrou, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Christian Schwab, Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Richard Wortley, Andrew Young, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We present the current design considerations and fabrication techniques used in the LFAST prime focus corrector. The goal of the corrector is to correct for spherical aberration and provide atmospheric dispersion correction as well as provide fast image motion correction; all while maintaining scalability and cost reduction by mass production. We discuss the current status of the assembly and early results.
13094-127
Author(s): Frederick Garcia, Takahashi America (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Balancing a Takahashi FET-200 Telescope on a one metric ton Takahashi EM-3500 Mount “When a little is too Much” - Problem Solving by Frederick Garcia In 2001, a client bought a Takahashi FET-200 f/10 telescope with FS-102 Guide scope on an EM-3500 mount system installed state side. He asked that we substitute his FS-128 for the standard FS-102 guide scope. The system was installed by Takahashi team in an ObservaDome upgraded with dome slewing and tracking automation. Dr. Takao Doi with a second Takahashi team arrived at the client’s observatory, and moved the FET-200 forward to the point that the guide scope brackets were up against the tube holder being the tail end was too heavy with the FS-128 guide scope balance in DEC axis. Takahashi designed a ring weight for the dew shield, which in turn required a third RA weight for a final system balance.
13094-128
Author(s): Stacey R. Sueoka, Luke C. Johnson, David M. Harrington, Isabelle F. Scholl, Dirk Schmidt, National Solar Observatory (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The National Science Foundation’s Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the world’s largest solar telescope at the summit of Haleakalā. All large observatories are subject to the negative impacts of vibrations, therefore, one of the goals during the operations and commissioning phase is to collect data to identify and mitigate image jitter. DKIST has five high spatial resolution facility instruments spread across a 16-meter rotating platform. Vibration sources such as moving instrument components, environmental control systems, and active optics can induce image jitter differently across large distances, causing non-common path errors uncorrectable by AO systems. We built a new tool called the Vibrometer, a high speed image tracker designed to measure image tip and tilt in order to assess the system optical vibrations at 2kHz rates. We will present the preliminary findings of the Vibrometer at the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP) instrument entrance slit focal plane.
13094-129
Author(s): María H. Pedrayes-López, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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In this work we present the practical experiences and results obtained in the manufacturing and use of the tools and equipment needed for the handling of the mirrors, the operation and the maintenance of the Colibrí fast alt-az telescope. These tools and equipment include those used for the mounting and dismounting the M1, M2, and M3 mirrors and DDRAGO/CAGIRE instrument of the Colibrí telescope and for moving them from the observing room floor to the ground level outside the building, and then to the vacuum chamber for aluminization. Also, it includes the tools we used to balance the instrument attached to the Nasmyth station and those used in the cleaning process of the mirrors. Our designs confronted the problem of handling and maintenance of the components in the very limited space available in the building and at the dome of the Colibrí fast alt-az telescope.
13094-130
Author(s): Roberto Puddu, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Chile (Chile); Patricio A. Gallardo, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Tony Mroczkowski, European Southern Observatory (Germany); Erik Dahl, Manuel Groh, Matthias Reichert, Martin Timpe, OHB System AG (Germany); Claudia Cicone, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Pierre Dubois-dit-Bonclaude, OHB System AG (Germany)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Atacama Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (AtLAST) is a proposed project for a 50-m large, single-dish Ritchey-Chétrien observatory located at 5000 m altitude in northern Chile, covering an unprecedent wide range of frequencies, 30 GHz to 1 THz. The highest frequencies observations require an exquisite control of systematics which would ensure a good control of the directivity, beam shape and mitigation of sidelobe level. Proprietary software such as TICRA-Tools can be used for full-wave, complex-field simulations of large optical systems that account systematics such as the panel gaps pattern, supporting struts, thermal and self-weight stress deformations. The approach adopted by TICRA-tools is know as Physical Optics and it computationally expensive when a very large system like AtLAST is analyzed. We present here a set of Physical Optics results which allow us to estimate the performance of the telescope in terms of beam shape, directivity, sidelobes level and stray light, as well as the caveats to shorten the running times.
13094-131
Author(s): Dehua Yang, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Changcheng Wu, Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China); Yichun Dai, Zhenyu Jin, Yunnan Astronomical Observatories (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The secondary mirror of the 2-m Ring Solar Telescope (RST) of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (YAO) is a 0.6-m diameter convex mirror that is supported by a hexapod system. The RST has finished its factory assembly and test, and been disassembled for delivery. The hexapod is able to cover a sphere of s7 mm. The translational displacement resolution is down to 0.1 um, and repeatability <0.1 um RMS, the rotational displacement resolution is down to 0.5 arcsec with repeatability <0.1 arcsec RMS. Besides, the hexapod exhibits high stiffness over 60 Hz with a payload of 70 kg.
