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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Special Sections

To submit a manscript for consideration in a Special Section, please prepare the manuscript according to the journal guidelines and use the Online Submission SystemLeaving site. A cover letter indicating that the submission is intended for this special section should be included with the paper. Papers will be peer‐reviewed in accordance with the journal's established policies and procedures. Authors who pay the voluntary page charges will receive the benefit of open access.

View the list of special sections that have already been published on the SPIE Digital Library.

Calls for Papers:

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance Part 1: Metrology, Process Monitoring, and Control of Critical Dimension

Control of IC Patterning Variance, Part 2: Image Placement, Device Overlay, and Critical Dimension


April-June 2015

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance Part 1: Metrology, Process Monitoring, and Control of Critical Dimension

Guest Editors:

Alexander Starikov
I & I Consulting
2215 Greer Road
Palo Alto, California 94303-3129
E-mail: alstarikov@gmail.com

Matthew Sendelbach
Nova Measuring Instruments, Inc
2055 Gateway Place, Suite 470
San Jose, California 95110-1019
E-mail: matt-se@novameasuring.com


Call for Papers: Control of device dimensions is conventionally defined as consisting of two complementary components assumed to be independent: image size [critical dimension (CD)] and image placement [registration, alignment, and overlay (OL)]. Two kinds of dimensional metrology are practiced, typically on different tools, with process corrections applied in two separate control loops. Although pattern doubling leads to intermix of CD and OL budget components, at the process level, the physical mechanisms driving size variations are different from those in placement errors. Even though it already is hard to define what constitutes pattern size and placement in processed devices, and despite some process interactions causing correlated CD and OL variation, the old paradigm for control of device dimensions is still the "process of record."

This special section of the Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS seeks to offer comprehensive technology overviews, in-depth accounts of the latest technologies, applications methods and capabilities in process-related metrology, as well as monitoring and inspection primarily related to control of patterned device size (critical dimension). A complementary special section on metrology and control of image placement, including correlated CD and OL components of device pattern variance, is planned for January–March 2016.

The field of CD-related metrology and process control went through a period of rapid change that lasted a decade, if not longer. New metrology applications for direct estimation, monitoring, and control of key process parameters, such as exposure dose and focus in lithography, have emerged. Highly capable, and much more efficient than conventional CD metrology, process monitors support superior process control and tighter process windows. This new approach to metrology and process control has enabled optical microlithography extensions to device half-pitch close to the 0.25λ/NA limit (where λ is the exposure wavelength, and NA is the numerical aperture) and even beyond (with process-driven pattern multiplication). What used to be the "off the Roadmap metrology" is now a part of today's mainstream in-FAB process control practice. Inspection of across-wafer process variation has also emerged. Yet, this is still a young and rapidly evolving field, with little consensus on technology direction, preferred solutions, and performance requirements for standalone and integrated metrology, as well as for process equipment.

Please submit a technology overview, a consolidation of earlier work presented at various venues, or an original technical paper describing this field. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

Methods, technologies, and applications for control of device variance

  • Sources of device size variations, their signatures in space and time
  • Downstream impacts of pattern shape, size, height, and roughness
  • Pattern size modifiers such as stress, carrier mobility, interface properties
  • Performance and e-test versus in-line measurement of size and materials properties
  • Modeling, predicting, and in-line control of device characteristics
  • Correlation of process parameters to CD variance, e-test, performance, and yield
  • Segmentation of device variance and control of its principal components
  • Environmental and incoming variation, adaptive control, and feed forward
  • Tool, process, and integrated variance, characterization, and control
  • Process control versus product quality assurance and compliance validation
  • Design and process integration for efficient high-volume manufacturing

Metrology and process control in lithography and etch (patterning)

  • Integrated metrology and sensors for tool, process, and product control
  • Standalone metrology for process control and product quality assurance
  • SEM, optical microscopy, and scatterometry-based methods
  • Performance requirements, matching, accuracy, and calibration
  • Across-technology metrology comparisons and hybridization
  • Model and experiment-based monitors of process parameters
  • Test structures versus product; test wafer versus on-product metrology and control
  • Metrology structures, design for performance, and metrology integration
  • Metrology and control of film thickness, stress, carrier mobility

Inspection of process variation

  • Inspection for patterning defects versus inspection for process variation
  • Inspection of across-wafer and across-mask variation of CD, sidewall, or depth
  • Inspection and metrology for equipment and process characterization
  • Performance and applications of process inspection-based methods
  • Identifying and controlling the ubiquitous systematic yield losses
  • Technology outlook: how to control everything while still making a profit.

Closed for submissions.

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January-March 2016

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance, Part 2: Image Placement, Device Overlay, and Critical Dimension

Guest Editor:

Alexander Starikov
I & I Consulting
2215 Greer Road
Palo Alto, California 94303-3129
E-mail: alstarikov@gmail.com

Call for Papers: Control of device dimensions in patterning is conventionally defined as consisting of two complementary components assumed to be independent: size [critical dimension (CD)] and placement [from mask registration and wafer alignment to layer-to-layer centerline overlay (OL)]. Two kinds of dimensional metrology are practiced, in dissimilar application environments and typically on different tools, with process control and systematic corrections applied in two separate control loops.

Lithography extensions through pitch multiplication and directed self-assembly lead to an intermixing of CD and OL. Unlike in conventional lithography, where physical mechanisms driving size variations are different from those in placement errors allowing for separate metrology and control, there is a strong need to self-consistently measure and control both CD and OL. New approaches to IC patterning and unprecedented expectations of device OL drive demand for metrology and control of image placement.

