The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Translational Research Presentations

Neurophotonics, Neurosurgery, and Optogenetics
(ordered chronologically by start date and time)


Targeted illumination and tracking using optical fiber probe for optogenetics application
Paper 9690-80

Author(s):  Anant B. Shinde, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore), et al.
Conference 9690C: Optogenetics and Optical Manipulation
Session 15: Optogenetics and Optical Control I
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 11:30 AM

In life science, imaging systems for cell tracking are widely used with potential applications such as optogenetic studies, cell signalling studies and cell migrations. In fact, currently available targeted tracking and imaging systems for freely moving particles cannot selectively illuminate only the particle being tracked. To fill this void, we have developed a fiber optic probe with controlled illumination for tracking targeted particles. Probe allows illumination of particle simultaneously with different wavelengths. Further, particles can be illuminated with light pulses of controllable duty cycle and frequency. It is envisaged that this proposed probe and methodology can offer potential optogenetic and cell signalling applications.


First multiphoton tomography of brain in man
Paper 9690-9

Author(s):  Karsten König, Univ. des Saarlandes (Germany), et al.
Conference 9690A: Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics
Session 3: Operative and Postop Therapy I
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 1:40 PM

We report on the first two-photon imaging study of the brain in man during surgery using the flexible certified multiphoton homograph MPTflex with its endoscope module. High resolution optical biopsies were taken label-free during surgery in order to gain information on tumor borders. Furthermore, fast screening of tissue biopsies was performed in the operation theatre. One optical section (512x512 pixels) with a microsecond beam dwell time per pixel took 6 seconds using low-power near infrared 80 MHz femtosecond laser pulses . The most interesting information was obtained by time-resolved single photon counting of the two-photon excited autofluorescence.


Neural networks improve brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in the presence of light artifacts
Paper 9690-10

Author(s):  Michael Jermyn, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (Canada), et al.
Conference 9690A: Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics
Session 3: Operative and Postop Therapy I
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 2:00 PM

Cancer can be difficult to identify during brain tumor surgery. Brain tumors often extend into normal brain, and the full extent of cancer is not visible using standard imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure interactions of light with brain tissue, giving molecular information which allows cancer to be distinguished from normal brain. However light artifacts can limit the ability to detect these differences. We have used machine learning methods, artificial neural networks, in order to intraoperatively detect cancer tissue despite the presence of light artifacts from sources such as operating room lights.


Fiber-based tissue identification for electrode placement in deep brain stimulation neurosurgery
Paper 9690-15

Author(s):  Damon T. DePaoli, Institut Univ. en Santé Mentale de Québec (Canada), et al.
Conference 9690A: Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics
Session 4: Operative and Postop Therapy II
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 3:50 PM

We have designed a cheap optical fiber-based device that is small enough to be placed within a commercially available deep brain stimulation electrode that is capable of sensing biological information of the surrounding tissue. With this probe we have shown the ability to distinguish white and grey matter in rats, in vivo. We have also repeated the procedure, in vitro, with the probe inserted in a commercial DBS stimulating electrode and found the results were in good agreement.


Intraoperative brain hemodynamic response assessment with real-time hyperspectral optical imaging
Paper 9690-17

Author(s):  Audrey Laurence, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), et al.
Conference 9690A: Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics
Session 4: Operative and Postop Therapy II
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 4:30 PM

Hemodynamic changes following normal neuronal activity may be inadequate to meet the high metabolic demands of epileptiform discharges. To verify this hypothesis, we developed a novel intraoperative hyperspectral imaging system using a snapshot hyperspectral camera (16 bands) directly integrated into a surgical microscope. We present calibration experiments in which we were able to recover relative concentrations of three dyes at 30 frames per second. We present data obtained during brain surgery of epileptic patients, where relative concentration maps of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin were extracted. Our microscope-integrated hyperspectral imaging system allows real-time analysis of hemodynamic changes.


Fluorescence-guided tumor visualization using a custom designed NIR attachment to a surgical microscope for high sensitivity imaging
Paper 9690-13

Author(s):  David S. Kittle, Cedars-Sinai Medical Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 9690A: Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics
Session 5: Operative and Postop Therapy III
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 8:10 AM

Current surgical microscopes are designed to image in the infrared for vasculature using high concentrations of a common dye, indocynanine green (ICG). Recent developments in tumor markers attached with NIR dyes require newer, more sensitive imaging systems with high resolution in order to guide surgical resection. We report on the opto-mechanical design and performance of a clinical, fluorescence image-guided surgery system (SIRIS: Synchronized InfraRed Imaging System) aimed at overcoming the limitations of current systems. This device is designed to mount directly below the aperture of the surgical microscope for seamless integration into a standard surgical procedure. The device is designed for wide field, real-time (at 60fps combined NIR+visible display) imaging. The unique opto-mechanical design of the imaging system allows for the use of a single camera to capture both visible and NIR fluorescence with high efficiency. The imaging camera uses a sensor modified for high sensitivity in both NIR and visible spectrums. We will demonstrate the sensitivity of the system to detect picomolar concentrations while allowing for visualization of submicron sources of fluorescence during surgical resection.


A spatially resolved diffuse correlation spectroscopy for cerebral blood flow measurement in the layered structure of head
Paper 9690-33

Author(s):  Guoqiang Yu, Univ. of Kentucky (United States), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session 9: Neural Imaging II
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 10:40 AM

To overcome partial volume effects, we created a novel spatially-resolved diffuse correlation spectroscopy (SR-DCS) integrating a linear model of autocorrelation functions measured at multiple source-detector pairs with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in the layered tissues of the head. SR-DCS allowed for simultaneous measurements of blood flow indices in scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain cortex. We compared SR-DCS with the conventional semi-infinite homogenous solution using computer simulations and a 2-layer head-simulating phantom. The flow measurement errors using SR-DCS (errors < 5%) were found to be much less than those using the semi-infinite homogenous solution (errors > 20%).