13094-132
Author(s): Hua Bai, Xiangyan Yuan, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China), The Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Tingting Liu, Jianan Cong, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Jiao Tong University Spectroscopic Telescope (JUST) is a 4.8-m wide-field spectroscopic telescope at the Lenghu site in Qinghai Province of China. The project is financed by Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The telescope will have a 4-meter clear aperture and segmented primary mirror with a focal ratio of F/1.3. The focal stations include two Nasmyth focuses. One station with a 10 arcmin field of view will be installed the high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic instrumentations, the other station featuring a wide-field and atmospheric dispersion corrector with a 1.2-degree field of view will be used for spectroscopic survey to search for stars and galaxies, etc. The wide-field Nasmyth focus will operate at wavelengths 0.35−1.3 µm at the zenith distance of 0- 60°. This paper describes the optical design of the telescope, the design of baffles and stray light analysis. The error budget for this telescope is presented.
13094-133
Author(s): Erning Zhao, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The FPGA firmware is a pivotal element in the NFIRAOS Deformable Mirror Electronics (NDME), enabling real-time functionality of the NDME system. This paper details the design of the FPGA firmware, highlighting the implementation and functionality of its various blocks. We emphasize the firmware’s capability in handling concurrent processing of NDME commands, ensuring adherence to strict timing requirements. The firmware uniquely incorporates the lowest latency SPI interface, DAC, ADC, and a custom 1G Ethernet interface, each meticulously tailored to enhance NDME operations. Our narrative underscores the firmware's proficiency in concurrently processing NDME commands while strictly adhering to demanding timing constraints. By utilizing the Xilinx Kria K26 FPGA for comprehensive benchmarking, we present empirical evidence of the firmware's exceptional capability in managing data transmission and processing latencies. The results, demonstrating adherence to the critical 75-microsecond threshold, validate the firmware's extraordinary efficiency, robustness, and reliability, vital for the TMT project's success.
13094-134
Author(s): Dhanushkodidurai Mariappan, GE Research (United States); Denis Brousseau, Univ. Laval (Canada); Greg Radighieri, Sudharsan Kalidoss, Dongil Shin, GE Research (United States); Simon Thibault, Univ. Laval (Canada)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We present the current research status of the COSMOS (Capillary-Operated Space Mesoporous Optical System) project, funded by DARPA. The system includes a unique non-rotating liquid mirror within a mesoporous structure with ferrofluid and a thin metallic liquid layer. Capillary forces in the mesoporous structure shape a parabolic surface, and any residual shape departure are corrected by magnetic control from an electromagnetic coil array. Our simulations using MATLAB and COMSOL demonstrate control of the meniscus and slew rate within a 4-by-4 unit cell (1 unit cell is a capillary or a pore). Expanding on these findings, full-scale simulations highlight the system's ability to achieve the desired tilt, locally control the fluid surface, and manage wavefront control.
13094-135
Author(s): Paul Schroeder, General Atomics (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The development of scalable, large diameter, and tippable telescope mirrors that do not require glass substrates will usher in the next generation of astronomical observational capabilities. Electrostatic adhesion of liquid mercury to a substrate to generate the reflective surface is a technical solution capable of enabling this new scaling effort to build mirrors of the 50m diameter class. The design will offer scalability, cost-efficiency with off-the-shelf components, and independence from force vectors, diverging from traditional glass optics. Topics to be discussed include gravity's impact, dish deflection, wetting effects, edge effects, 0.5-m mirror design, scaling challenges to 10s of meters, and the influence of voltage and dielectric thickness on the mercury layer.
