For over 50 years photolithography has been at the center of the growth of the semiconductor industry. The art of shaping matter with photons influences the way we live today and the drive into the future.

The need for more powerful chips and greater memory storage has driven the evolution of advanced lithography tooling, photomasks, processes and systems. The advent of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) at 13.5 nm and its introduction in high volume manufacturing (HVM) ensures the extendibility of lithography to tighter dimensions for the fabrication of more powerful devices and support the exponential growth of data management. Its use in conjunction with optical lithography (g-line, i-line, KrF, ArF) enables a wide range of resolution for new devices in an ever-increasing array of applications, like AI, IoT, silicon photonics, MEMS, etc.

Many opportunities for lithography innovation as well as challenges remain. Progress in optical lithography equipment and optical mask-less tools enable improved efficiency and throughput, and more flexible use cases, respectively. Success in HVM and further extension of EUV lithography depend on advances in exposure tools stability, throughput, defectivity, imaging and overlay. Innovation in photomasks technology and tooling is a key component to both optical and EUV extendibility, as well as for continued support of a growing demand of established processes. Process optimization and stochastics control dictate implementation schemes of multiple patterning and EUV.

The new Optical and EUV Nanolithography XXXV conference covers both EUV and Optical projection-based lithography systems, practices and their applications in IC technology. It is the leading forum for scientists and engineers from around the world to present and discuss research on the advancement of lithography technologies.

We welcome technical and scientific papers in the following areas:

LITHOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT SOURCES MASKS PATTERNING SYSTEMS FOR IoT, ADVANCED PACKAGING, AND HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION Students submitting papers to Optical and EUV Nanolithography XXXV will be considered for the ASML Best Student Paper. This award is given each year at this conference and recognizes extraordinary work achieved by students interested in the photolithography field, and strongly supports the contributions made to scientific advancement at the conference. The award includes a plaque along with a monetary award to help the student’s future research activities.;
In progress – view active session
Conference 12051

Optical and EUV Nanolithography XXXV

In person: 25 - 28 April 2022 | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
On demand starting 23 May 2022
View Session ∨
  • Welcome and Plenary Presentations
  • 1: Keynote Session
  • 2: EUV Present and Future Outlook
  • 3: Mask
  • 4: EUV Stochastic Printing
  • 5: ArF and KrF Systems
  • Tuesday Plenary Presentation
  • 6: Mask Inspection and EUV Pellicles
  • 7: Novel EUV Mask
  • 8: EUV Stochastics: Joint Session with Conferences 12051 and 12055
  • 9: Patterning
  • Poster Session
  • 11: EUV Source
  • 12: EUV Integration: Joint Session with Conference 12051 and 12056
  • 13: Overlay
2022-05-17T01:00:44-07:00
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UPCOMING LIVE EVENTS:
Welcome and Plenary Presentations
In person: 25 April 2022 • 8:00 AM - 10:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
12053-500
Author(s): Luc Van den Hove, imec (Belgium)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Today, we are at the dawn of the 5th disruptive innovation wave. This emerging fifth wave, the deeptech wave, builds on the convergence of technologies such as AI, material science, biology, semiconductors … to disrupt virtually every aspect of the physical world we live in. Semiconductors will be the core of many deeptech innovations thanks to their massive integration power, accessible mass production and low cost. To enable these deeptech innovations, Moore’s law will have to continue to address insatiable demands for more computation and more storage. We will realize Moore’s law by a multitude of approaches: continue traditional scaling, new devices, new switches, leverage the use of the third dimension, and paradigm shifts on how to build future systems. The challenges to bring these innovations to the market are huge. Therefore, we will have to approach this evolution through a major ecosystem, bringing together the right companies, the right R&D resources, perform this in leading-edge infrastructure, with the right funding and government support.
12053-501
Author(s): H.-S. Philip Wong, Stanford Univ. (United States)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 9:30 AM - 10:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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The semiconductor industry has been extremely successful in integrating discrete components into billion-transistor chips. Future electronic systems will continue to rely on, and increasingly benefit from, the advances in semiconductor technology as they have had for more than five decades. Applications such as AI, machine learning, 5G, and even quantum computing, will not fulfill their promises without the continual advancements of semiconductor technology that is anticipated. Advancement of lithography has always been viewed as one of the most important, if not the most important, technologies that enables generations after generations of semiconductor technologies. With EUV and the upcoming high NA tools, it appears that there will be enough patterning resolution to pattern anything we want, unless we need to carve individual atoms. What is the future of lithography? What problems can lithography solve for the semiconductor industry? I will present industry and technology trends as a seed corn for discussion.
Session 1: Keynote Session
In person: 25 April 2022 • 2:00 PM - 3:20 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Anna Lio, Intel Corp. (United States), Martin Burkhardt, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
12051-1
Author(s): Mark C. Phillips, Intel Corp. (United States)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 2:00 PM - 2:40 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Strong production demand for 0.33NA EUV Lithography has enabled investments in further tool development, resulting in a steady roadmap of 0.33NA tools with improved imaging, overlay, defectivity and productivity, as well as a robust ecosystem supporting use of these tools in HVM. In parallel, co-investments by end users in development and initial production of 0.55NA tools has kept this technology on track for production in 2025, only six years after 0.33NA tools entered production. Continued innovation in semiconductor device structures and processes is on track to support use of the designed resolution and EPE of the 0.55NA tools to continue scaling.
12051-2
Author(s): Christopher J. Progler, Photronics, Inc. (United States)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 2:40 PM - 3:20 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Development and manufacturing techniques applied in mask making and wafer lithography have many similarities. Moreover, these disciplines have jointly progressed enabling generations of IC performance advancement. Despite the similarities, there are also fundamental differences in how these two fields have evolved including the driving forces and constraints inherent in each. It is perhaps difficult to fully appreciate these differences unless one has walked a mile in the others shoes so to speak. From how yield and cycle time are characterized to equipment infrastructure and the evolution of performance parameters, we will open a curtain on certain aspects of mask making from an erstwhile lithographer's perspective in hope this can lead to new avenues for mask and lithography co-optimization. In addition, as the industry ramps EUV alongside an expansion in global design activity across all nodes, it is timely to revisit these unique challenges in mask making to assess whether new frameworks might further advance the capability in service to the design and lithography communities.
Break
Coffee Break 3:20 PM - 3:50 PM
Session 2: EUV Present and Future Outlook
In person: 25 April 2022 • 3:50 PM - 5:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Steven L. Carson, Intel Corp. (United States), Nelson M. Felix, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
12051-3
Author(s): Paul Graeupner, Peter Kuerz, Thomas Stammler, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany); Jan van Schoot, Judon Stoeldraijer, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 3:50 PM - 4:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this presentation we will report on the status of the 0.33NA EUV optics being shipped in volume to the customer. Then we will give a short recap of the system design of the 0.55NA optical column and we will show the status of the high-NA program at ZEISS. We report on the high NA infrastructure including mirror polishing, coating, surface figure metrology, mirror handling, and integration tooling. Progress in manufacturing of mechanics, frames and mirrors for both illuminator and POB will be shown. In the last section we will sketch options for further extensions of the EUV optics roadmap.
12051-4
Author(s): Christophe Smeets, Guido Salmaso, Joe Carbone, Marcel Mastenbroek, Roderik van Es, Roelof de Graaf, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 4:10 PM - 4:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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ASML NXE:3400 scanners are now commonly used for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of 7nm and 5nm logic devices as well as D1z memory devices. In 2021, ASML has introduced the NXE:3600D scanner to the market, targeting 3nm logic and D1a and D1b nodes. In this paper we will share the latest performance of these systems, including excellent overlay, critical dimension (CD) control, stability, reliability, and high productivity. Furthermore, we will address the ASML roadmap for meeting the requirements for the 2 nm node and beyond.
12051-5
Author(s): Pavel Krainov, Vladimir Ivanov, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Dmitry Astakhov, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation), ISTEQ B.V. (Netherlands); Slava Medvedev, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation), Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Mark van de Kerkhof, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 4:30 PM - 4:50 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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We applied a particle-in-cell model to simulate the lofting of submicrometer-sized dust particle resting on a dielectric substrate exposed to low-temperature hydrogen plasma induced by electron beam. The buildup of ions below the particle was observed. We investigated the dynamics of electrostatic force and found the repulsion with the force of about nanoNewton. Besides, we found that force relaxation time highly depends on hydrogen pressure. We distinguish the key importance of this dependence and ion buildup for the understanding of electrostatic transport of dust particles.
12051-6
Author(s): Greet Storms, Sjoerd Lok, Rob van Ballegoij, Jan van Schoot, Rudy Peeters, Diederik de Bruin, Kars Troost, Teun van Gogh, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 4:50 PM - 5:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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With the introduction of High NA EUV technology the continuation of scaling semiconductor devices in a cost efficient manner will be secured for several technology nodes to come. In this paper we will discuss the benefits of High NA technology from a process complexity reduction point of view as well as the positive impact that this new lithography platform will bring to the industry in terms of cost of technology reduction.
12051-7
Author(s): Jara Santaclara, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Weimin Gao, ASML Shanghai (China); Eric Hendrickx, Vincent Wiaux, Joern-Holger Franke, Emily Gallagher, imec (Belgium); Kannan Keizer, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Tatiana Kovalevich, imec (Belgium); Jo Finders, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 25 April 2022 • 5:10 PM - 5:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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High-NA EUV lithography will improve resolution by increasing the EUV scanner NA from 0.33 to 0.55. To fully benefit from the resolution gain offered by the better scanner lens, it is key to develop and improve the EUV ecosystem. The role of the ecosystem is to ensure timely availability of the advanced resist materials, photomasks, metrology techniques, OPC/imaging strategies, and patterning techniques. In this context, in parallel to the EXE:5000 0.55 NA EUV scanner manufacturing, imec and ASML, together with our partners, are addressing the main challenges and needs towards High-NA ecosystem readiness. In this paper, we will discuss the key findings from simulations and experimental work to develop the high-NA lithography ecosystem (resist and patterning, mask technology) and highlight the key areas where development is needed.
