The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new strategy for displays. The new displays science and technology roadmap will incorporate urgent warfighter needs as well as investment opportunities where military advantage is foreseen. Thrusts now ending include the High Definition System (HDS) program and related initiatives, like flexible displays, at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Continuing thrusts include a variety of Serviceled programs to develop micro-displays for virtual image helmet-/rifle-mounted systems for pilots and soldiers, novel displays, materials, and basic research. New thrusts are being formulated for ultra-resolution, true 3D, and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service-led.
Since the beginning of flight, pilots have found the necessity to have paper information at their side ranging from basic navigation charts in the early days, to the massive amount of aircraft performance data, checklists, weather advisories, etc. which they now carry. This has resulted in the familiar flight bag carried by pilots to perform these tasks. With the advent of electronic data now easily available, the concept of a paperless cockpit becomes a reality. Further, once having a display in the cockpit which provides this information, and one that is separate from the primary flight instruments, a host of additional information can be provided which not only gives access to data previously carried in the flight bag, but also can provide real time weather information, airport mapping for runway incursion prevention and other information as required by the FAA. Also a major function which is now of great importance is the capability to provide a display for cabin surveillance in conjunction with an aircraft security system. This paper describes a Pilot Information Display (PID) which performs all these functions that are a necessary adjunct to the modern aircraft cockpit.
The viewing angle requirements for aircraft cockpit displays significantly vary. The variation dependency is analyzed as a function of aircraft type. The envelope requirement is deducted and analyzed against commercially available Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and special AMLCD's. The very-wide-viewing angle AMLCD need is established.
Recently, IBM introduced a very high-resolution high-information content flat-panel display, which incorporates a number of technological advances. This display contains 9.2 million pixels at a density of 204 pixels per inch, in a 3840x2400 pixel format. This is the first large-area display with a pixel density which satisfies normal visual acuity at normal reading distances, and increases the screen information content by a factor of 5 to 7 times over conventional displays. This display is appropriate for a wide variety of applications in which visualization of a large amount of data is important. At the same time, this technology advance heralds a number of infrastructure changes in system architecture, digital data protocol, and user interface design for both operating system and software applications.
Defense displays comprise a niche market whose continually high performance requirements drive technology. The military displays market is being characterized to ascertain opportunities for synergy across platforms, and needs for new technology. All weapons systems are included. Some 382,585 displays are either now in use or planned in DoD weapon systems over the next 15 years, comprising displays designed into direct-view, projection-view, and virtual- image-view applications. This defense niche market is further fractured into 1163 micro-niche markets by the some 403 program offices who make decisions independently of one another. By comparison, a consumer electronics product has volumes of tens-of-millions of units for a single fixed design. Some 81% of defense displays are ruggedized versions of consumer-market driven designs. Some 19% of defense displays, especially in avionics cockpits and combat crewstations, are custom designs to gain the additional performance available in the technology base but not available in consumer-market-driven designs. Defense display sizes range from 13.6 to 4543 mm. More than half of defense displays are now based on some form of flat panel display technology, especially thin-film-transistor active matrix liquid crystal display (TFT AMLCD); the cathode ray tube (CRT) is still widely used but continuing to drop rapidly in defense market share.
International Display Consortium (IDC) is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost. With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays, the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship. Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels, and modified commercial displays with 100 degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support.
The APC- LG-LCD relationship continues to expand with new products developed specifically for APC applications and also LG-LCD products developed for the consumer market, but adapted using APC enhancements for applications in the rugged world. Our delivery performance has proven that a superior, cost effective product can only be produced by incorporating product enhancements at the point of AMLCD manufacture. Further adaptations for specific applications can be simplified by utilizing the same part number panel for multiple platform uses. The manufacturing environment must be flexible enough to run multiple part numbers on a weekly basis. As such, manufacturing automation implemented at APC continues to strengthen our position as the world leader in custom AMLCD display modules. These automation initiatives are the direct result of APC learning the LG-LCD manufacturing method and applying these principals to our particular processes. The APC - LG-LCD relationship affords availability guarantees for display modules for a period of 10 years, thereby reducing procurement risk and minimizing costs associated with redesign when using consumer driven panels. This guarantee redefines the game rules for procurement of AMLCD's. We also offer a very quick turn for those customers who prefer to perform a lifetime buy of product. Typically, thousands of panels can be delivered within six months of a production go ahead. The APC -LC-LCD team remains successful due to the many years spent working together to develop and manufacture products that this niche market demands. The mutual respect for the technical and manufacturing operations at APC and LG-LCD continues to foster a relationship that time and again deliver superior, cost effective products to the market.