13094-136
Author(s): L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Lee Bernard, Logan Jensen, Johnathan Gamaunt, Nathaniel Butler, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Andrea Bocchieri, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Quentin Changeat, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Azzurra D'Alessandro, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States); Billy Edwards, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Qian Gong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); John W. Hartley, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Kyle Helson, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States); Daniel P. Kelly, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Kanchita Klangboonkrong, Annalies Kleyheeg, Brown Univ. (United States); Nikole Lewis, Cornell Univ. (United States); Steven Li, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Michael Line, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Stephen Maher, Ryan McClelland, Laddawan R. Miko, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Lorenzo V. Mugnai, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy), INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo "Giuseppe Salvatore Vaiana" (Italy); Peter C. Nagler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); C. Barth Netterfield, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Vivien Parmentier, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Enzo Pascale, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Jennifer Patience, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Tim Rehm, Brown Univ. (United States); Subhajit Sarkar, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Paul Scowen, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States), Arizona State Univ. (United States); Gregory S. Tucker, Brown Univ. (United States); Augustyn Waczynski, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Ingo Waldmann, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Edward Leong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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High precision sub-arcsecond pointing stability has become a capability widely utilized in the balloon-borne community, in particular for high resolution optical systems. However, many of these applications are also pushing the state-of-the-art with regards to detector technology, many forms of which require some level of cryogenic cooling and active dissipative cooling systems to achieve target performance specifications. Built on the success of the Super-pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) experiment, we present the results of improved technologies and design methodologies applied to the EXoplanet Infrared TElescope (EXCITE), which uses active cryogenic systems to achieve detector performance while requiring pointing stability at the 100 milliarcsecond level. Results from EXCITE’s recent balloon-borne campaign are presented within the context of Super-pressure Balloon (SPB) and Long Duration Balloon (LDB) applications.
13094-137
Author(s): Philippe Voyer, Univ. of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (Canada); Steven J. Benton, Princeton Univ. (United States); Christopher J. Damaren, Univ. of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (Canada); Spencer W. Everett, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); Aurelien A. Fraisse, Princeton Univ. (United States); Ajay S. Gill, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); John W. Hartley, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); David Harvey, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (France); Bradley Holder, Univ. of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (Canada); Eric M. Huff, Jet Propulsion Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Mathilde Jauzac, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); William C. Jones, Princeton Univ. (United States); David Lagattuta, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Jason S.-Y. Leung, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (Canada); Lun Li, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Thuy Vy T. Luu, Princeton Univ. (United States); Richard Massey, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom), Institute for Computational Cosmology (United Kingdom); Jacqueline E. McCleary, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Johanna M. Nagy, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States); C. Barth Netterfield, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (Canada); Emaad Paracha, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Susan F. Redmond, Caltech (United States), Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Jason D. Rhodes, Andrew Robertson, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); L. Javier Romualdez, StarSpec Technologies Inc. (Canada); Jürgen Schmoll, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Mohamed M. Shaaban, Palantir Technologies (United States), Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Ellen L. Sirks, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Georgios N. Vassilakis, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Andre Z. Vitorelli, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Super-pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction-limited 0.5 m telescope that launched via NASA’s super-pressure balloon technology on April 16, 2023. SuperBIT achieved precise pointing control through the use of nested frames and a Fine Guidance System (FGS), resulting in an image stability of 0.055" over 300 s exposures. The SuperBIT FGS includes a tip-tilt mirror that corrects for jitter on a pair of focal plane star cameras. In this paper, we leverage the flight data from the SuperBIT's 39-day mission to inform the FGS design for the next-generation balloon-borne telescope. The Gigapixel Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (GigaBIT) is designed to be a 1.34m wide-field, high resolution imaging telescope, with specifications to extend the scale and capabilities of SuperBIT. A description and analysis of the SuperBIT FGS will be presented along with methodologies for extrapolating this data to enhance GigaBIT's FGS design and control algorithm. We employ a systems engineering approach to formalize the design constraints for GigaBIT’s FGS. Moreover, a system identification procedure is implemented and compared to an alternative first principles model.
13094-138
Author(s): Dengyi Chen, Zhe Zhang, Yi-Ming Hu, Hao-Xiang Wang, Xian-Kai Jiang, Wei Liu, Yang Su, Purple Mountain Observatory (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S) was successfully sent to space from Jiuquan Launch center on Oct. 9, 2022. It is dedicated to study solar flares, corneal mass eruptions and their connections with solar magnetic field and configured three instruments: a Full-disk solar vector MagnetoGraph (FMG), a Lyman-alpha Solar Telescope (LST), and a solar Hard X-ray Imager (HXI). The HXI is one of the three key parts in this mission and adopts a spatial modulation technique to indirectly achieve image of solar hard X-rays. It is made up of a collimator, a spectrometer and an electrical control box. As the critical component, the collimator is responsible for incident x ray modulation. This paper presents detailed design of HXI, especially the core part collimator. Secondly, ground tests, including characterization and spatial environmental tests of HXI collimator will be reported accounted for its indirect imaging principle. We will put forward some newly on-orbit results in the past one year. All design and test result as well as on orbit performance verifies that this equipment fully completed its expected goal and even presents a more wonderful status over expectations.
