This work addresses the watermarking of an entropy coded H.264/AVC video stream. The phrase Substitution
Watermarking is used to imply that the application of the watermark to the stream is accomplished by substituting an
original block of bits in the entropy-encoded stream with an alternative block of bits. This substitution is done for many
different blocks of bits to embed the watermark. This can be a particularly powerful technique for applications in which
the embedder must be very simple (substitution is a very light operation) and a computationally complex, pre-embedding
analysis is practical. The pre-embedding analysis can generate a substitution table and the embedder can simply select
entries from the table based on the payload. This paper presents the framework along with an example for H.264/AVC
streams that use CAVLC for entropy coding. A separate paper addresses the CABAC entropy coding case.
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