Session 3: Mask
In person: 26 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 10:10 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Patrick P. Naulleau, The Ctr. for X-Ray Optics (United States), Lawrence S. Melvin, Synopsys, Inc. (United States)
12051-8
Author(s): Danping Peng, TSMC North America (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 8:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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ILT was developed by the team led by the author starting from 2003; Simulation and wafer printing demonstrated its superiority over traditional Manhattan OPC; But its adoption in HVM was hinder by long run time and long write-time; Almost 20 decades later, with the rise of GPU and ML, and the successful development of MBMW, all the issues have a solution. The author reviewed the history of ILT, survey the current status and provide some personal predictions for ILT in HVM.
12051-9
Author(s): Jo Finders, Claire van Lare, D.S. Nam, Par Broman, Eelco van Setten, Frank de Lange, Frank Timmermans, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 8:50 AM - 9:10 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Masks have always played an important role in lithography to improve resolution and achieve lower k1 values [1]. With EUV lithography now being in High Volume Manufacturing, many parties are looking at the various aspects of the EUV mask. However, the EUV mask as a system is much more complex than the ArFi mask. The EUV mask system roughly consists out of 5 parts which all have multiple functions and therefore interfaces. At the top we have the top-layer which serves to protect during cleaning, but also can help inspection of the absorber after patterning. Then we have the patterned absorber, whose primary function is to steer the diffraction and imaging. Below we have the cap layer that serves to protect the multilayer from EUV photons and environmental gases. Then comes the Multilayer that serves to reflect the maximum amount of EUV light possible. Last but not least we have the core material (ULE) and the back side coating needed to clamp the reticle on the reticle chuck. The EUV mask as such is much more complex than the ArFi mask, also depicted in Figure 1. Two main differences to be noted: - The attention to productivity in EUV as it can be steered with many of the mask properties [2] , - The presence of a cap and top layer is important for mask making and conditioning. For EUV the layers also affect imaging and need to be co-optimized. The cap layer serves many functions. It has also been shown that the cap layer can change its composition through oxidation [3], which can eventually lead to blister formation [4]. We will show experimental data that will enable visualization of the cap and multilayer contribution to state of the art EUV imaging. These experiments comprise contrast evaluation for monopole/dipole exposures and measurement of pattern placement through focus, There is quite some progress in demonstrating how absorber tuning can be used to steer the imaging parameters (contrast [NILS] and dose to size). For the absorber recent work has highlighted the physics and demonstrated that an alternative absorber can have improved imaging properties. We will give an update from our experimental findings using a low n mask ([2]). This might fuel even more appetite to optimize the other parts of the mask system as well. Before we do so we need to make sure all the necessary cross-links between functions and contributing parties are clear, without compromising the ability for an end user to differentiate. We will discuss tuning opportunities beyond absorber from imaging perspective, with focus on the cross-link with other aspects. We will also discuss how to interface the different functions by means of “system” documentation and human interaction (“eco-system workshop”) [1] Jo Finders and Christian Wagner "Imaging enhancement (low k1 imaging) in EUV lithography: current status and future resolution enhancement techniques", Proc. SPIE 11609, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography XII, 1160909 (22 February 2021) [2] Claire van Lare, Frank Timmermans, Jo Finders, Olena Romanets, Cheuk-Wah Man, Paul van Adrichem, Yohei Ikebe, Takeshi Aizawa, and Takahiro Onoue: "Investigation into a prototype extreme ultraviolet low-n attenuated phase-shift mask," Journal of Micro/Nanopatterning, Materials, and Metrology 20(2), 021006 (21 May 202 [3] “The refined EUV mask model”, I.A. MAKHOTKIN, M. WU, V. SOLTWISCH, F. SCHOLZE, V. PHILIPSEN, Journal of Applied Physics, 2019 [4] Jetske Stortelder, Arnold, Storm, Veronique de Rooij-Lohmann, Chien-Ching Wu, and Willem van Schaik "Compatibility assessment of novel reticle absorber materials for use in EUV lithography systems.", Proc. SPIE 10957, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography X, 1095713 (26 March 2019);
12051-10
Author(s): Hazem Mesilhy, Peter Evanschitzky, Fraunhofer-Institut für Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie IISB (Germany); Gerardo Bottiglieri, Eelco van Setten, Claire van Lare, Tim Brunner, Mark van de Kerkhof, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Andreas Erdmann, Fraunhofer-Institut für Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie IISB (Germany)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 9:10 AM - 9:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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We investigate the induced best focus shifts by the mask absorber. The effect of n, k, bias and target size on BF shifts is studied. We consider lines and spaces with pitch = 5× target size. We present a correlation between the BF shifts and Zernike phase offset and the fourth-order Zernike coefficient that represents defocus. When no mitigation strategies are applied, low n absorber materials can show stronger BF shifts and stronger phase variation versus target size. The knowledge gained from this study will help to identify combinations of absorber properties (n, k, thickness) and biasing strategies, which provide high NILS, and threshold to size and enable proper focus control.
12051-11
Author(s): Guillaume Mernier, Danielle Palmen, Nicole Schoumans, Marieke van Veen, Rasmus Nielsen, Jan Baselmans, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 9:30 AM - 9:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this contribution we highlight the differences between the local and global mask variations and their impact on CD and placement in resist. We discuss the concept of local Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) and the impact of mask perturbation on neighboring structures within a certain interaction length. We present results of HyperLith simulations of a DUV use case of staggered contact holes array through focus. We explore the prediction of the impact in resist of random mask fingerprints using impulse responses from single contact hole perturbation. The simulation results are compared to experimental data.
12051-12
Author(s): Stuart Sherwin, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Ryan Miyakawa, The Ctr. for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Eric Gullikson, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Laura Waller, Andrew Neureuther, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Patrick Naulleau, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 9:50 AM - 10:10 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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With the coming introduction of new EUV absorbers, there is an increasing need for actinic phase metrology, which is sensitive to both thin-film reflectance as well as 3D scattering effects. One promising measurement is actinic scatterometry, which can be carried out with relatively low hardware complexity while still being sensitive to the wavelength of interest. However, a drawback of scatterometry is the difficulty of computationally inverting the scattering process to interpret the measurements. We present a computational framework for linearizing the relationship between the measured intensity and the unknown phase using a set of rigorous scattering simulations of geometries sampled from a known random distribution. Once the scattering dataset has been generated no further heavy computations are required, and at runtime the phase can be extracted using only linear operations. We perform simulations to quantify the accuracy and precision of such a measurement, and to assess requirements on noise, coherence, and target size.
Break
Coffee Break 10:10 AM - 10:40 AM
Session 4: EUV Stochastic Printing
In person: 26 April 2022 • 10:40 AM - 12:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Thomas I. Wallow, ASML (United States), Kurt G. Ronse, imec (Belgium)
12051-14
Author(s): Azat M. Latypov, Siemens Digital Industries Software, Inc. (United States); Chih-I Wei, Siemens Digital Industries Software, Inc. (Belgium); Peter De Bisschop, imec (Belgium); Gurdaman Khaira, Germain Fenger, Siemens Digital Industries Software, Inc. (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 10:40 AM - 11:00 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Typical photoresists processes include a small set of photo-chemical reactions, with each reaction represented by many statistically identically distributed and independent instances. These instances eventually combine into the resist deprotection function, resulting, by virtue of the Central Limit Theorem, in Gaussian Random Field deprotection models. We discuss and demonstrate the approaches to calibration of such models, based on experimentally measured edges of multiple instances of lithographic features, their LER, LWR and PSD. We also present, discuss and analyze the phenomenon of “spatial ergodicity” and its effect on proper sampling of edge measurements for stochastic model calibration.
12051-15
Author(s): Lawrence S. Melvin, Synopsys, Inc. (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 11:00 AM - 11:20 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Previous stochastic simulation studies described the impact of EUV mask deficiencies upon imaging lines and spaces, in both 0.33 NA and high NA extreme UV lithography, using respectively isomorphic and anamorphic imaging. Specifically multilayer ripple and absorber line-edge roughness are considered to require adjusted mask specifications in high NA lithography, as they cause increased defectivity and deteriorated CD uniformity on wafer. Recent work demonstrates that for high NA at 22 nm pitch the spread of printed CD due to ML ripple is found to saturate at unacceptable values already below a simulated 50 pm RMS value, that is currently considered as state-of-the-art. Also, it has been shown that there are measurable differences between horizontal and vertical feature defectivity for lines and spaces. Two dimensional line features govern line-end to line-end spacing -- the so called tip-to-tip (T2T) metal lines gap. This spacing in turn impacts contact pitch, making both significant influencers on cell layout area. High NA is anticipated to allow reduction in line-end to line-end gap sizes in a single patterning situation. Figure 1 demonstrates that a 16 nm line-end to line-end gap in a 22 nm pitch feature is feasible. However, the stochastic simulation illustrates approximately 2 nm of T2T variation on wafer and significant variation in the simulated failure ratio with a 50 pm RMS ML-ripple EUV mask. Such mask defectivity impact further interacts with the photonic stochastics of the high NA scanner and the photoresist stochastics. The stochastic model used is explained in Ref. JM3i. This paper will explore the impact of mask ML ripple and absorber line edge roughness on high-NA imaging of T2T features, including their sensitivity to orientation relative to the slit/scan directions of the scanner, in view of anamorphicity. A proposal for more precise definitions of the concept of horizontal and vertical will be made, by which, in the author’s opinions, future coverage of high NA will benefit. These findings will improve insights on any potential additional mask specifications required for high NA single patterning.
12051-16
CANCELED: Field-induced and photon-induced CD degradation in transmission reticles: a comparative review
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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The characteristics of CD degradation of chrome-on-glass reticles via exposure to 193nm UV light and electric field are described and compared. A common explanation is presented for photon induced migration (PIM) and EFM type 1, while EFM type 2 involves a physical process that is not present in PIM. These damage mechanisms have only been observed in COG reticles to date, but the physical processes causing them are common to all materials. It is concluded that the prevention of these progressive forms of damage in transmission reticles requires the elimination of both humidity and electric field from the reticle’s environment.