This paper demonstrates Web-LCCA, a life cycle cost model developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology, formerly Litton-TASC. The model was developed under contract to the United States Display Consortium (USDC) for use in a collaborative fashion by industry and government during the military Display acquisition cycle. Version 1 was released in March 2001 to USDC members and government program offices. Version 2 of the model is under development and features modeling of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom display designs. Other features include hardware commonality across system designs, operational availability versus LCC tradeoffs, cost risk analysis of alternative design options, and enhanced model usability. The model will be available via the Internet for use by both military Government Program Offices and the display industry.
This paper describes an information-exchange system for Display systems acquisition and logistics support. DISPLA (Decision Information System for Procurement and Logistics Analysis) is an Internet-based system concept for bringing sellers (display system and component suppliers) and buyers (Government Program Offices and System Integrators) together in an electronic exchange to improve the acquisition and logistics analysis support of Flat Panel Displays for the military. A proof-of-concept demonstration is presented in this paper using sample data from vendor Web sites and Government data sources.
The large format Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) brings new possibilities to the aircraft cockpit environment. Broad-based format flexibility, enhanced situational awareness, sharp contrast and brilliant chromaticity are all features inherent in this product. This paper reviews cockpit instrument design, traces the evolution of electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and describes an optimized format of a large format cockpit display from an engineering test pilot's perspective. Additional potential uses for the large format display are described.
A representative sample of Air Force operational units was surveyed with regard to their mission-specific mapping, charting and geodesy (MC&G) information requirements. Current human factors issues associated with use of MC&G data were documented as well as potential problems associated with the transition from paper to digital map displays. One of the products of this survey is a wish list of digital map display features and capabilities desired by the users.
Several laboratory studies and flight demonstrations have indicated the potential benefits to operators/pilots of combined audio/visual displays (McKinley and Ericson, 1997). The primary focus of these previous studies was cockpit applications but significant laboratory and field work was accomplished in command and control applications. However, most audio and visual displays and their associated symbologies have been developed independently and therefore were not integrated in a human factors sense. Potential benefits from developing integrated audio/visual displays and symbologies include: reduced operator response time, improved situation awareness, reduced search excursions, improved visual target detection ranges, improved target discrimination, and reduced workload. In order to realize these, and other potential benefits, research is needed to truly integrate aural and visual displays and symbologies. The purpose of this paper is to present the results from previous studies and describe a plan to improve the integration of audio/visual displays and symbologies.
Aircraft manufacturers, with their low production levels, rigorous optical requirements, and extreme operational environmental conditions, have a difficult time obtaining a consistent supply of AMLCDs suitable for aircraft applications. Overall demand is so low that every AMLCD needed for many years of present day aircraft delivery rates could be produced in less than one day by a major AMLCD manufacturer. The most obvious solution to this supply problem is to find a way of using commercially available AMLCDs in aircraft applications. Many display suppliers have developed a methodology to remanufacture commercial AMLCDs for more extreme operational environments, but one problem still remains - the commercial AMLCDs are not produced in the correct sizes or shapes needed for aircraft. An innovative display supplier has developed a technique to resize the commercial AMLCDs to fit into existing aircraft applications. Could this be the solution to the supply dilemma? This paper will discuss the approach The Boeing Company and BAE pursued to determine the feasibility of using resized AMLCDs in our product lines. Specialized accelerated tests were used to provide initial indications of seal durability. More routine thermal and humidity tests were also performed to assess longer term seal reliability. Optical assessment techniques will be presented along with our future plans for this technology.