Session PS12: Posters - Robotic Telescopes
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-139
Author(s): Matthew J. Lehner, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Charles Alcock, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Edward Ashton, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Tomás Calvario-Velásquez, Instituto de Astronomia, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Joel H. Castro-Chacón, Instituto de Astronomı́a, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Yin-Chang Chang, Chueh-Yi Chou, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Patrick Dowler, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Liliana Figueroa, Instituto de Astronomı́a, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); John Geary, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Sharon Goliath, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Paula Granados-Contreeras, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Javier Hernández-Landa, Benjamı́n Hernández-Valencia, Instituto de Astronomı́a, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Chung-Kai Huang, Jennifer Karr, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); JJ Kavelaars, NRC-Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics (Canada); Hung-Hsu Ling, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Timothy J. Norton, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); Mauricio Reyes-Ruiz, Instituto de Astronomı́a, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Andrew Szentgyorgyi, Ctr. for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (United States); John Ouellette, National Research Council Canada (Canada); Bo-Jhou Wang, Shiang-Yu Wang, Wei-Ling Yen, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Iván Zavala-Ibarra, Instituto de Astronomı́a, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Zhi-Wei Zhang, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (Taiwan)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) aims to detect serendipitous occultations of stars by small (∼0.2 to 30 km diameter) objects in the Trans-Neptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (expected measurable event rate around 0.001 events per star per year or less) and short in duration (∼200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence in order to detect events. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With high speed cameras comprising CMOS imagers and a field of view of 2.3 sq. deg., the survey will monitor as many as 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. Installation of the TAOS II cameras was completed in 2023, and the final steps in the commissioning of the survey will be completed in 2024 April. In this talk, the observing system will be described and test results on the system performance will be presented.
13094-140
Author(s): Ido Irani, Sagi Ben-Ami, Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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DeepSpec is a novel R~600 broad-band (365nm-900nm) spectrograph planned for the Weizmann Multi-Aperture Spectroscopic Telescope (MAST). MAST is an array of twenty 60 cm PlaneWave telescopes, capable of either acting as a single 2.7m telescope or multiplexing over the entire sky using smaller flexible groups. This approach will make the combination of MAST/DeepSpec a unique facility worldwide in terms of its low cost, flexibility and efficiency, capable of observing up to hundreds of targets per night spread over large areas. With an end-to-end throughput of >65%, DeepSpec will be able to observe targets fainter than 20.5 mag in a 15-min exposure using all telescopes, or tens/hundreds of spectra per hour of 18-19 magnitude targets using smaller groups of telescopes – making it an ideal instrument for time-domain astronomy. DeepSpec is currently in the assembly, integration and testing phase and is planned to start on-sky commissioning by summer of 2024.
13094-141
Author(s): Kimmy Chang, Justin Fletcher, Zach Gazak, U.S. Space Force (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We propose enhancing Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs), a leading 3D modeling benchmark, by integrating superresolution techniques. Our method utilizes Generative A.I. to ensure geometric consistency in 2D satellite images, connecting image restoration to 3D reconstruction seamlessly. The radiometry modeling pipeline involves GAN-based superresolution, Adobe Firefly's generative fill for geometric consistency, and NeRF for 3D reconstruction. We evaluate our approach on both synthetic (Scored Images of LEO Objects) and real (AEOS telescope) datasets, considering various atmospheric degradation levels. Our method outperforms existing radiometry models in ground-based satellite imaging, as demonstrated by higher PSNR and SSIM. This study pioneers the fusion of superresolution and generative A.I. with 3D reconstruction in the satellite imaging context.