12051-17
Author(s): Hyounghwa Jin, Yongwoo Kim, Harim Oh, Jaehyung Jung, Jaewoong Sohn, Woosung Jin, Kangyeol Yun, Hyosung Lee, SAMSUNG Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 11:40 AM - 12:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Local CD uniformity (LCDU) is being considered as one of key parameter indicators of patterning quality control due to continuous pattern shrinkage and maintaining wafer quality in lithography process. In optical DUV lithography, LCDU has various contributors and they are systematic mask/OPC items, SEM metrology reproducibility, and stochastic effects. In stochastic term, it includes photoresist and speckle contrast. In general, photoresist is considered as the dominant factor in LCDU control, but speckle contrast is drawing attention due to importance of controlling LCDU in new device. Speckle is a light interference effect which causes the non-uniform dose delivery to mask and wafer, and we experimentally confirmed the effect of speckle contrast in serveral layers. In this paper, we will propose estimated the speckle budget of total LCDU in the target layer through the experiment.
Break
Lunch Break 12:00 PM - 1:30 PM
Session 5: ArF and KrF Systems
In person: 26 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Kenji Yamazoe, TSMC North America (United States), Moshe E. Preil, Carl Zeiss Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Inc. (United States)
12051-18
Author(s): Yoji Watanabe, Yuho Kanaya, Yusuke Saito, Toshiaki Sakamoto, Soichi Owa, Nikon Corp. (Japan); Thomas Koo, Rocky Mai, David Tseng, Conrad Sorensen, Hwan Lee, Stephen Renwick, Noriyuki Hirayanagi, Bausan Yuan, Nikon Research Corp. of America (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 1:50 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Maskless exposure makes possible of individual chip design customization and large area chip fabrication that are impossible with mask exposure. We are developing DUV optical maskless exposure tool named as Digital Scanner (DS) that uses a spatial light modulator as a pattern generator and a DUV solid-state laser as a light source (193 or 248 nm). We will report technology development progress of DS including the latest experimental data. Sub-pixel patterning capability by DS will be presented. Finally, we will discuss on the DS production tool with 248 nm exposure wavelength that are being prepared to release in mid-2020s.
12051-19
Author(s): Will Conley, G. G. Padmabandu, Yzzer Roman, Yingbo Zhao, Toufiq Aman, James Bonafede, Emmanuel Rausa, Cymer, LLC (United States); Rasmus Nielsen, Ijen van Mil, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Rongkuo Zhao, ASML Brion (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 1:50 PM - 2:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this work, the authors will review the laser operation and imaging fundamentals behind a new method of alternating wavelengths in a single exposure and the application to Customer use cases. Two focal positions are created that are averaged over the exposure field, which can be turned on and off, thus eliminating any potential scanner calibration issues. The main focus of this work is the application of this imaging method (single exposure with two focus positions) to significantly improve the sidewall angle linearity of features in extremely thick photoresist applications. This novel technique, called MFI (multi-focal imaging), can be tuned specifically to provide the required amount of focus offset for a specific thick photoresist application. There are several Customer use cases that have been evaluated in simulation and demonstrated on wafer.
12051-22
Author(s): Zhenhai Yao, Lequn Jin, Yuhua Li, Maoqun Jiang, Fabin Huang, Hua Hong Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. (China); Min Fang, Xichen Sheng, ASML Shanghai (China); Rongkuo Zhao, Michael Crouse, Chris Kaplan, Dongqing Zhang, ASML (United States); Dongxiang Shi, Zhonghua Xu, Chaoqun Guo, ASML (China); Pieter Scheijgrond, Xiaoyang Jason Li, Stephen Hsu, ASML (United States); Will Conley, Cymer, LLC (United States); Zhen Tang, Cymer, LLC (China)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 2:10 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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To pursue the most advanced devices using thick resist, high aspect ratio patterning processes, chip manufacturers could be forced to use double exposures / double focus (DE/DF) to achieve the resulting image-in-resist with a larger depth-of-focus (DoF) and more desirable resist sidewall profile. However, the DoF gain from using DE/DF process significantly reduces the scanner throughput. To address this challenge, a novel solution of a single exposure (SE) multi-focal imaging (MFI) technique was invented to recover the DE/DF throughput loss and also enlarge the DoF. In this work, we will report specific application of this technique in the backside illumination CMOS image sensor (BSI_CIS) production, in which comparable performance to DE/DF (POR process at HVM phase) is achieved.
12051-20
Author(s): Toshihiro Oga, Takamitsu Komaki, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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The EPE requirements keep progressively scaling down in the immersion lithography process in conjunction with Immersion lightsource technology. Based on the EPE budget analysis, the lightsource contribution as part of a key EPE should be paying attention to improvement. Gigaphoton’s state-of-the-art lightsource “GT66A4” provides further LER/LEW reduction and OPE/ CDU improvements. On the other hand, it is essential to improve tool availability which should be compromised against improved lightsource performance. Gigaphoton approaches an extension of key module lifetime with AI-based module life prediction functionality introducing the Availability Maximization (AMAX) feature. In this paper, Gigaphoton demonstrates providing the push to the limit of tool availability higher than 99.7%.
12051-21
Author(s): Hiroshi Furusato, Hirotaka Miyamoto, Takamitsu Komaki, Tsukasa Hori, Takuya Ishii, Masato Moriya, Hiroshi Tanaka, Katsuhiko Wakana, Akihiko Kurosu, Takeshi Ohta, Takashi Saitou, Hakaru Mizoguchi, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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To expose thick resists, increasing Depth of Focus (DOF) is necessary. Our sophisticated Line Narrowing Module (LNM) with advanced wavelength control system realizes Spectrum Engineering (SE) function with double peak spectrum. It will help DOF increase because imaging light beam on wafer with double peak spectrum focuses on different focal points within thick resist, which increases effective DOF. We verified usefulness of double peak spectrum with calculations and actual exposure test. In this report, we will show some results of optical lithography with SE KrF light source and the latest situation of the development of SE ArF light source.
Tuesday Plenary Presentation
In person: 26 April 2022 • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
12053-502
The path to a useful quantum computer (Plenary Presentation)
Author(s): Erik R. Hosler, PsiQuantum Corp. (United States)
In person: 26 April 2022 • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Quantum computing is the grand challenge of the 21st century and is poised to revolutionizes our daily lives on a nearly unfathomable level. To truly understand the impact, we must first build a universal, fully error corrected machine capable of exploring the application space envisioned by both academic and industry. Numerous pathways have been identified and demonstrated to fabricate single, unique qubits using a myriad of platforms (superconducting, ions, nanoparticles, photons, etc…). However, it is now widely accepted that a truly useful quantum computer will require millions of interconnected, identical qubits to perform fully error corrected, general purpose calculations. To that end, photon-based qubits offer a path to such a general-purpose machine by leveraging the mature silicon photonics high-volume manufacturing ecosystem. Creating quantum devices from silicon photonics components requires patterning innovation to bring leading-edge nanolithography to near macroscopic scale, a unique challenge for an industry where the future relies on progressive device shrink.
Session 6: Mask Inspection and EUV Pellicles
In person: 27 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 9:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Ted Liang, Intel Corp. (United States), Bryan S. Kasprowicz, HOYA Corp. (United States)
12051-24
Author(s): Chami Perera, EUV Technology (United States); Gi Sung Yoon, Ryan Carlson, Baorui Yang, Mike Hermes, Micron Technology, Inc. (United States); Dave Houser, Alexander Khodarev, Chuck Murray, Travis Grodt, EUV Technology (United States); Arnaud Allézy, Weilun Chao, Farhad Salmassi, Eric Gullikson, Patrick Naulleau, The Ctr. for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 8:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Since the beginning of lithography using a reticle, defects have been one of the key factors in determining reticle quality and wafer yields. With the rapid adoption to EUV Lithography and the high cost of existing EUV mask defect review systems there is an industry need for an alternative defect review and dispositioning system. To meet this need Micron Mask Technology Center, the supplier of state-of-the-art mask technology, has partnered with EUV Tech, the world’s leading supplier of EUV Metrology equipment, to develop a standalone Zoneplate-based EUV wavelength microscope. EUV Tech has introduced and delivered the AIRES (Actinic Image REview System), an at-wavelength EUV Mask Defect Review Tool for EUV photomasks. The tool features EUV Tech’s patented zone plate imaging system equipped with the EUV Tech’s automated mask transfer system to the process chamber. AIRES is based on the successful Zoneplate EUV Microscope at Lawrence Berkeley Lab called SHARP which has been used to support semiconductor development for over a decade. AIRES is the first commercial standalone EUV projection imaging zoneplate microscope supporting photomask defect review and dispositioning to support EUV high volume manufacturing. In this paper, we introduce the tool and its performance with defect cases and pattern imaging application on EUV production reticles.
12051-25
Author(s): Renzo Capelli, Markus Koch, Matthias Roesch, Lukas Fischer, Klaus Gwosch, Grizelda Kersteen, Sven Krannich, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 8:50 AM - 9:10 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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ZEISS started manufacturing an upgrade for the current existing 0.33NA AIMS® EUV platform for the emulation of the High NA scanner. The same AIMS® EUV system is capable of imaging 0.33NA isomorphic and 0.55NA anamorphic masks, providing best in class performance for both imaging technologies and optimal match to scanner imaging. In this paper imaging results of the AIMS® EUV High NA tool are shown together with quantitative analysis of 0.55NA anamorphic imaging properties. Challenges of providing two intrinsically diverse emulations (0.33NA isomorphic and 0.55 anamorphic) in one single platform are described with the solutions which were implemented and tested.
12051-26
Author(s): Mark A. van de Kerkhof, Alexander Klein, Paul Vermeulen, Ties van der Woord, Inci Donmez, Guido Salmaso, Raymond Maas, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 9:10 AM - 9:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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EUV lithography has been adopted worldwide for High-Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of sub-10nm node semiconductors. To support HVM, EUV pellicles were introduced by ASML in 2016, and more recently, pellicles made from novel materials were developed to offer higher transmission and support higher source powers. In this paper, we will give an overview of current EUV pellicles. Also, we will report on our continuing research to optimize EUV pellicles to transmissions of above 90%, and supporting EUV source powers of above 400W. The properties of these pellicles, including lifetime, imaging, overlay EUV-uniformity, EUV-reflectivity, flare and DUV-reflectivity. This review of achieved performance will illustrate the promise of several of these materials to support advanced nodes.