Driven by the need to achieve cost-effective man-machine interface solutions, the adoption of commercial off the shelf (COTS) AMLCD panels in armoured fighting vehicles has become a fully accepted reality. This paper will explore some downside aspects of the new reality attendant on use of COTS display components, such as performance limitations and component obsolescence, as experienced on fielded military display products. Modular architecture and design solutions intended to minimise the impact of COTS product instability will be discussed.
A goal of military display users and manufacturers is commonality: to utilize a given display on as many
platforms as possible. The often-addressed concern of obsolescence of commercial AMLCDs used on
military programs becomes a key issue, though, with regard to commonality. Obsolescence occurs as the
tools used in the manufacture of an AMLCD age and as new and improved materials and processes are
developed. The LCD manufacturer, at some point, decides to cease the manufacture of a particular
AMLCD. The users of that AMLCD then have two choices: make a lifetime buy of LCDs, or find a
replacement. For a display which has achieved some degree of commonality, this choice must be faced by
a number of different users on a number of platforms. This paper addresses some of the problems
encountered when such a choice is made, as an SVGA display made by one manufacturer is replaced by an
XGA display made by a different manufacturer.
Author(s): Rick J. Johnson; James E. Shaw; Don Mosier; Raymond L. Liss; Todd D. Prouty; Josh Davis; Vincent P. Marzen; Christian T. Deloy
Rockwell Collins serves both the military and the commercial segments by exploiting the common elements of these applications. Rockwell Collins has created a liquid crystal display family capable of 100:1 contrast ratio, 40:1 high ambient contrast, 0.25% specular reflectance, 0.1% diffuse reflectance, enhanced color stability over +/- 55H, 0-30V field of view, 300 fL with 10K:1 dimming range, color NVIS B compliance while exceeding environmental performance requirements though ruggedization. In order to meet the full range of display requirements at a system level, all the components must be understood and managed to meet the end solution of the final system. This paper details Rockwell Collins' optical performance using an avionics grade panel, third generation custom compensation, and solid state backlight.
Author(s): Christian T. Deloy; Courtney W. McCauley
Practical methods for quantifying and understanding the dynamic characteristics of liquid crystal display stack assemblies for use in rugged avionics environments are presented. The failure modes of LCD stack assemblies in vibration are typically a function of excessive transverse deflections and in-plane displacements. Fortunately, classical plate theory facilitates the study of display stack dynamics, and offers ways to quantify deflection and displacement in terms of resonant frequency and transmissibility. However, specific dynamic material properties are required but typically not known, given the inherent complexity of a laminated liquid crystal display stack. The free-free vibration test is therefore documented as a viable method for the obtainment of equivalent dynamic stack properties in a cost effective and timely manner. Characterization testing in the free-free and vibration table environments was completed using display stack sub-components of various sizes and configurations in order to validate the process. Also, a design of experiment was conducted to gain a better understanding of how different mounting conditions impact longitudinal deflection, as well as lateral and vertical resonant frequency and displacement. Based on research, testing, and analyses completed, liquid crystal display stack design guidelines for vibration performance are included.
Over the past several years, Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCDs) have been touted as the ultimate flat panel display for use in the tactical cockpit environment because of their optical and environmental performance. The main drawback for AMLCDs has been the stable source of supply needed to continue aircraft production at a reasonable cost for upwards of 20 years. Rear projection displays have been discussed as a potential replacement for CRT and AMLCD based displays, providing comparable technical performance, scalable display surface sizes and Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) parts usage. The F/A-18E/F program has been developing the projection based on Digital Enhanced Color Display (DECD) for integration into the cockpit as a multi-purpose color display, capable of providing both video and complex graphics formats. This paper will examine projection technologies and discuss some of the major technical challenges and accomplishments encountered during development and integration for aircraft cockpits. In addition, future integration of projection technology into large area displays, panoramic displays and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) will be discussed.