This special section of the Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS seeks to offer comprehensive technology overviews of image placements, in-depth accounts of the latest technology and metrology equipment, image placement variation and metrology error modeling, novel applications, methods for control of image placement, and, ultimately, methods for control of device CD and OL.

Please submit a technology overview, a consolidation of earlier work, or an original technical paper related to metrology and control of image placement and device overlay in IC manufacture. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

Alignment, registration, and overlay metrology

  • Metrology of centerline and the associated performance-limiting issues
  • Measurement self-consistency, matching, accuracy, cross-technology comparisons
  • Tool-related error mechanisms, their control and reduction, performance metrics
  • Metrology design process integration, metrology quality and performance metrics
  • Ultimate performance of metrology of image placement, hybrid metrology

Methods, technologies, and applications for control of device overlay

  • Device yield/performance and e-test versus in-line measurement of CD and OL
  • Sources of device size and placement variations, their signatures in space and time
  • Segmentation of device variance and control of its principal components
  • Modeling, prediction, and control of systematic variations, and of residual components
  • Design, metrology, and process integration for efficient high-volume manufacturing.

Manuscripts due July 15, 2015.

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Published Special Sections:

Continuation of Scaling with Optical and Complementary Lithography (January-March 2015)
Guest Editors: Kafai Lai and Andreas Erdmann

Holistic/Hybrid Metrology (October-December 2014)
Guest Editors: Alok Vaid and Eric Solecky

Alternative Lithographic Technologies III (July-September 2014)
Guest Editors: Douglas J. Resnick, Christopher Bencher, and Ricardo Ruiz

Metrology and Inspection for 3-D Integrated Circuits and Interconnects (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: Yi-sha Ku and Alexander Starikov

Emerging MOEMS Technology and Applications (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: M. Edward Motamedi, Joel Kubby, Patrick Ian Oden, and Wibool Piyawattanametha

Optical Lithography Extension Beyond the 14-nm Node (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: Will Conley and Kafai Lai

Advanced Fabrication of MEMS and Photonic Devices (October-December 2013)
Guest Editors: Georg von Freymann, Mary Ann Maher, and Thomas J. Suleski

Advanced Plasma-Etch Technology (October-December 2013)
Guest Editors: Ying Zhang, Qinghuang Lin, and Gottlieb S. Oehrlein

Alternative Lithographic Technologies (July-September 2013)
Guest Editors: Will Tong and Douglas J. Resnick

Photomasks for EUV Lithography (April-June 2013)
Guest Editors: Christopher J. Progler and Frank E. Abboud

Alternative Lithographic Technologies (July-September 2012)
Guest Editors: William M. Tong, Douglas J. Resnick, and Benjamin Rathsack

Directed Self-Assembly (July-September 2012)
Guest Editors: Daniel P. Sanders and William H. Arnold

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS III (April-June 2012)
Guest Editors: Sonia M. García-Blanco and Rajeshuni Ramesham

EUV Sources for Lithography (April-June 2012)
Guest Editors: Vivek BAkshi and Anthony Yen

Dimensional Metrology with Atomic Force Microscopy: Instruments and Applications (January-March 2012)
Guest Editors: Ronald Dixson and Ndubuisi G. Orji

Theory and Practice of MEMS, NEMS, and MOEMS (January-March 2011)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS II (October-December 2011)
Guest Editor: Rajeshuni Ramesham

Line-Edge Roughness (October-December 2011)
Guest Editors: Chris A. Mack and Will Conley

Metrology (October-December 2011)
Guest Editors: Moshe Preil and Shaunee Cheng

BioMEMS, Theory and Practice of MEMS/NEMS, and Sensors (July-September 2010)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography (October-December 2009)
Guest Editors: Kevin Cummings and Kazuaki Suzuki

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS (July-September 2009)
Guest Editors: Rajeshuni Ramesham and Allyson L. Hartzell

Computational Lithography (July-September 2009)
Guest Editors: Donis Flagello and Chris Mack

Theory and Practice of MEMS/NEMS/MOEMS, RF MEMS, and BioMEMS (April-June 2009)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Extreme-Ultraviolet Interference Lithography (April-June 2009)
Guest Editor: Franco Cerrina

Double-Patterning Lithography (January-March 2009)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold

Silicon-Based MOEMS and Their Applications (April-June 2008)
Guest Editors: Harald Schenk and Wibool Piyawattanametha

Resolution Enhancement Techniques and Design for Manufacturability (July-September 2007)
Guest Editor: Alfred K. K. Wong

Bio-MEMS and Microfluidics (April-June 2006)
Guest Editors: Wanjun Wang and Ian Papautsky

Nanopatterning (January-March 2006)
Guest Editors: Kees Eijkel, Jill Hruby, Glen Kubiak, M. Scott, Volker Saile, and Steven Walsh

MOEMS Design, Technology, and Applications (October-December 2005)
Guest Editor: M. Edward Motamedi

Polarization and Hyper-NA Lithography (July-September 2005)
Guest Editor: Donis Flagello and Christopher J. Progler

Next Generation Lithography (January-March 2005)
Guest Editor: Walt Trybula

Mask Technology for Optical Lithography (April-June 2004)
Guest Editor: Kevin D. Cummings and Frank M. Schellenberg

Immersion Lithography (January-March 2004)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold

Surface Micromachining (October-December 2003)
Guest Editors: Jeffry J. Sniegowski and James H. Smith

Micro-Optics for Photonic Networks (October-December 2003)
Guest Editor: Thomas J. Suleski

Lithography for Sub-100-nm Device Fabrication (October-December 2002)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold


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