12051-27
Author(s): Márcio Dias Lima, Takahiro Ueda, Lintec of America, Inc. (United States); Tetsuo Harada, Univ. of Hyogo (Japan); Mary Graham, Takeshi Kondo, Lintec of America, Inc. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 9:30 AM - 9:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Pellicles for EUV lithography manufactured using carbon nanotubes (CNT) films were characterized for EUV transmission, scattering, reflectivity, mechanical properties, and capability to stand high intensity (20 W/cm2) EUV radiation in environmental conditions similar to a EUV scanner. Full size (110 x 140 mm), free-standing pellicles less than 20 nm thick can be routinely manufactured using this type of CNT film. Concentration of contaminants such as catalyst particles is very small (< 0.5 wt.%). Several types of coated CNT films were also tested to increase the lifetime of the pellicles. Coating layers didn’t degrade mechanical strength significantly and even an improvement in rupture pressure and reduction of deflection under pressure was observed for some coatings. Coated films were capable of surviving a EUV dose equivalent to 32,000 wafers in a 600 W scanner. The EUV transmissions ranged from 97% for uncoated samples to 93% for coated. Scattering of uncoated samples was of only 0.15% a practically zero reflectance. The most promising coating increased scattering by a factor of 2.
Break
Coffee Break 9:50 AM - 10:20 AM
Session 7: Novel EUV Mask
In person: 27 April 2022 • 10:20 AM - 11:20 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Claire van Lare, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands), Ted Liang, Intel Corp. (United States)
12051-28
Author(s): Martin Burkhardt, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States); Zheng G. Chen, Scott Halle, Romain J. Lallement, Stuart A. Sieg, Luciana Meli, IBM Research (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 10:20 AM - 10:40 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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EUV lithography at current numerical aperture values is enabled by a relatively large depth of focus (DOF), compared to what we can expect for upcoming high-NA systems. According to basic optical principles, the DOF should scale roughly with 1/NA^2, so an increase of NA from 0.33 to 0.55 should reduce the DOF by 64%. Figure 1 shows the simulated contrast vs. defocus for 6 different absorber materials, for identical k1 values and with equal scale for high and low NA to accentuate the difference. NILS and contrast is directly correlated to the appearance of stochastic printing errors on the wafer. It is therefore imperative that the contrast be kept high for the important pitches. Considering the fact that various phase shifts are introduced by the mask absorber material, we also expect the best focus for various geometries, pitches, and assist features to be at different positions, which may limit the achievable overlapping focus window. For dense geometries that are not easy to print with a common focus window, one has to resort to modifications in illumination, restrict design rules, choose proper assist features, or select a different absorber material. Finally, one can also choose between a positive tone or negative tone process on the wafer to achieve an overlapping focus window. In this paper, we calibrate our simulation model with experimental values of known absorber cases at low NA, and then predict the pitch limitations at low and high NA for various mask geometries and absorber choices.
12051-30
Author(s): Devesh Thakare, imec (Belgium), KU Leuven (Belgium); Meiyi Wu, Karl Opsomer, imec (Belgium); Christophe Detavernier, Univ. Gent (Belgium); Philipp Naujok, optiX fab GmbH (Germany); Qais Saadeh, Victor Soltwisch, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Annelies Delabie, KU Leuven (Belgium), imec (Belgium); Vicky Philipsen, imec (Belgium)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 10:40 AM - 11:00 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this study of a novel EUV mask absorber material, Ta-Co alloys were evaluated as potential high-k mask absorbers. Film morphology, surface composition, and chemical stability in hydrogen environment and mask cleaning solutions were experimentally examined for the Ta-Co alloys. Compositions of Ta-Co alloys that qualified in the experiments were selected to perform aerial image simulations of lines and spaces, and square arrays of contact holes at high-NA 0.55 EUV. The results show that Ta-Co alloys with a thickness of 52 nm allow for a reduction in mask 3D effects compared to a 60 nm TaBN absorber.
12051-32
Author(s): Rajiv Naresh Sejpal, Bruce W. Smith, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 11:00 AM - 11:20 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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High reflectance attenuated phase shifting masks (attPSM) in EUV lithography can improve the image contrast through intensity and phase modulation. The thinner absorber with relatively high phase shift of ~1.2π help extenuate some mask three-dimensional (M3D) effects. Low n – low k materials implemented as mask absorbers can generate the desired high phase – high reflectance masks. Rh5Ti, Rh3Ta and MoPt alloys are identified as low n – low k materials candidate for attPSM absorbers through effective media dielectric constant modelling. Investigation of illumination condition through source manipulation and varied incidence angles is presented through 3D image performance modelling. The candidate metal alloys are also deposited through magnetron sputtering are characterized through EMA model accuracy and measured refractive index.
12051-29
Author(s): Hideaki Nakano, Ryohei Gorai, Yuto Yamagata, Daisuke Miyawaki, Kazunori Seki, Toppan Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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EUV lithography has entered HVM. To continue scaling towards 3nm node and beyond, mitigation of mask 3D effect is required. As possible solution, new absorber materials such as low-n and high-k materials are currently being developed. In this work, we will introduce a new etchable absorber material candidate with potential of replacing current Ta based absorber. Blank and mask properties such as patterning capability and cleaning durability were evaluated using actual mask patterns. Also the performance of wafer printability was evaluated by simulation.
12051-31
Author(s): Abdalaziz Awad, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany); Philipp Brendel, Fraunhofer-Institut für Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie IISB (Germany); Andreas Erdmann, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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The potential of deep learning as a supplement for image simulations to allow for more efficient modeling of new lithographic configurations has been explored in recent years. A routine challenge with deep learning solutions is their inherent data inefficiency. This work details a deep learning model capable of predicting aerial images for different mask absorbers and illumination settings. We expand on this model by investigating its accuracy potential and data efficiency. This investigation provides insights into the amounts of training data required to achieve the optimum accuracy for different absorber stacks. A significant variance in data requirements and achievable accuracy across different absorbers is observed. The observed trends indicate that the amount of training data required to train the model is directly correlated to the severity of the mask-3D effects of the absorber. This work presents a method that can improve the data efficiency of this predictive model without compromising the accuracy for novel absorbers or new lithographic configurations.
Break
Lunch Break 11:40 AM - 1:30 PM
Session 8: EUV Stochastics: Joint Session with Conferences 12051 and 12055
In person: 27 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 3:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Luciana Meli, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States), Robert L. Brainard, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)
12055-32
Author(s): Jonathan Han Son Ma, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); David Prendergast, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States); Andrew Neureuther, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Patrick Naulleau, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 1:50 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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EUV photoresists are faced with two intertwined challenges. On the one hand, there is the tradeoff between resolution, stochastics, and sensitivity. On the other, the radiation chemistry in EUV resist is drastically different from DUV photochemistry, which generations of UV lithography had relied on for decades. A deeper and more holistic understanding of EUV radiation chemistry is vital for rational material design. For existing systems, improved understanding translates into optimization of their potential. More importantly, as evident in the past few years, the fundamentally novel radiation chemistry would give rise to new material platforms and that brings the challenge of identifying them. Identifying new material platforms and understanding their mechanisms requires elaborate effort It is rather time consuming, but the industry is only going faster. Fortunately, in the past few decades, new techniques have emerged and have armed material scientists and engineers with a new tool set. For example, computational chemistry, largely enabled by the silicon revolution, could in turn give it a boost. While no theory is perfect, over the past two decades the strength and weakness of computation methods have been characterized and compared against experiments. By finding the right question to ask, even an approximate theory can be productive. For example, while it is not easy to predict the reaction constant of a certain reaction in a specific polymer matrix ab-initio, it is feasible to eliminate reaction mechanisms with simple thermochemistry computations. Our previous work also illustrated that such calculations complement experiments by elucidating mechanistic details. That expedites and simplifies subsequent experimental mechanistic investigations. A more developed mechanism would lead to more specific requirements for material components. A computational material search can then be deployed to narrow down options—a approach that yielded fruitful results in the battery industry. In this presentation, examples of EUV material investigations combining experiments and computations will be demonstrated and the prospects of such approach will be discussed.
12051-35
Author(s): Patrick L. Theofanis, Oleg Tazetdinov, Intel Corp. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 1:50 PM - 2:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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We introduce and demonstrate a new simulator that utilizes resist-specific chemical formulations to drive a Monte Carlo multi-physics and chemistry modeling flow for NA 0.33 and NA 0.55 EUV lithography. With this model stochastic variations are a natural consequence of the chemical and atomic composition of the material. Fully predictive EUV absorption coefficients and exposure latitudes have less than 5% error. LCDU values are predicted with errors smaller than 15% and LWR/LER values are predicted with errors smaller than 7%. We believe chemistry-focused simulations will be key to the development of new EUV photoresists tailored to high-NA imaging.
12055-38
Author(s): Craig D. Needham, Inpria Corp. (United States); Ulrich Welling, Synopsys GmbH (Germany); Amrit Narasimhan, Inpria Corp. (United States); Joren Severi, imec (Belgium), KU Leuven (Belgium); Peter De Schepper, Inpria Corp. (Belgium); Michael Kocsis, Inpria Corp. (United States); Danilo De Simone, imec (Belgium); Lawrence S. Melvin, Synopsys, Inc. (United States); Stephen T. Meyers, Inpria Corp. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 2:10 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Metal oxide (MOx) photoresists have matured into a viable solution for advanced-node EUV Lithography, particularly for tight pitches and High-NA applications. The materials’ promising on-wafer results have been complimented by the development of a stochastic lithography model built using a first–principles approach to material patterning chemistry. We now describe updates to the resist model via calibration using an expansive data set of 1 and 2D features from exposures of a production MOx photoresist. We further evaluate the new model against a large set of defectivity data covering a range of process conditions including PEB and developer composition.