Laboratory photometric measurements are taken of a display backlight one metre away from the emission surface (diffuser) with a whole acceptance angle on the photometer of about 0.125 degrees (2.182mm spot size at emission surface). A simulation method was sought to be able to obtain the brightness uniformity (luminance peak to trough ratio from above one lamp to the null between lamps in a picket-fence backlight). A 3D raytrace BackLight model in TracePro and a 2D Mathematical model in Matlab have been developed. With a specimen backlight in the laboratory, a smooth luminance profile was measured by the photometer on the diffuser surface. Ray Trace models in both 3D and 2D take too long to produce smooth 'continuous filled' distributions. The Mathematical 2D approach, although with limitations, yielded smooth solutions in a very reasonable time frame.
The quality, brightness and contrast of the image formed by a rear projection microdisplay system are strongly affected by the choice of the projection screen. Careful screen selection is necessary to achieve optimal performance for a given application. Critical image quality data such as resolution, image noise, diffuse reflectance, and gain have been measured for a representative group of commercially available screens. The correlation between screen efficiency and image noise is discussed, with particular relevance for close-viewing rear projection display applications. The nature of the image noise is probed and is found to vary with the screen type.
BlackScreen rear-projection display screens, developed by Jenmar Visual Systems of Fremont California are well suited for cockpit avionics applications primarily because they exhibit both high image resolution and high ambient light rejection. These characteristics combine to produce a high- contrast image on these screens, even in very brightly lit viewing environments. On-screen optical noise commonly referred to as graininess or speckle, can often be a problem in rear-projection systems. These image artifacts appear as grainy patches in the image that move with the field-of-view of the observer and are most visible in the near field (i.e., approximately 12 to 24 inches from the screen). This paper will describe the methods we are using to characterize these artifacts in BlackScreen. Our testing uses a range of projection systems and characterization methods. We will also describe our approach to reduce these artifacts, and will illustrate that approach with engineering data.
This paper demonstrates the state of critical technologies for the integration of Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) onto plastic substrates for display applications. The transistor technologies examined include polyscrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, organic semiconductor of TFTs. Fundamental work in new regimes of operation enabled by plastic substrates, such as the effect of rolling and 3-D deformation are also developed, leading to design guidelines. Finally, printing approaches for organic semiconductors are shown to demonstrate potential paths towards roll-to-roll display manufacturing. Altogether, the results point toward the possibility of printing transistors anywhere and bending them into nearly any shape.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently entered the market place as a competitive flat panel display technology. OLED displays are moving rapidly from small passive matrices (i.e. <3 inches diagonal) to full color active matrices based on rigid substrates. This paper is focused on new developments to help enable flexible OLED (FOLED) displays. Presented here will be high efficiency phosphorescent OLED displays that can be used in either passive or active matrix drive configurations. Passive matrix displays incorporating this technology fabricated on flexible substrates are also reported. These early demonstrations of flexible OLED displays illustrate the promise for a whole new generation of display products based on the design dimension of flexibility.
Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display is an emerging flat panel display technology, with initial products such as passive matrix addressed displays for cell phones and automobile audio systems already on the market. AM OLEDs (Active matrix Organic light emitting diode displays) have a potential to replace backlit AM LCDs (Active matrix liquid crystal displays) because of they can be potentially more power efficient, weigh less, have better image quality, more rugged and lower cost. Already, there have been impressive AM OLED technology demonstrations such as 13-inch SVGA display by Sony. The market for OLED based displays is estimated to reach 1.7 B dollars / Year in 2006. While the probability for successful development of AM OLEDs for consumer applications is reasonably high, additional progress needs to be made before this technology becomes a viable candidate for cockpit display applications. In the following we will review the current AM OLED technology with respect to OLED materials, device structures, device efficiency and lifetime, display addressing and display performance. This is followed by a discussion of the display image quality, lifetime, and environmental performance requirements of the AM OLED for use as a cockpit display. The display performance parameters requiring improvement are highlighted. Comparisons are made between AM OLED and AM LCD with respect to key performance parameters for cockpit display applications.