13094-142
Author(s): Pierre Janin-Potiron, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France), Ctr. National de la Recherche Scientifique (France); Benoit Neichel, Morgan Gray, Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Franck Marchis, Unistellar SAS (United States), SETI Institute (United States); Fabien Quere, Guillaume Blaclard, Unistellar SAS (France); Olivier Beltramo-Martin, Livya Branco, SpaceAble (France); Ryan Lambert, SETI Institute (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The DOSSA (Decentralization of Space Situational Awareness) project, a collaborative effort between SpaceAble, Unistellar, and the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, focuses on advancing space surveillance through a global network of amateur astronomers, researchers, and industrial partners. The goal is to improve space situational awareness in the face of increasing satellite numbers by accumulating vast data from Unistellar's distributed telescope network. The project emphasizes creating a precise sky map of objects orbiting Earth by gathering significant data through Unistellar's telescopes, primarily focused on developing innovative algorithms to broaden detection thresholds. Utilizing a dedicated Convolutional Neural Network, trained on diverse datasets comprising actual sky observations and synthetic satellite trails, the project aims for enhanced sensitivity in detecting fainter orbital objects with superior precision on their orbital parameters. This study aims to surpass current detection methods and proposes a comparative study against established algorithms.
13094-143
Author(s): Riccardo Claudi, Lorenzo Cabona, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy); Adriano Ghedina, Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF (Spain); Emanuele Pace, Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); John S. Liu, INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (Italy)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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LOCNES is a Solar telescope designed to observe the Sun as a star. It feeds the Sun’s light into the NIR spectrograph GIANO-B through a 40-m patch of optical fibers. LOCNES has been designed to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of the Sun as a star with an accurate wavelength calibration through molecular-band cells. We will extract several disc-integrated activity indicators and average magnetic field measurements for the Sun in the NIR. These parameters will then be correlated with both the RV of the Sun as a star and the resolved images of the solar disc in visible and NIR. It has been installed in the outer part of the TNG dome and started its operation in the 2023 Springtime when we performed the LOCNES commissioning.
13094-144
Author(s): Mikhail Sachkov, Institute of Astronomy (Russian Federation)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Spektr-UF mission will make observations with spectrographs and imagers in UV (115-310 nm). Generally, most of applications will require ground support observations. For these purposes we are upgrading existing facilities of observatories of the Institute of Astronomy RAS, and installing new ones. The 1-m and 2-m telescopes will be equipped by echelle spectrographs. Here we present detail information on such instrumentation and our recent achievements.
13094-145
Author(s): Lawrence M. Machia, Nicholas Law, Hank Corbett, Alan Vasquez Soto, Ramses Gonzalez, Thomas Procter, Nathan Galliher, Jonathan Carney, William Marshall, Shannon Fitton, Amy Glazier, The Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Argus Pathfinder is a wide-field optical survey designed to discover transient events via sub-minute deep imaging. Pathfinder integrates up to 38 small-aperture telescopes into a single tracking mount and is also a 1:20 scale prototype for the planned 900-telescope all-sky Argus Optical Array. Optimizing and maintaining image quality for this many optical assemblies is challenging. Each assembly must be carefully collimated, tilt-aligned, and focused to micron-level precision and remain stable over months-long timescales. These calibrations will be achieved with a custom focuser design coupled with robotic actuation and dedicated software tools and preserved by operating the array in a lab-like enclosure, limiting the need for cleaning and maintenance. We present the performance of Argus Pathfinder’s climate-control system (in continuous operation for a year as of December 2023), our custom focuser design, and the development of the automated calibration process tested on Pathfinder for full deployment on the Argus Optical Array.
Session PS13: Posters - Site Characterization
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
13094-146
Author(s): Gianluca Lombardi, Gran Telescopio de Canarias, S.A. (Spain); Gary Fildes, Royal Commission for AlUla (Saudi Arabia); Thamer Alrefay, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia); Naif Almalik, Royal Commission for AlUla (Saudi Arabia); Omar Cuevas, Univ. de Valparaíso (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Royal Commission for AlUla (RCU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed a robust and sustainable framework that is aligned with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030 goals including economic diversification, local job creation and skills development. The RCU is currently thriving to deliver an environmentally and historically conscientious transformation of AlUla, that advances the understanding of 200,000 years of its cultural heritage. The RCU is collaborating with local partners and international institutions to develop AlUla Manara to become a renowned astronomical observatory through combining Astro-Tourism offerings and a proficient astronomical observatory. In this context, efforts are currently underway to characterize the site proposed to host the astronomical observatory. In this paper, we show preliminary astroclimatological results from the parameters database, based on a computational model using satellite data from the ECMWF Fifth generation reanalysis (ERA5), as well as insights of the Astronomical Site Monitor deployment. The results from the site characterization campaign will be used to design, build and put in operation the future 4m-class optical telescope.