12055-39
Author(s): Jander Cruz, Michael J. Eller, California State Univ., Northridge (United States); Stanislav V. Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S. Verkhoturov, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Michael A. Robinson, James M. Blackwell, Intel Corporation (United States); Emile A. Schweikert, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 2:30 PM - 2:50 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to perform nanoscale molecular characterization on extreme ultraviolet resists to understand changes in film homogeneity from initial exposure, postexposure baking, and development. Nanoprojectiles probe nanospots 10-15 nm in diameter, where emission of characteristic secondary ions are mass analyzed and used to characterize colocalization among molecular groups in the film. Mass spectra data revealed uneven removal of PAG during development, which consequently results in domains where deprotection is not occurring. This nonrandom spatial distribution of molecular groups becomes more notable in developed film, ultimately contributing to film stochastics and poor resist quality.
12055-40
Author(s): Christopher K. Ober, Florian Kaefer, Jingyuan Deng, Cornell Univ. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 2:50 PM - 3:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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This presentation reviews fluorochemicals used to produce advanced semiconductors within the lithographic patterning manufacturing process. Topics discussed include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used and their essential attributes for successful semiconductor manufacture and include photoacid generators, fluorinated polyimides, poly(benzoxazole)s, anti-reflection coatings, topcoats and embedded barrier layers, fluorinated surfactants and materials for nanoimprint lithography. In particular an explanation is given of the particular function that these PFAS materials contribute. A brief summary is provided discussing the families of materials used, the critical purpose served, what the PFAS compound provides and the prospects for alternatives. Prospects for alternative systems are discussed.
12051-33
Author(s): Hiroshi Fukuda, Hitachi High-Tech Corp. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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Spatial fluctuation in reactions throughout exposed resist films is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) or singular value decomposition (SVD), which is known as generalization of Fourie transform. In optical simulations, image is expressed by a wave function obtained from SVD of matrix representation of optical images. We attempt to extend this to density/probability distributions of resist reactions for analyzing probabilistic behavior of resists such as LER/LCDU and stochastic defects. To show its effectiveness, PCA is applied to reaction distributions calculated by the fully coupled Monte-Carlo simulation, which visualizes correlated reaction influences on spatial feature and probability of pattern anomalies.
12051-34
Author(s): Reiko Tsuzuki, Xiang Liu, Kenichi Oyama, Tokyo Electron Ltd. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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In 2020 IRDS logic roadmap, required minimum contact/via pitch is 28 nm in 2025, which cannot be obtained by single exposure at 0.33 NA system. To make the target possible, 0.55 NA system is the only way for single exposure. The relationship of resolution, roughness, and sensitivity has been known to be trade-off in chemically amplified resists, and we tried optimizing them at 0.55 NA lithography simulation. For the optimization, in addition to resist parameters, development parameters were adjusted. In our model, swelling phenomenon was considered, and we found the possibility that swelling has positive effect on the roughness. By adjusting some of other development parameters, sensitivity was improved and defects problem is also improved. Furthermore, we conducted numerical simulation for inpria resist, and discuss the results compared with experimental data. We suggest that development optimization is one of the key for 0.55 NA EUV lithography.
Break
Coffee Break 3:10 PM - 3:20 PM
Session 9: Patterning
In person: 27 April 2022 • 3:20 PM - 4:20 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Will Conley, Cymer, LLC (United States), Geert Vandenberghe, imec (Belgium)
12051-36
Author(s): Qi Lin, Nui Chong, Toshiyuki Hisamura, Jonathan Chang, Xilinx, Inc. (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 3:20 PM - 3:40 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this paper, we present how to integrate 193nm immersion and EUV lithography into 7nm FPGA production and optimize the critical process steps. We taped out n EUV layers to replace 3xn immersion layers in the product. After a few iterations of tweaking, the EUV process can provide better performance and higher yield than the immersion process. We also provide examples of how the better EUV mask CD control can be achieved, the Edge Placement Error (EPE) can be reduced and the uniformity of the EUV back-end-of-line (BEOL) layer can be improved during EUV process development.
12051-37
Author(s): Dongbo Xu, Werner Gillijns, Ling Ee Tan, Vicky Philipsen, Ryoung-Han Kim, imec (Belgium)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 3:40 PM - 4:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Extending 0.33 NA EUV single patterning to 28nm pitch will enable a shorter and thus more cost-effective process flow for metal layers at the N2 node. At the same time, EUV single patterning becomes very challenging in terms of stochastic defectivity. The increased importance of stochastic effects at pitch 28nm demands on high contrast lithographic images. The low-n attenuated phase-shift mask (PSM) can provide superior solutions for individual pitches by mitigating 3D mask effects [1]. The simulation and experiment results have shown substantial imaging improvements: higher Depth of Focus (DoF) at similar normalized image log slope (NILS) and smaller telecentricity error (TCE) values than the best binary mask configuration [1-4]. In this paper, the exploration of low-n attenuated PSM patterning opportunity for pitch 28nm metal design is instigated. The lithographic performance of using low-n mask for patterning M1 layer of an imec N3 (foundry N2 equivalent) random logic layout is evaluated. The impact of mask tonality (bright field vs. dark field) and insertion of sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) on pattern fidelity and process window is evaluated. Relevant wafer data will be shown as a proof of above exploration.
12051-38
Author(s): Pieter Wöltgens, Alberto Colina, David Rio, Maxence Delorme, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Tatiana Kovalevich, Arame Thiam, imec (Belgium); Frieda van Roey, IMEC (Belgium); Odysseas Zografos, imec (Belgium)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 4:00 PM - 4:20 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Logic vias are inherently irregular and therefore print less well than regular holes, especially near the resolution limit of the lithographic system. The central idea of this study is to increase printability of logic vias by regularizing them, by (i) forcing via placement on a staggered grid and (ii) placing fixed-size SRAF vias on the empty positions of the staggered grid. Preliminary simulations show benefits of these staggered vias in terms of best focus shift (-44%) due to homogenized mask 3D effects, and slightly better contrast and better aberration sensitivity (-38%). Overall, we expect the increased homogeneity of the vias to translate in terms of tighter distributions of lithographic measures of performance. Furthermore, a simple implementation in Place & Route (PNR) is shown to accomplish via placement on a staggered grid in a reasonable amount of time. A Power-Performance-Area (PPA) analysis of a 64bit-ARM core shows negligible impact of staggered vias on the PPA-metrics, when this is applied to a single via level. Finally, we designed a via mask and exposed it with a 0.33NA EUV scanner to test these ideas and compare the performance of staggered vias against Manhattan vias with regular computational lithography flow. Initial results on a design with 38nm via pitch with selected bias of assist features show 40% smaller best focus shift across the slit and a 4% smaller global CDU for staggered vias compared to Manhattan vias with regular SMO. Additionally, staggered vias are going to have benefits in terms of OPC (simplification, reduction of computational resources, reduction in number of hotspots), and mask manufacture and metrology. In conclusion, staggered vias like we presented here show promise, as a next step a full computational lithography flow for staggered vias could be tried for even better results.
Poster Session
In person: 27 April 2022 • 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Hall 2
12051-51
Author(s): Daisuke Tei, Hideyuki ochiai, hiroshi furusato, hirotaka miyamoto, katsuhiko wakana, tsukasa hori, takeshi ohta, takehiko tomonaga, takashi saito, hakaru mizoguchi, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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Improvement of the throughput in the exposure process is expected for increasing the number of layers of NAND flash, and adopting a thick resist of 8-10 μm. In addition, in NAND flash, there is a need for improving the shape of the resist cross section after exposure. Currently, multiple exposures are performed at multiple focus positions. We have achieved an increase in output power using the G60K as the latest KrF light source, and we have developed SE technology to achieve an expansion of the valid focal range. These techniques make it possible to improve productivity .
12051-52
Author(s): Norio Nakamura, Ryukou Kato, Hiroshi Sakai, Kimichika Tsuchiya, Yasunori Tanimoto, Yosuke Honda, Tsukasa Miyajima, Miho Shimada, Takashi Obina, Hiroshi Kawata, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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An ERL-based EUV-FEL can provide EUV power of more than 1 kW for multiple scanners to overcome stochastic effects with a higher throughput. An IR-FEL project started at the KEK cERL as a NEDO project in order to develop high-power IR lasers for high-efficiency laser processing, and it can demonstrate proof of concept of the EUV-FEL for future lithography. The IR-FEL was constructed in May 2020 and commissioned in June to July 2020 and in February to March 2021. We will briefly review the EUV-FEL and present the construction and commissioning of the cERL IR-FEL for realizing the EUV-FEL for future lithography.
12051-53
Author(s): Takehiko Tomonaga, Yuji Minegishi, Satoshi Komuro, Tsukasa Hori, Daisuke Tei, Taku Yamazaki, Toshihiro Oga, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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ArFi lightsource has been improved to the point where it can stably achieve PM cycles of one year each. In order to contribute to the improvement of the fab-wide lithocell utilization rate, it is necessary to have the ability to predict remaining lifetime to achieve flexible PM timing for fab-wide availability optimization. We will discuss an approach to predict the next PM timing more accurately by combining module life simulation using a model of the degradation rate of individual modules and module remaining life diagnosis by AI using big data analysis of more than 450 operating lasers.
12051-54
Author(s): Akira Sasaki, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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We investigate the collisional radiative (CR) model of tin and heavier elements, to accurately predict their EUV emission spectrum to have a useful tool for the optimization of the source to obtain high output power and efficiency at 13.5 nm, as well as in 6 – 7 nm region. Although, tin and heavy elements have a complex atomic structure and the emission occurs through a large number of fine structure transitions, their observed spectrum usually consists of few broad peaks, which are attributed to 4d-4f, 4p-4d, 4d-5p, and 4d-5f transitions. We show a simple representation of their wavelength from the investigation of theoretical and experimental spectrum.