The rapid advances in full-color displays based on organic light emitting devices (OLEDS) and advances in nonemissive technologies have opened new military and commercial applications. For emissive displays, organic based devices are uniquely capable of being deposited at room temperature, which offers the possibility for fabrication on flexible substrates. Most passive technologies also have this property. In this talk, we will highlight the recent advances towards flexible emissive displays based on OLED technology and light modulating technology that are currently funded by the government. Here, we will provide an overview of the fabrication issues that include: the substrate, active and passive matrix drivers, small molecule and polymer based emissive layers, as well as sealing. The talk will provide an overview of the different approaches taken to address these issues and what are the common issues for all technologies.
Users needs for more pixels in displays are starting to be met as manufacturers increase the native resolution of projector chips. Tiling several projectors still offers a solution to augment the pixel capacity of a display. However problems of color and illumination uniformity across projectors need to be addressed as well as the computer software required to drive such devices. We present a novel, compact, high-resolution, uniform, tiled projection computer display. All projectors are illuminated by a common light source, utilizing a fiber optic beam splitting system and a single set of red, green and blue dichroic filters. This ensures uniform illumination across the tiled projected images, a single color temperature, color balance and stability, with improved image uniformity. The display performance is characterized by photometric measurements. We investigate also spectral losses in the screen material. The utility of the new display system is illustrated by a scientific application in air-borne radar imaging for archaeology.
Ultra-resolution visualization systems are achieved by the technique of tiling many direct or project-view displays. During the past fews years, several such systems have been built from commercial electronics components (displays, computers, image generators, networks, communication links, and software). Civil applications driving this development have independently determined that they require images at 10-100 megapixel (Mpx) resolution to enable state-of-the-art research, engineering, design, stock exchanges, flight simulators, business information and enterprise control centers, education, art and entertainment. Military applications also press the art of the possible to improve the productivity of warfighters and lower the cost of providing for the national defense. The environment in some 80% of defense applications can be addressed by ruggedization of commercial components. This paper reviews the status of ultra-resolution systems based on commercial components and describes a vision for their integration into advanced yet affordable military command centers, simulator/trainers, and, eventually, crew stations in air, land, sea and space systems.
A 360-degree-viewable volumetric 3-D display has been developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It has a resolution of 768 x 768 x 198, has a 24 Hz refresh rate, contains an embedded graphics processing system, and uses dithering methods to create images of 3-bit to 21-bit color. The 3-D display system is a visualization platform, comprised of a combination of hardware and software designed for ease-of-integration into existing visualization systems. The system design is briefly recounted. Key enhancements are described, such as the development of a volumetric visualization software platform. Examples are given which guide the system engineer who needs to include a volumetric display into a visualization solution.
The demand for displays with a large number of pixels is being driven by both military and commercial applications. Displays with very high information content are expected to have >1Gigapixels, requiring I/O bandwidth well beyond current integrated circuit technology, if display architectures continue as they have in the past. In this paper we present a concept based on latched pixels and data processing at the pixel level that could provide a significant reduction in display bandwidth.
Fibre channel is an emerging high-speed digital network technology that combines to make inroads into the avionics arena. The suitability of fibre channel for such applications is largely due to its flexibility in these key areas: Network topologies can be configured in point-to-point, arbitrated loop or switched fabric connections. The physical layer supports either copper or fiber optic implementations with a Bit Error Rate of less than 10-12. Multiple Classes of Service are available. Multiple Upper Level Protocols are supported. Multiple high speed data rates offer open ended growth paths providing speed negotiation within a single network. Current speeds supported by commercially available hardware are 1 and 2 Gbps providing effective data rates of 100 and 200 MBps respectively. Such networks lend themselves well to the transport of digital video and audio data. This paper summarizes an ANSI standard currently in the final approval cycle of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standardization (INCITS). This standard defines a flexible mechanism whereby digital video, audio and ancillary data are systematically packaged for transport over a fibre channel network. The basic mechanism, called a container, houses audio and video content functionally grouped as elements of the container called objects. Featured in this paper is a specific container mapping called Simple Parametric Digital Video (SPDV) developed particularly to address digital video in avionics systems. SPDV provides pixel-based video with associated ancillary data typically sourced by various sensors to be processed and/or distributed in the cockpit for presentation via high-resolution displays. Also highlighted in this paper is a streamlined Upper Level Protocol (ULP) called Frame Header Control Procedure (FHCP) targeted for avionics systems where the functionality of a more complex ULP is not required.