Evaluation of time-resolved multi-distance methods to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads in vivo: Optical parameters dependences on geometrical structures of the models used to calculate reflectance
Paper 9690-34

Author(s):  Tadatoshi Tanifuji, Kitami Institute of Technology (Japan), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session 9: Neural Imaging II
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 11:00 AM

Time-resolved multi-distance measurements are studied to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads, which have enough depth sensitivity to determine the optical parameters in superficial tissues and brain separately. Measurements were performed by putting the injection and collection fibers on the left semi-sphere of the forehead, with the injection fiber placed toward the temporal region, and by moving the collection fiber between 10 and 60 mm from the central sulcus. It became clear that optical parameters of the forehead at all collection fibers were reasonably determined by selecting the appropriate visibility length of the geometrical head models, which is related to head surface curvature at each position.


Fluorescent nanodiamond and lanthanide labelled in situ hybridization for the identification of RNA transcripts in fixed and CLARITY-cleared central nervous system tissues
Paper 9690-42

Author(s):  Lindsay M. Parker, Macquarie Univ. (Australia), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session 11: Neural Imaging IV
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 3:40 PM

Established fluorescent dyes and conjugates are highly susceptible to photobleaching and compete with cellular autofluorescence, making biomedical imaging unreliable, difficult and time consuming in many cases. We are developing better methods for imaging central nervous system neuroinflammatory markers using targeted mRNA transcripts labelled with fluorescent nanodiamonds or lanthanide chelates. These tags have increased signal and photostability and can also discriminate against tissue/cell autofluorescence. Brains and spinal cords from BALB/c mice with a chronic constriction model of neuropathic pain (neuroinflammation group) or that have undergone sham surgeries (control group) were collected, perfused and fixed with paraformaldehyde (n=3 sham and n=3 pain groups) or hydrogel prior to in situ hybridization using nanodiamond or lanthanide chelate conjugated complementary RNA probes. We will present our findings on the photostability, sensitivity and discrimination from background tissue autofluorescence of our novel RNA probes, compared to traditional fluorophore tags, in fixed and CLARITY hydrogel treated brain and spinal cord tissues.


Shed a light in fatigue detection with Near-infrared spectroscopy during long-lasting driving
Paper 9690-65

Author(s):  Ting Li, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session PMon: Posters-Monday
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 5:30 PM

Fatigue driving is one of the leading roles to induce traffic accident. We attempted to develop a functional near infrared spectroscopy imager (fNIRS) to monitor the fatigue level at driving. 7 volunteers were recruited to take experiment 7 times evenly during 7 hours driving. The data analysis displayed the oxyhemoglobin concentration in one channel of the right prefrontal lobe decreased with driving duration and the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the prefrontal lobe varied with driving duration as well. These findings indicated the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic index may be possible to be used as a driving fatigue indicator.


Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea results in significant variations in cerebral hemodynamics detected by diffuse optical spectroscopies
Paper 9690-63

Author(s):  Guoqiang Yu, Univ. of Kentucky (United States), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session PMon: Posters-Monday
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 5:30 PM

We adapted a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relative changes in cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆THC) during overnight nocturnal polysomnography diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH). A fiber-optic probe was fixed on subject’s frontal head and connected to the DCS flow-oximeter. The results showed that apneic events caused significant variations in rCBF and ∆THC. Moreover, the degrees of variations in the measured cerebral variables were significantly cor¬related with the severity of OSAH as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index, demonstrating the OSAH influence on cerebral hemodynamics.


Hemodynamic responses can modulate the brain oscillations in low frequency
Paper 9690-66

Author(s):  Zhen Yuan, Univ. of Macau (Macao, China), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session PMon: Posters-Monday
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 5:30 PM

Among all the skill learning categories, motor skill learning is the most widely studied to explore the neural mechanisms. Current evidences have shown that during skill learning period, the dynamic changes of either the blood oxygenation level-dependent activity or cerebral blood flow or oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) will occur in brain areas in order to support the behaviors such as synergy, sequencing and deftness. In this study, we aim to explore the hemoglobin changes in activation around the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during motor sequence learning using fNIRS. The results from the present study validated hemoglobin changes in the channels covering those brain areas.


In vitro and in vivo analysis and characterization of engineered spinal neural implants
Paper 9690-56

Author(s):  Erez Shor, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (Israel), et al.
Conference 9690B: Neural Imaging and Sensing
Session 13: Neural Imaging VI
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:30 AM

Recent developments in pre-clinical and clinical spinal cord injury research have started to yield neural implants inducing functional recovery. However, the assessment of these transplants is unable to study cell dynamics and therapeutic response. We present engineered pre-vascularized implant designed to obtain better functional performance, and neurophotnics tools designed to investigate neural and vascular network characteristics in the cellular level. Our experimental results and analyses demonstrate that vascularized and non-vascularized constructs exhibit very different morphology and activity patterns. This work provides valuable tools to monitor and investigate of transplants designed for various neurodegenerative disease models.


Important Dates

Author Notification
26 September 2016

Manuscripts Due
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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Journal of Biomedical OpticsPublishes peer-reviewed papers that utilize modern optical technology for improved health care and biomedical research.