12051-55
Author(s): Jang-Gun Park, Min-Woo Kim, Ji-Won Kang, Hee-Chang Ko, Jun-Hyung Lee, Won-Young Choi, Hye-Keun Oh, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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For finer linewidth patterning, 0.55 numerical aperture (NA) should be used instead of the existing 0.33 NA. In 0.55 NA extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), to alleviate the mask 3D effect and stochastic noise, which is stronger, it is necessary to develop an optimal phase shift mask (PSM) and multilayer mask for high NA. Mask structure is used PSM with composed of Ru-alloy/TaBO and multilayer composed of ruthenium (Ru)/silicon (Si), which is expected to be effective in mitigating mask 3D effect and improving imaging performance. The absorber reflectance was checked which is changed by variables such as pattern existence, target CD, and pitch ratio. In addition, by examining the relationship between the change in absorber reflectance and normalized image log slope (NILS), it was determined whether the mask structure for high NA was changed by the target pattern changes.
12051-56
Author(s): Ling Ee Tan, Werner Gillijns, Jae Uk Lee, Dongbo Xu, Jeroen van de Kerkhove, Vicky Philipsen, Ryoung-Han Kim, imec (Belgium)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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Imec N3 logic design rules define a minimum via pitch of 36nm for a double patterning process. Enabling this pitch is crucial in terms of process time and number of masks involved. One method for extending 0.33 NA EUV is using advanced mask materials. Studies have shown that a low-n attenuated phase-shift mask (PSM) can improve EUV imaging performance, reduce mask 3D effects and improve optical contrast compared to the reference Ta-based mask. [1-3] In this paper, the impact of mask stack - Ta-based (binary or BIM) and low-n (PSM) - and mask tone - dark field (DF) vs. bright field (BF) - on a random logic Via layer will be evaluated. To pattern contact holes, we use negative tone development (NTD) metal-oxide resist process using the BF mask and positive tone development (PTD) chemically amplified resist process using the DF mask. Source mask optimization (SMO) was performed with and without sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) as a resolution enhancement technology (RET). Optical proximity correction (OPC) was carried out on design clips using respective sources and mask rules at different mask tone. We show the optimum choice for this layer and present our recommendation based on current OPC simulations as well as some preliminary wafer data.
12051-57
Author(s): Ivanie Mendes, Michael May, Jérôme Rêche, Raluca TIRON, Aurélien SARRAZIN, Olivier DUBREUIL, CEA-LETI (France)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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Densification and reduction of lithographic features sizes keeping low defectivity is one of the biggest challenges in the patterning area. In order to extend 193 immersion capabilities and meet advanced applications needs, multi exposure image mode is a promising option for non-high volume manufacturing. It allows from a unique pattern with a fixed critical dimension (CD) and pitch, to obtain more dense patterns in a large surface without any process loop of standard flow, a huge benefit compared to litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) approach. The study carried out explores this method with a specific design of pillars array printed using Negative Tone Development (NTD). The multi-image option relies on exposing multiple times the same initial pattern with a low image-to-image overlay. Based on intrinsic scanner performances, image-to-image placement error should be less than two nm. In this paper, many functionalities are explored to customize patterns from a single and unique mask design. One stake is to transfer (into silicon) a 2 mm * 2 mm pillar array design with a pitch divided by two, covering a wide surface on a 300 mm wafer and answering overlay and stitching requirements. Final results give well defined pillars which intra-wafer CD uniformity (3σ) satisfies application process requests. By using a flexible multi-image mode, mask constraints (cost and quality) can be relaxed, i.e. with a larger pitch structure on the reticle than the targeted one, final feature can be achieved. This development can be extended to hybrid lithography such as NanoImprint Lithography (NIL) or specific applications such as optics.
12051-58
Author(s): Christian Laubis, Andreas Fischer, Robert Häfner, Alexander Grothe, Yasser Abdulhadi, Ayhan Babalik, Anja Babuschkin, Christian Buchholz, Danilo Ocana Garcia, Bettina Kupper, Heiko Mentzel, Jana Puls, Claudia Tagbo, Thomas Wiesner, Samira Naghdi, Michael Kolbe, Frank Scholze, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Hall 2
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Optics for EUV-Lithography are susceptible to lose optimum reflectivity when exposed to molecular contamination. Specifically, hydrocarbons present in the optics environment will grow to a contamination layer by being cracked from EUV radiation. To avoid molecular contamination issues during reflectivity measurements, hydrocarbons need to be excluded from the instrumentation. Therefore, PTB is replacing its reflectometer for large EUV optics with a new hydrocarbon-free reflectometer. The hydrocarbon-free instrument is designed to accommodate source collector-sized mirrors and a sample weight of 150 kg. We present our new instrumentation, its mechanical design concept, and features.
12051-59
Author(s): Valeryi A. Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein, Purdue Univ. (United States); Florian Melsheimer, Larissa Juschkin, KLA Corp. (United States); Tatyana Sizyuk, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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We developed and benchmarked models and computer package for the simulation and optimization of hybrid discharge-laser produced plasma (DLPP) devices that can be used for nanometrology. The radiation transport and EUV output was calculated using the detailed 3D Monte Carlo method for RT. Our modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental data from DLPP devices with Xe working media. Our simulations showed possible ways of DLPP optimization. The models and code can be used for optimization of experimental settings, investigation of DLPP devices with complex geometry, EUV output, and EUV source characteristics and angular distribution.
12051-60
Author(s): Chang Soo Kim, Jung Hwan Kim, Seong Ju Wi, Ha Neul Kim, Young Woo Kang, Won Jin Kim, Jinho Ahn, EUV-IUCC, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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ASML presented a specification of maximum local tilt angel for the CD uniformity. And the CD variation due to EUV reflection from the wrinkle area of the pellicle was confirmed by coherent scattering microscope (CSM). In this study, we present guidelines for the thermo-mechanical property of EUV pellicle to satisfy EUV pellicle requirements of 0.1 nm or less CD non-uniformity. The wrinkle profile of EUV pellicle as a function of the emissivity and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) was simulated using ANSYS 2021R1. EUV transmittance non-uniformity in the wrinkle area was calculated using MATLAB. From these results, CD non-uniformity was obtained by Hyperlith simulation tool. The wrinkle amplitude of EUV pellicle tends to be proportional to the CTE and inversely proportional to the emissivity. When 17, 16, 15 nm half-pitch (HP) L/S is patterned using EUV pellicle with 317 GPa isotropic elastic modulus, 0.23 Poisson’s ratio, 20 nm thickness and 90% EUVT, it was confirmed that the maximum local tilt angle limits to satisfy 0.1 nm CD non-uniformity are 290.2, 286.1, 272.3 mrad, respectively. Through the simulation, it was confirmed that, EUV pellicle with a CTE of ≤ 2 x 10-5 K-1 and an emissivity ≥ 0.2 can stably satisfy this specification.
12051-61
Author(s): Dongmin Jeong, Deukgyu Kim, Yunsoo Kim, Minsun Cho, Jinho Ahn, EUV-IUCC, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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We improved EUV mask imaging performance through phase and amplitude optimization between 0th and 1st diffraction orders. A specific phase difference between the 0th and 1st diffraction orders can reduce the aerial image split and then improve the imaging performance. The optimum phase difference is 27 degrees in the 14 nm HP L/S pattern and 36 degrees in the 12 nm HP L/S pattern. This effect becomes more evident with the amplitude balancing between the two diffraction orders.
12051-62
CANCELED: EUV lithography on board the international space station
In person: 27 April 2022 • 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Hall 2
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The goal to extend human life in space beyond 1000 days is benefitted by an electronics manufacturing ecosystem that supports a localized, self-sustaining community on board the International Space Station (ISS). The capability to rapidly prototype electronics, on an as-needed basis by working astronauts creates new infrastructure, architecture, functionality and capability on board the ISS, enabling new computing power and performance, the ability to create new smart devices and rapidly repair obsolete or damaged electronics that might occur in high risk operations. EUV lithography is the dominant technology needed to pattern silicon wafers on board the ISS. In partnership with CASIS and NASA a payload was launched on the ISS in November 2019 to determine if it was possible to capture EUV radiation using specially designed materials that form the basis of optics and mirrors for reflective EUV lithography tools at 13.5 nm, and pave the way for electronics manufacture in space.
12051-65
Author(s): Jack Stahl, Nathan Bartlett, David Ruzic, Univ. of Illinois (United States)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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The attenuation of a tin ion beam was studied as it traveled through hydrogen gas and hydrogen plasma of varying pressures. The results of the experiment were compared against predicted results obtained using the collisional code RustBCA. The results of this experiment will provide greater insight into ion behavior from generation in EUV vessels to wall contamination.
12051-66
Author(s): Dren Qerimi, Andrew C. Herschberg, Parker Hays, Tyler Pohlman, David N. Ruzic, Univ. of Illinois (United States)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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Tin contamination of the collector mirror surface remains one of the main issues of EUV sources, directly impacting the availability of the tool. Hydrogen plasma based tin removal processes employ hydrogen radicals and ions to interact with tin deposits to form gaseous tin hydride (SnH 4 ), which can be removed through pumping. An annular surface wave plasma (SWP) source developed at the University of Illinois – Urbana Champaign is integrated into the cone and perimeter of the collection mirror for in-situ tin removal. The SWP is characterized by high ion and radical densities, low electron temperature, and local generation where etching is needed. This method has the potential to significantly reduce downtime and increase mirror lifetime. Radical probe measurements show hydrogen radical densities in the order of 10 13 cm -3 , while Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of up to 4 eV and plasma densities on the order of 10 11-12 cm -3 . The generated ions are essential to the tin cleaning and have sufficiently low energy to cause no damage to the collector capping layer. Tin etch rates of up to 250 nm/min were observed in a variety of experimental conditions, including various powers, pressures, flowrates and temperatures. The high etch rates demonstrated in this study exceed the expected contamination rate of the EUV source.
12051-67
Author(s): Minfeng Chen, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (Taiwan); Danping Peng, TSMC North America (United States)
In person: 27 April 2022 • 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Hall 2
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EUV mask comprises of 40 multilayers with ~7 nm depth of each layer. This thick structure leads to low compute efficiency of full Mask-3D time-domain simulation. For a typical time-domain simulation, the plane-wave is illuminated with large temporal cycles to reach the electromagnetic steady state. This is very time consuming due to the cycle need. This paper proposes a method to efficiently catch the steady-state field distribution within multilayers. It successfully reduces the temporal cycles, resulting in up to 3x speed-up of rigorous Mask-3D Pseudo-Spectrum Time-Domain (PSTD) simulation.