This paper describes a free moving flipping pixel, which is bi-stable at 0 degrees and 180 degrees. A two dimensional array of such pixels provides a high-resolution, direct view, reflective display with extremely low power consumption at full video and zero power consumption for still images. Furthermore, the new display overcomes many of the other shortcomings of LCD display technology, especially in the realm of ruggedized displays. It provides visibility in both direct sunlight and dim environments. It is operational at a wide temperature range and provides high durability to mechanical shock/vibration and RFI/EMI. Flixel is also investigating other uses of its 180 degrees flip technology including high density shutter arrays, and filter arrays providing the ability to control direct radiation on a target with very high spatial and temporal resolutions.
The Display and Beam Steering Thrust of the AFOSR Liquid Crystal MURI addressed key materials and device technology issues affecting performance of liquid crystal (LC) electro-optic (EO) devices, particularly device structures useful in information Displays and for Laser Beam Steering and Switching. Two basic themes were development of bulk LCs having high performance characteristics (nematic LCs, and chiral smectic LC devices having analog response), and development of novel LC electro-optic structures. Research on novel device structures led to advances in LC alignment and on photonic band-gap materials.
Author(s): Roger Stewart; Anne Chiang; Anno Hermanns; Frederic Vicentini; Jeffrey Jacobsen; Jim Atherton; Ed Boling; Frank Cuomo; Paul Drzaic; Sean Pearson
Alien technology has developed a family of rugged, plastic displays for portable devices like SmartCards, electronic signs, cellular telephones and military devices. These displays are driven by ultra-miniaturized silicon integrated circuits called NanoBlcok ICs that are put together using a Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) process. This low-cost, high- volume manufacturing technique makes possible new types of liquid crystal and OLED display products.
Author(s): Larry D. Owen; Steven M. Jaffe; Michael L. Jones; Charles A. Rowell
This paper presents an update on the progress to commercialize a new unique replacement for the powder phosphor currently used in projection cathode ray tubes (CRTs). The new technology designated Resonant Microcavity Phosphor (RMP) is now being put into CRTs similar to those currently used in commercial rear projection televisions. This new technology allows resolution, brightness and dynamic range well beyond what is possible with powder phosphor. It is intended that this paper give engineers a basic understanding of the characteristics and advantages of the RMP technology. Some of the key reasons for developing a new phosphor for the projection CRT are presented. Current and future RMP-CRT performance and some other applications for RMP technology are also reviewed.
Electromechanical flight instruments have been used in aircraft from the earliest days of flight. They have served well in providing very adequate flight information to the pilot to maintain control during all phases of flight. The sensors, which have provided the basic inputs, have been analog so there has been complete compatibility between sensor and display. For many current flight regimes the analog sensors are still very adequate, however new flight restrictions by the FAA and a host of additional flight aids which are digital in nature require more sophisticated displays. These displays in the case of aircraft upgrades must function not only with analog sensor inputs, but also with a variety of digital inputs. Flat panel display technology has evolved where it is capable of providing the variety of information needed in the new cockpit environments. However, where upgrades of existing aircraft are required, these displays must be uniquely designed to handle both conventional analog sensor inputs in combination with new digital systems. This paper describes the problems encountered and the approach taken to provide flat panel displays, which meet both criteria.
Holographically formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) materials meet the requirements for a video rate reflective display. In order to produce a saturated color from a Bragg reflector, the number of index changing layers becomes critical. The fabrication process affects the number of layers forming the reflector, and, as a result, the bandwidth and optical characteristics, including reflection intensity, direction, and spread, of the reflector. The cell thickness and the liquid crystal mixture affect the voltage at which the cell operates and the speed at which the liquid crystal material can switch from the reflective to non-reflective state. The cell designer is forced to work with all of these design parameters simultaneously. This research continues previous work evaluating reflective HPDLC display samples including a method to measure temporal response and refine color reflection characterization.