13094-147
Author(s): Padmakar Singh Parihar, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India); Tsewang Stanzin, Sonam Jorphail, Dorje Angchuk, Urgain Stanzin, Jigmet Stanzin, Tashi Thsering Mahay, Tsewang Dorjai, Tsewang Gyaltson, Padma Dorjay, Tsewang Phunchok, Tashi Pamber, Phunchok Dorjay, Indian Astronomical Observatory (India)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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After the availability of a clear sky, seeing is the most important parameter to characterize any new astronomical sites. Considering the need to identify a few good candidate sites for India’s large optical telescope project, we have developed a fully robotic DIMM seeing monitor. Our DIMM system uses a 12-inch Meade telescope, a Lucid Vision CMOS camera, and a varieties of sensors to support fully unmanned operation. One of the DIMM system has been permanently installed at IAO observatory, which is 4500m above sea level whereas, other mobile DIMM systems have been used in campaign mode in the near by mountain peaks as tall as 5300m. Simultaneous measurements of the seeing have been carried at different heights. We present the details of our DIMM systems as well as seeing measurements carried out at IAO Hanle and a few other places. We have also attempted to explore any correlation exist between DIMM seeing with other ground and space based meteorological parameters.
13094-148
Author(s): Mary Joe Medlej, Christophe Giordano, Aziz Ziad, Alohotsy Rafalimanana, Eric Aristidi, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The prediction of the atmospheric and turbulence conditions holds considerable importance for both the astronomical community and free space optical telecommunications. To address these challenges, a numerical approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with an optical turbulence model, has been used for predictions above the Calern site. In earlier publications, our team demonstrated that the results of the predictions have shown good agreement compared to measurements from the Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station (CATS). However, a disparity persists within the first 500 meters of the atmosphere. To enhance the accuracy of the ground layer predictions, an optimization process is being implemented. We have employed an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped with a nacelle containing instruments to measure the meteorological parameters, within the first 500 meters above the ground. The obtained data will enhance initial simulation conditions, leading to an improvement in the turbulence prediction.
13094-149
Author(s): Jinji Li, Bin Ma, Zhongnan Dong, Haoran Zhang, Sun Yat-Sen Univ. (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Low sky brightness is crucial for ground-based astronomical observations, since it limits the observational capability to detect fainter sources. Lenghu, located on the Tibetan Plateau in China, has recently been proved as an excellent astronomical site, including dark sky in optical. In this work, we will report the preliminary results of sky brightness measurements in near-infrared at Lenghu. We apply a wide-field small telescope with InGaAs camera to measure the sky background, as well as variables for time-domain astronomy. We tested the system in J band in August 2023, and we will carry out a long-term monitoring of near-infrared sky brightness in both J and H bands, starting from the upcoming winter season.
13094-150
Author(s): Reuben Neate, Tinus Stander, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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A modular water vapour radiometer (WVR) is presented. This WVR can be used to compare different K-band radiometer topologies and calibration techniques to quantify calibration errors and establish other performance metrics. The base configurations include homodyne, super-heterodyne, and direct detection receivers, while the selectable calibration techniques include internal and external noise sources and tipping-curve calibration.
13094-151
Author(s): Jetzael Cuazoson, Stanley Kurtz, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Daniel Ferrusca, Eduardo Ibarra-Medel, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); David Hiriart, Institute of Astronomy UNAM (Mexico)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The TUL-1 dish antenna is a former telecommunications facility located at Tulancingo, Mexico which is currently being refurbished as a radio astronomical telescope for L to K band operations. Besides commissioning the telescope, the atmospheric characterization is crucial to evaluate the site's observational potential. We present the instrumental validation of an RFSoC-based radiometric system for atmospheric opacity measurements at the TUL-1 site. The system consists of a generic K-band receiver, a conditioning stage and and RFSoC platform, which down-converts the 20.5 - 24.5 GHz band into two separated channels of 0 - 2 GHz each. The RFSoC computes the power spectrum of both channels and, combined with tip-scan measurements, we retrieve the atmospheric opacity due to water vapor in the K-band. In addition to the Tulancingo station, it is also intended to use this instrument for atmospheric monitoring at other potential radio astronomical sites in Mexico.
13094-152
Author(s): Junna Sugiyama, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Haruki Nishino, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (Japan); Akito Kusaka, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan), Research Ctr. for the Early Universe (Japan), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The precipitable water vapor (PWV) strongly affects the quality of data obtained from millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astronomical observations, such as those for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. In this presentation, I will introduce the PWV measurement method using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Compared to other PWV measurement methods, GNSS instruments are robust in bad weather conditions, have sufficient time resolution, and are less expensive. By demonstrating PWV measurements with good accuracy using GNSS instruments in the Atacama Desert, which has low PWV conditions, I will show that GNSS instruments are valuable tools for PWV measurements for observing site evaluation and data analysis for ground-based telescopes.