12051-68
Author(s): Yuichi Nishimura, Yoshifumi Ueno, Shinji Nagai, Fumio Iwamoto, Kenichi Miyao, Hideyuki Hayashi, Yukio Watanabe, Tamotsu Abe, Hiroaki Nakarai, Hakaru Mizoguchi, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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Gigaphoton Inc. has been developing a Sn-LPP (Laser Produced Plasma) light source system which is the most promising high power 13.5nm light source solution for the manufacturing of semiconductor pattern <7nm. To improve the operation availability, we have demonstrated stable droplet generation for more than 2000hours with an in-situ Sn fuel supply system. And we have optimized the laser irradiation to the Sn target and observed suppression of high energy Sn ions, that degrade the collector mirror surface coating. At the conference, we will present the development progress of these key technologies for our EUV light source system.
12051-85
Author(s): David Reisman, Kosuke Saito, Wolfram Neff, Energetiq Technology (United States)
On demand | Presented live 27 April 2022
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The EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinch™ source uses Xenon plasma to produce 13.5 nm (±1% BW) radiation. The source is used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. In this talk we will present modeling of the EQ-10 Z-pinch using the Trac-II radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) code. Specifically, we use RMHD calculations to explore development of the Electrodeless Z-pinch as a source of Blue-X (6.x nm) radiation. We revisit previous experimental attempts at obtaining Blue-X EUV radiation with neon gas. Having established a baseline of performance on our present Z-pinch system, we use RMHD calculations to scale to higher EUV power outputs of potential interest to the EUV community.
Session 11: EUV Source
In person: 28 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 9:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Paul Graeupner, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany), Bruce W. Smith, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
12051-39
Author(s): Evan Davis, Igor Fomenkov, Michael Purvis, Alex Schafgans, Jayson Stewart, Peter Mayer, Klaus Hummler, Alex Ershov, Sam Crisafulli, Andrew LaForge, Yezheng Tao, Slava Rokitski, Chirag Rajyaguru, Georgiy Vaschenko, Payam Tayebati, Daniel Brown, David Brandt, ASML San Diego (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 8:30 AM - 8:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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ASML EUV scanners are installed at customer factories and are being used in high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of leading semiconductor devices. Performance and availability are at record levels, and this is partially attributable to fundamental improvements in the latest generation of sources. Here, we provide an overview of 13.5 nm tin laser-produced-plasma (LPP) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources enabling HVM for the most advanced nodes. Sources in the field operate with high availability and generate 250 W of EUV power. Performance of subsystems such as the collector and the droplet generator will be shown. Progress in the development of key technologies for power scaling towards next-generation scanners will be described.
12051-40
Author(s): Tatyana Sizyuk, Argonne National Lab. (United States); Ahmed Hassanein, Purdue Univ. (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 8:50 AM - 9:10 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Laser to EUV energy conversion efficiency and mirrors contamination by ion and debris are key factors in optimization in high-volume manufacturing. Picosecond lasers, used as pre-pulse laser to expand liquid droplet targets, can create more energetic ions that can lead to mirrors degradation. Our experimental and modeling work showed that ion velocities can be reduced by two orders of magnitude for certain combination of pre-pulse and main pulse. Shaping the laser pulse and increasing pulse duration improve EUV source efficiency and reduce ions energy. We used our HEIGHTS-EUV to optimize various spatial profiles and predicted ways for efficient EUV sources.
12051-41
CANCELED: TEUS: high-brightness EUV light source: product overview and specifications
In person: 28 April 2022 • 9:10 AM - 9:30 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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We present performance metrics for the commercially available TEUS product line. TEUS-S is a high-brightness EUV LPP light source based on a fast rotating liquid metal target with EUV collection angle of 0.05sr. The TEUS-S100 and S400 models employing 100W and 400W of average laser power respectively have been characterized wi0th particular attention to the collector optics lifetime. It is estimated that 10% mirror reflectivity degradation will occur after 2 years for the TEUS-S100 and after 0.5 year for the TEUS-S400 in 24/7operation mode. The TEUS-S400 source provides more than 30 mW of in-band (±1%) EUV radiation after the debris mitigation system.
12051-42
Author(s): Ahmed Hassanein, Purdue Univ. (United States); Tatyana Sizyuk, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 9:30 AM - 9:50 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Optimization of EUV generation involves many parameters in dual-pulse laser produced plasma devices including both laser beams characteristics as well target/droplet sizes and shapes. We enhanced our models in our 3D HEIGHTS-EUV simulation package for complex target and plasma evolution in various laser/target systems to simulate liquid Sn droplets evolution under both pico- and nanosecond laser irradiations, and a comparison with published experimental data showed very good agreement. Tuning the parameters of first laser beam, we achieved optimum target preconditions that resulted in efficient coupling of second laser photon absorption, optimum plasma characteristics for EUV emission, and further reducing energetic ions.
12051-43
Author(s): Hakaru Mizoguchi, Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
On demand starting 23 May 2022
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Gigaphoton develops CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source which is the most promising solution as the 13.5nm high power light source for HVM EUVL. Unique and original technologies including; combination of pulsed CO2 laser and Sn droplets, dual wavelength laser pulses for shooting and debris mitigation by magnetic field have been applied. We have developed first practical source for HVM; “GL200E” 1) in 2014. Then it is demonstrated which high average power CO2 laser more than 20kW at output power in cooperation with Mitsubishi Electric2). Pilot#1 is up running and it demonstrates HVM capability; EUV power recorded at 111W on average (117W in burst stabilized, 95% duty) with 5% conversion efficiency for 22 hour operation in October 20163). Availability is achievable at 89% (2 weeks average), also superior magnetic mitigation has demonstrated promising mirror degradation rate (= 0.5%/Gp) at 100W or higher power operation with dummy mirror test. We have demonstrated >300W operation data (short-term) and actual collector mirror reflectivity degradation rate is less than 0.15%/Gp by using real collector mirror around 125W (at I/F clean) in burst power > 10 Billion pulses operation4). Also we will report new application opportunity of this EUV light source technology. REFERENCE 1) Hakaru Mizoguchi, et. al.: “Sub-hundred Watt operation demonstration of HVM LPP-EUV source”, Proc. SPIE 9048, (2014) 2) Yoichi Tanino et.al.:” A Driver CO2 Laser Using Transverse-flow CO2 Laser Amplifiers”, EUV Symposium 2013, ( Oct.6-10.2013, Toyama) 3) Hakaru Mizoguchi, et al: ” High Power HVM LPP-EUV Source with Long Collector Mirror Lifetime”, EUVL Workshop 2017, (Berkley, 12-15, June, 2017) 4) Hakaru Mizoguchi et al.:” Challenge of >300W high power LPP-EUV source with long collector mirror lifetime for semiconductor HVM”, Proc. SPIE 11323, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography XI (2019) [11323-28]
Break
Coffee Break 9:50 AM - 10:20 AM
Session 12: EUV Integration: Joint Session with Conference 12051 and 12056
In person: 28 April 2022 • 10:20 AM - 12:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Allen H. Gabor, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States), Nihar Mohanty, Facebook Technologies, LLC (United States)
12056-18
Author(s): Angélique Raley, Lior Huli, Alexandra Krawicz, Steven Grzeskowiak, Katie Lutker-Lee, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Yannick Feurprier, Tokyo Electron Europe Ltd. (Belgium); Kathleen Nafus, Tokyo Electron America, Inc. (United States); Arnaud Dauendorffer, Tokyo Electron Kyushu Ltd. (Japan); Nayoung Bae, Josh LaRose, Andrew Metz, Dave Hetzer, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Masanobu Honda, Tetsuya Nishizuka, Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd. (Japan); Akiteru Ko, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Soichiro Okada, Yasuyuki Ido, Tomoya Onitsuka, Shinichiro Kawakami, Seiji Fujimoto, Satoru Shimura, Cong Que Dinh, Makoto Muramatsu, Tokyo Electron Kyushu Ltd. (Japan); Peter Biolsi, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Hiromasa Mochiki, Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd. (Japan); Seiji Nagahara, Tokyo Electron Kyushu Ltd. (Japan)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 10:20 AM - 10:40 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In this talk we present core technology solutions for EUV Patterning and co-optimization between EUV resist and underlayer coating, development and plasma etch transfer to achieve best in class patterning performance. We will introduce new hardware and process innovations to address EUV stochastic issues, and present strategies that can extend into High NA EUV patterning. A strong focus will be placed on dose reduction opportunities, thin resist enablement and resist pattern collapse mitigation technologies. CAR and MOR performance for leading edge design rules will be showcased. As the first High NA EUV scanner is scheduled to be operational in 2023 in the joint high NA lab in Veldhoven, Tokyo Electron will collaborate closely with imec, ASML and our materials partners to accelerate High NA learning and support EUV roadmap extension.
12051-44
Author(s): Danilo De Simone, Philippe Foubert, imec (Belgium); Kathleen Nafus, Arnaud Dauendorffer, Tokyo Electron Kyushu Ltd. (Japan); Noriaki Oikawa, Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd. (Japan); Hironori Oka, Keita Kato, Hajime Furutani, FUJIFILM Electronic Materials Research Labs. (Japan); Roberto Fallica, imec (Belgium)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 10:40 AM - 11:00 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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In the last years, the continuous efforts on the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have allowed to push the lithographic performance of the EUV photoresists on the ASML NXE:3400 full field exposure tool, however, stochastic resist roughness, local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU) and pattern defectivity at nano-scale are still the major limiting factors of the lithographic process window of EUV resist when looking at sub-40nm pitches for both line-space (LS) and contact hole (CH) applications, especially in the low exposure dose regime [1]. To be effective during the lithographic EUV resist screening evaluation phase for such tight pitches, imec has implemented since 2018 [2] additional metrology analysis after resist development (AD) to further quick feedback on the quantification of nano-failures (nano-bridges, broken lines, merging or missing contacts) induced by a stochastic EUV patterning regime, and thus to improve the resist design at lithographic step in a faster manner. In this work, we have further extended the examination of the resist performance introducing additional metrology analysis after pattern transfer in a silicon nitride (SiN) substrate. We present the characterization results on 40nm and 36nm pitch staggered dense contact holes looking at both lithographic and etching knobs to mitigate the patterning process stochastic issues, confirming that the holistic litho-etch approach is an important and necessary step in the development path of EUV advanced patterning applications towards HVM.