Current display systems use three-dimensional (3D) images projected on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, sometimes call 2.5D. While these surfaces provide useful information, rotating the image often causes the operator to lose perspective. A 3D display, one providing a true three- dimensional view, eliminates this problem and provides a more intuitive image. This paper examines three applications where the 3D display provides definite operational benefits over the 2.5D display. First, the 3D display greatly benefits a homeland security application - baggage examination. Given a rotating x-ray sensor and a 3D display, the inspector examines baggage from all angles, identifying objects hidden underneath other items. Also a three dimensional view of the items significantly increases the probability of recognition when compared to a flat image. Second, a 3D display provides an intuitive, less cluttered image to Air Traffic Control (ATC) operators. Third, the 3D display is very useful in command and control suites, such as AWACS or JSTARS. Operators are able to see realistic representations of the battle space. Next, a description provides integration aspects of the 3D display. This includes the operator's ability to interact with systems not providing or needing 3D representation. Finally, a novel technology for implementing an autostereo display is discussed. The display provides look-around capability and is viewable by more than one person. An autostereo system does not require the use of special glasses, head trackers or other assistive aids.
In this paper, a design simulator for the practical IP(integral photography)-based 3D display system is suggested and its performance is analyzed. The design simulator for the IP-based 3D display system is implemented by using the various display and design parameters through Visual C++ program in the GUI(graphic user interface) environment. From the analysis of mutual relationship between the design and display parameters by using the implemented design simulator, the optimized design parameters can be derived for any cases of the given conditions. In the first step, we can derive the expected display parameters for given design parameters. And in the second step, given the display parameters, we can also derive the design parameter corresponding to the given display parameters. Relationships between some design and display parameters are expressed in 3D graphics, from which we can see the overall characteristics of mutual dependence between the parameters easily. From these analysis, it is found that by using this design simulator the optimum design parameters for IP-based 3D display system can be derived under the given situations.
In this paper, optical characteristics of the photopolymer-based VHOE for a new time-multiplexed multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system is analyzed. The photopolymer-based VHOE is recently, proposed as a optical directional modulator for projecting the time-multiplexed multiview stereo images to the spatially different directions. Since the VHOE is made by multiplexed recording of the multiple directional gratings in a photopolymer material, the resolution and parallax number of the VHOE-based 3D display system can be limited by the photopolymer's physical and optical properties, in general. Accordingly, to make the photopolymer-based VHOE to be applicable for a multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system, it is required to have some important properties such as low distortion, uniform intensity & high diffraction efficiency of the diffracted light beams, etc. In this paper, the optical and physical characteristics of the Du-Pont photopolymer-based VHOE such as the degree of distortion & uniformity of the light beam diffracted from the VHOE, its photosensivity and diffraction efficiency are measured and discussed.
Recently, the VHOE(volume holographic optical element) is proposed as an optical directional modulator for the time-sequential multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, the exposure-time schedule of the photopolymer for implementing the optimized VHOE(volume holographic optical element) is analyzed. The recording property of the photopolymer is characterized by the function of the cumulative grating strength, which is a function of exposure energy. The cumulative grating strength dependence on the exposure energy are mathematically modeled by using the fourth-order polynomial function. Using this model, the exposure schedule of the photopolymer for recording the given multiple gratings has been calculated. This procedure is repeated until the exposure-time schedule is reached to the best condition. From some experimental results, a possible of implementing the optimized VHOE device by using the proposed exposure-time schedule is suggested.