13094-153
Author(s): Mahy Soler, Konstantinos Vogiatzis, Juan Cózar-Castellano, Sergio Bonaque-González, Marta Belío-Asin, Miguel Núñez Cagigal, Mary Barreto Cabrera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be built at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, a site known for its excellent atmospheric seeing conditions. The design of EST may disturb the site seeing and it must be re-evaluated. In this article, strategic aspects of the current design are studied, including elements from the Telescope Structure, the Pier, and the Enclosure. These trade-offs considered the local seeing as a driving force seeking to optimize its optical performance. This study uses a multi-physics approach joining thermal, fluid dynamics, and optical analysis under a wide range of environmental conditions.
13094-154
Author(s): Juan Cózar-Castellano, Mahy Soler, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Ander Urrutia, Adrian Ferreiro, Rubén Sanquirce-Garcia, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Ángel Mato, Mary Barreto Cabrera, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Gaizka Murga, IDOM S.A. (Spain); Miguel Núñez Cagigal, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a 4.2-m solar telescope, currently in the preliminary design phase. As EST will operate in open configuration, directly exposed to the wind, a comprehensive wind tunnel testing campaign has been carried out to compare the results obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis. Additionally, the wind contribution to pointing and tracking error budget has been consolidated. This paper describes the generation of prototypes, the model philosophy, the different tests carried out and the results, all with the aim of comparing the models and thus, to verify the compliance with the requirements of the telescope.
13094-155
Author(s): Povilas Palunas, Carnegie Observatories (Chile); Francesco DiMille, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile); Christoph Birk, Carnegie Observatories (United States); Nicolas Gonzalez, Mauricio Flores, Las Campanas Observatory (Chile)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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We are developing an all sky camera for photometric monitoring at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) . The camera consists of a ZWO ASI16200MM Pro monochromatic cooled CMOS detector, a filter wheel and Canon 8-15mm f/4 zoom fisheye lens. The full field 180deg field covers a circle of 3260 pixels diameter on the detector. The plate scale at the center is 3arcmin/pix. We present astrometric mapping, photometric calibration and magnitude limits for the system. The goal of the system is to provide all sky throughput measurements throughout the night.
13094-156
Author(s): Jiaxin Li, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China), Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Hualin Chen, Hua Bai, Chong Pei, Ying Fu, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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This paper presents a device and method for measuring the atmospheric optical turbulence profile based on the ring image captured at the focal plane of a GSO RC8 telescope equipped with a cone lens. The cone lens can be positioned either in front of the telescope or in front of its focal point, with the former offering a wider field of view and better imaging performance. The software algorithm processes the achromatic ring image obtained from this optical setup to calculate angular frequency signals representing wavefront glint. The turbulence profile is derived through inversion by utilizing the relationship between the angular power spectrum of the wavefront scintillation signal and the turbulence intensity and weight function at a specific altitude. Notably, this proposed optical device exhibits no chromatic aberration across its entire spectral range (400-1100nm). Moreover, the achromatic ring image is located on the telescope's focal plane without affecting its quality under varying temperature conditions, there is no need for additional focusing devices. This approach offers low cost implementation with simple hardware structure that is easy to install and adjust.
13094-157
Author(s): Ying Fu, Chong Pei, Hualin Chen, Xiangyan Yuan, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Solar or Lunar Scintillator can effectively evaluate the near-ground optical turbulence. The numerical calculation of the scintillator weight function shows that the wavefront out scale doesn't affect the scintillator to estimate the low-altitude turbulence. The comparisons of experiment show that the difference of values measured by the scintillators with the same configuration is small. And the trends over time of the seeing measured by Lunar Scintillator were in good agreement with Differential Image Motion Monitor.