12051-45
Author(s): Murat Pak, Wesley Zanders, Patrick Wong, Sandip Halder, Romuald Blanc, Laurent Souriau, Jeonghoon Lee, Gouri Sankar Kar, imec (Belgium)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 11:00 AM - 11:20 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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The use of a 4F2 cell configuration which enables higher densification is common in emerging memory devices. The pitch scaling and the robustness of these devices mainly rely on the patterning of the orthogonal array vertical pillar process. In this paper, we screen several lithography process approaches to optimize the 40nm pitch pillar patterning using single exposure EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography. The results show that with the optimized 40nm pitch process roughly 0.6nm 3-Sigma WCDU (wafer critical dimension uniformity) and 1.4nm 3-Sigma LCDU (local critical dimension uniformity) can be obtained post-litho for 21.1nm mean CD (critical dimension). Post-etch patterning with the best process shows 1.8nm 3-Sigma WCDU and 1.3nm 3-Sigma LCDU at 17.2nm mean CD. Smaller pitches have also been explored to identify the limits of the single EUV lithography process. Structures at 34nm pitch have shown high amount of pillar collapse. For 36nm pitch, on the other hand, a reasonable litho performance could be obtained with slightly boosted CD. The post-litho results show that with the optimized 36nm pitch process 0.4nm 3-Sigma WCDU and 1.4nm 3-Sigma LCDU can be obtained for 19.1nm mean CD.
12051-46
Author(s): Mohammed Alvi, Richard Gottscho, Kevin Gu, Ali Haider, Seongjun Heo, Jerome Hubacek, Gosia Anna Jurczak, Benjamin Kam, Nizan Kenane, Ji Yeon Kim, Siva Kanakasabapathy, Younghee Lee, Da Li, Qinghuang Lin, Mary Anne Manumpil, Henry Nguyen, Yang Pan, Daniel Peters, Nader Shamma, Anuja De Silva, Samantha Tan, Jeremy Tucker, Boris Volosskiy, Ethan Wang, Timothy Weidman, Rich Wise, William Wu, Jun Xue, Jengyi Yu, Ge Yuan, Hicham Zaid, Lam Research Corp. (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 11:20 AM - 11:40 AM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has been adopted, with increasing numbers of passes, in high volume manufacturing (HVM) of 7nm and 5nm node logic integrated circuits (ICs) and 16/14nm node dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). We have developed a new EUV resist technology where both the resist deposition and the resist development are conducted in a dry gaseous phase to meet the patterning requirements of future generations of IC products. This EUV resist technology is based on a fundamentally new resist design with a small, high-EUV-absorbing resist building block, minimized chemical stochastics and ultra-low surface tension during dry development. Thus, it offers high-resolution (pitch≤32nm, 0.33NA EUV single-exposure), high-fidelity and low-defect EUV patterning. This nascent technology has shown best-in-class resist performance at leading edge logic and DRAM design rules. In this paper, we will present recent progress of EUV dry resist towards applications in advanced logic and DRAM nodes. We will discuss lithographic performance and pattern transfer of pitch<40nm pillar and contact hole features using 0.33NA EUV single exposure. Pitch 36nm hexagonal pillars and pitch 36nm hexagonal contact holes have been printed with 0.33NA EUV single exposure of the EUV dry resist with a dark field mask and a bright field mask, respectively. Improvements in sensitivity, local CD uniformity and stochastic defects will be presented.
12056-19
Author(s): Eric Liu, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Joe Lee, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States); Nicholas Joy, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); Yann Mignot, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States); Angélique Raley, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States); John Arnold, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States); Peter Biolsi, TEL Technology Ctr., America, LLC (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 11:40 AM - 12:00 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Break
Lunch Break 12:00 PM - 1:30 PM
Session 13: Overlay
In person: 28 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
Session Chairs: Soichi Owa, Nikon Corp. (Japan), Edita Tejnil, Siemens EDA (United States)
12051-47
Author(s): Friso Klinkhamer, Bart Smeets, Theo Thijssen, Francis Fahrni, Wim de Boeij, Mohamed El Kodadi, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands); Thilo Pollak, Wolfgang Emer, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 1:30 PM - 1:50 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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As overlay tolerances tighten node-over-node, the measurement and control of overlay has progressed from the low (spatial) frequent domain toward higher spatial frequencies. At present up to 3rd order in slit and scan direction can be addressed on high end systems. With the introduction of an advanced distortion-manipulator in high end ArFi immersion scanners a significant improvement in the spatial frequency of overlay control can be achieved. This actuator will now enable at least up to 9th order lens distortion manipulation and control in the slit direction, with future extendibility to scanning operation. The manipulator setup and distortion control is fully incorporated in the scanner software and allows for lens fingerprint optimization, better dynamic lens heating control, and scanner stability control to maintain overlay performance over time. Also an external scanner overlay optimization interface is made available that enables machine-to-machine matching within the immersion platform as well as for cross-matching to the EUV platform. Over this interface also high spatial-frequent process corrections can be send to the scanner. In this paper, we will show the capability of the scanner-integrated distortion manipulator on abovementioned aspects using on-scanner aberration metrology, and in-resist distortion and overlay metrology.
12051-48
Author(s): Daan Slotboom, Paul Hinnen, Jan Mulkens, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 1:50 PM - 2:10 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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With EUV lithography moved into volume production, it allows for a reduction of manufacturing complexity by minimizing the amount of pattern splits for critical layers. However, this not necessarily means that on-product overlay requirements have become relatively less stringent. The reason for this is found in the Edge Placement Error (EPE), a key design metric defining the patterning requirement. EPE scales with the minimum pitch of the technology nodes and as discussed in a previous paper [1], it’s total error budget includes global and local CD errors, layer to layer overlay and optical proximity correction (OPC) errors. With smaller features the photon and resist stochastics tend to increase the local CD and local placement errors and as a consequence, the EPE budget drives to over-scaling of the on-product overlay (OPO) and OPC requirements. The stronger scaling OPO requirements need to be met in a mix-and-match mode of EUV and immersion DUV scanners, and for state-of-art scanners used in 5-nm logic manufacturing, we can achieve 2.5-nm OPO performance. For the next technology node the requirements for both EPE and OPO tighten further and this will require not only more advanced DUV and EUV scanners with extended correction capability, but also additional metrology and control solutions. In this paper we will describe how multiple overlay metrology sources (target based and device based) can be used to enable the advanced DUV and EUV scanner corrections, and how these scanners are set up against a common reference and how we maintain this ‘matched state’ over time. As stated, these overlay improvements link back to the EPE budget and thus to its other components. We will describe how an enhanced view on EPE contributors will allow us to combine cross domain degrees of correction, during layer setup and control. The understanding of the EPE component breakdown will enable the ability to measure and monitor this ‘EPE state’. The EPE wafer fingerprint is created by combining massive CD metrology data measured with a large field of view e-beam system, with overlay data measured with a high NA optical metrology system. It is discussed how characterization of the across wafer EPE variations may lead to a different EUV and DUV scanner setup state.
12051-49
Author(s): Romain Lallement, Jaime Morillo, Daniel Schmidt, Rick Johnson, Cody Murray, Martin Burkhardt, Allen Gabor, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
In person: 28 April 2022 • 2:10 PM - 2:30 PM PDT | Convention Center, Grand Ballroom 220A
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Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has gained maturity and is now the de facto leading edge patterning technology for advanced nodes beyond 7nm. Looking forward, the industry is exploring how to push the resolution even further. A high NA EUV scanner promises to increase the numerical aperture to capture larger diffraction orders enabling resolution improvement. The desire to use existing mask infrastructure with the anamorphic high NA projection lens project results in a half-field on wafer as compared to the currently available low NA EUV scanner. Once the high NA scanner is available, integrated devices will be manufactured with mix and match full-field and half-field lithography. This will bring its own set of challenges from an overlay error minimization standpoint, as half-field and full-field will not share the same center of gravity. Given the fact that overlay models are well known and that the high NA EUV scanner is not yet commercially available we took the approach to emulate the process through computer Monte Carlo simulations. This paper will explain the methods and assumptions used for the Monte Carlo simulation and explore how the mix and match affect the overlay correctable and none-correctable errors
Conference Chair
Intel Corp. (United States)
Conference Co-Chair
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
Program Committee
Intel Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
Cymer, LLC (United States)
Program Committee
Fraunhofer-Institut für Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie IISB (Germany)
Program Committee
IBM Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
IBM Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany)
Program Committee
Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Program Committee
KIOXIA Corp. (Japan)
Program Committee
SAMSUNG Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
HOYA Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
SAMSUNG Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Program Committee
Intel Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
SK Hynix, Inc. (Korea, Republic of)
Program Committee
IBM Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
Synopsys, Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
Program Committee
Canon Inc. (Japan)
Program Committee
Patrick P. Naulleau
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Applied Materials, Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
Nikon Corp. (Japan)
Program Committee
imec (Belgium)
Program Committee
Carl Zeiss Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
IMEC (Belgium)
Program Committee
Infineon Technologies Dresden GmbH (Germany)
Program Committee
Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
Program Committee
Gigaphoton Inc. (Japan)
Program Committee
Lasertec U.S.A., Inc. Zweigniederlassung Deutschland (Germany)
Program Committee
Mentor Graphics Corp. (United States)
Program Committee
imec (Belgium)
Program Committee
ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
Program Committee
ASML Brion (United States)
Program Committee
GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. (United States)
Program Committee
TSMC North America (United States)
Additional Information

POST-DEADLINE ABSTRACT SUBMISSION LINK IS CLOSED

  • Submissions are accepted through 03-January
  • Notification of acceptance by 17-January