Three-dimensional (3-d) volumetric display is urgently needed in the fields of air-transportation management, computer-assistant design, imaging application, biophysics, and congratulatory or entertaining art. Recently the growing í#information highwayí# has been accelerating the requirement for 3-d displays to show fast and complex pictures. Frequency up-conversion 3-d volumetric display, abstracting especially in its self-spatial vision, has the advantages of total-solidification, high reliability and speedy operation so that it has a broad range of application. Two-frequency up-conversion 3-d volumetric display was evaluated as the latest achievement of 1996 in physics. This paper careful investigates the one-beam pumping upconversion 3-d volumetric display , which is based on erbium Er doped glass. The bright-light facula length of one-beam pumping upconversion luminescence is studied by diode LD laser. The upconversion luminescence spectrum of Er doped glass is measured also. The physics basis of one-beam pumping upconversion 3-d volumetric display based on Er doped glass is discussed. This interesting result illustrates that the property of one-beam pumping 3-d volumetric display could be improved so much to achieve practical application greatly. As our best knowledge, similar result has not been reported.
A virtual cockpit provides aircraft crew members with a seamless, three dimensional perspective of the environment outside the aircraft, along with presentation of information for primary flight, navigation, flight and vehicle management, mission management, targeting, and other situational information. The benefit of integrating a virtual cockpit within an aircraft is that safety of flight and mission success rates are improved in the presence of poor visibility, poor weather, air traffic, and threats. This paper describes a virtual cockpit implementation using video sensor arrays and tiled displays along with other avionics and external systems.
The 25-year old A-10A aircraft is being upgraded to last an additional 25 years. Precision engagement capability is being added. The reliability of current displays is analyzed to assess the performance achieved with the technologies involved in regular operations. Opportunities for upgrades that would save operational costs over the next 10 years are identified. The current assessment also includes end-user feedback to capture lessons learned to guide upgrades in other systems and to guide science and technology planning to address near- and far-term problems with fielded display technologies.
A feasibility study was conducted on the use of laser radiation to darken color filters in liquid crystal displays in order to convert a failed-on pixel to failed-off. Successful darkening of red, green and blue color filters was demonstrated. Although the study did not yield a production ready process, feasibility of process was verified.
This study arose because of a perception that a larger horizontal field of view for a Head Up Display installed in a civil transport was automatically better. There is a lack of scientific analysis to confirm or deny this view. The study addresses three situations: -Crosswind Landings, Curved Approaches and Runway Exit Angle and each situation is assess with three HUD FoV's. It was found that the Crosswind situation was limited by the aircraft landing restrictions not HUD Field of View. The curved approaches gave a more mixed conclusion but in general the time that the glidescope was within the FoV was not significantly enhanced with a 40degree FoV HUD compared to the nominal 36degree. The runway exit angle analysis showed that alternative means must be found to show the turn-off point rather than reliance on the FoV.
Author(s): Michael Billings; James Fernandez; Joe Fittanto; Glenn Tisdale
Flight Visions is developing for the Crew System Interface Division of the Air Force Research Laboratories a set of developmental brassboards which demonstrate advanced approaches to head-up display design. In particular a system based on a Digital Micromirror Device-Laser light engine appears to be very promising and yields images that are both of high luminance and contrast.
Measurement of the parameters required to calibrate and Acceptance Test a Head Up Display have traditionally been made using a Photometer and Theodolite. As HUD complexity has increased it has become an increasingly lengthy process subject to error. The concept of using a calibrated CCD Camera to combine the functions in a highly automated system is not new but creating a practical system for production with traceability to the traditional method has proven difficult. This paper describes the introduction of an automated measurement system to the Eurofighter Head Up display programme.
Head-up displays provide the pilot of an aircraft with a means to view real-world cues simultaneously with on-board flight information. While color and intensity coding is state of the art in modern glass cockpits, head-up displays are still monochrome and limited in brightness. Only contrast and motion are used of the four normal human visual capabilities (contrast, color, motion and stereo). Furthermore the symbols have to be based solely on lines to maintain see-through capability. These limitations together with collimation of the symbology to a certain distance make all indications appear like one object in single depth plane and lead to mutual cluttering. Since separation by design can only be achieved with form and font a high effort in training of the flight crews is mandatory. The introduction of stereoscopic information presentation in the head-up display promises an improved human-machine-interface by providing intuitive separation and combination of indications. A stereoscopic head-up display was developed on the basis of a modern civil head-up display and integrated into a fixed based flight simulator with a collimated visual projection system. First tests indicate improved information perception in head-up displays by adding stereoscopy.