13094-158
Author(s): Ying Fu, Hualin Chen, Chong Pei, Xiangyan Yuan, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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Ground-layer atmospheric turbulence significantly impacts the performance and adaptive optics design of large aperture optical telescopes. This study delves into characterizing ground-layer turbulence using the low-layer SCIDAR (LOLAS) and Lunar Scintillator (LuSci) methods, enhanced by an improved data processing algorithm and accounting for the influence of polychromatic scintillation on LOLAS measurements. Then testing campaign was carried out at Xuyi Astronomical Observatory in China. This paper presents seeing obtained below 250 meters simultaneously by LOLAS and LuSci, which exhibited consistency.Comparing these measurements with integrated seeing data from the Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) reveals that ground-layer turbulence contributes approximately 60 percent to the overall turbulence. Additionally, the temporal trends in seeing measured by these instruments closely align with those recorded by the DIMM. Notably, the majority of ground-layer turbulence originates below 100 meters. After all the above works, these methods can be directly used for site-testing for the proposed Chinese Large_Optical/Infrared_Telescope.
13094-159
Author(s): Christophe Giordano, Aziz Ziad, Eric Aristidi, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France); Julien Chabé, Univ. Côte d'Azur (France); Yan Caujolle, Chistophe Bailet, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The atmospheric turbulence measurement is an essential information for high-angular resolution imaging in astronomy, and for optical link. Since 2015, the CATS station monitors atmospheric conditions at the Calern observatory, during both daytime and nighttime from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. The station is fully autonomous and is equipped with a set of instruments to continuously monitor optical turbulence. The Profiler of Moon Limb measures, from Sun or Moon limbs observation, the vertical profiles of the refractive index structure constant Cn2 with a high vertical resolution. The Generalized DIMM monitors the integrated turbulence parameters by observing bright stars. More recently, knowing the need of turbulence forecasting, we developed a system integrated in the CATS station to daily predict daytime and nighttime meteorological and optical turbulence conditions for the next 48h. We also have designed an instrumental platform attached to a drone and allowing to measure, with a high resolution, the weather conditions between the ground and an altitude of around 500m. Recently we have improved the station by adding instrument to better monitor the cloud conditions.
13094-160
Author(s): Remington G. Gerras, The Univ. of Southern California (United States)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The Simons Observatory is a ground-based telescope array located at an elevation of 5200 meters, in the Atacama Desert in Chile designed to measure the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It comprises four telescopes: three 0.42-meter small aperture telescopes (SATs), designed to search for primordial gravitational waves, and one 6-meter large aperture telescope. Each of the SATs will field ~10,000 TES bolometers, with two SATs sensitive to 90 and 150 GHz frequency bands (SAT-MF1, and SAT-MF2), while the third SAT is sensitive to 220 and 280 GHz frequency bands. We report here on measurements made of thermal beam maps on SAT-MF1 along with near-field beam maps made using a holographic method that enables an estimate of the far-field radiation pattern received by the telescope. All measurements reported are consistent with simulations, allowing the deployment of SAT-MF1, which occurred in 2023. Observations are currently underway
13094-161
Author(s): Haikun Wen, Zhimin Ren, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China); Minghu Ding, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (China); Tong Zhang, Beijing Normal Univ. (China); Zhou Xu, National Astronomical Observatories (China)
18 June 2024 • 17:30 - 19:00 Japan Standard Time
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The characteristics of the snow intensity are of great significance for telescope construction in the polar regions.However, due to the complexity and high variability of the snow, research in this area has progressed slowly. This article first compares five methods previously used for analyzing snow strength, and selects the most suitable method to estimate the snow strength in Dome A.. Through this method, combined with the temperature and density data at different depths in the Dome A area, the paper estimates the strength of the surface snow is ranging from0.6Mpa to 2.5Mpa(0-10m), and by the ultrasonic velocity measurements, the elastic modulus of the snow in Dome A has also been estimated at the range from 4Mpa to 600 Mpa.The accuracy of the estimation was verified by a field experiment.And,based on the study, the foundation design of the telescope has been calculated.This study should provide a useful reference for future building of the telescope in Dome A.
Conference Chair
DKIST/National Solar Observatory (United States)
Conference Chair
European Southern Observatory (Germany)
Conference Chair
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
Program Committee
GMTO Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
European Southern Observatory (Germany)
Program Committee
Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics, The Australian National Univ. (Australia)
Program Committee
Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France)
Program Committee
Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of Hawai'i (United States)
Program Committee
SKA Organisation (United Kingdom)
Program Committee
Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory gGmbH (Germany)
Program Committee
National Solar Observatory (United States)
Program Committee
Inter-Univ. Ctr. for Astronomy and Astrophysics (India)
Program Committee
GMTO Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
NASA (United States)
Program Committee
Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)
Program Committee
NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Program Committee
European Southern Observatory (Chile)
Program Committee
Vera C. Rubin Observatory (United States)
Program Committee
Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (China)
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