The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Papers at Photonics West on 3D Printing, Fabrication, and Manufacturing

This conference highlights papers from BiOS, LASE, and OPTO that showcase innovative ways to apply this multidimensional / multidisciplinary technology.

Papers ordered by start date and time.


Additive 3D bioprinting and mesoscopic molecular imaging
Paper 10056-1

Author(s):  Xavier Intes, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session 2: 3D Printed Phantoms
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 1:10 PM

3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applicationsincluding oral surgery
Paper 10056-3

Author(s):  Brian Z. Bentz, Purdue Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session 2: 3D Printed Phantoms
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 2:00 PM

Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as “phantoms” for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process which is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods. Additionally, we show a printed phantom of the human mouth which we use to develop a new optical imaging method to assist in dental surgeries.

NIRS-based hematoma detector performance testing with molded and 3D-printed phantoms
Paper 10056-4

Author(s):  T. Joshua Pfefer, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (United States), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session 2: 3D Printed Phantoms
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 2:20 PM

Phantom-based testing approaches are needed for objective, quantitative performance evaluation of emerging NIRS devices for intracranial hematoma detection. To this end, two types of phantom were developed and tested. The first approach involves a 3D-printed, multi-layer phantom mimicking specific cerebral tissues and incorporating hemoglobin-filled inclusions. The second approach involves molded silicone layers containing a hematoma-mimicking inclusion with simplified geometry. Test results with NIRS devices demonstrate the ability of these approaches to quantitatively evaluate device performance and indicate the promise of using 3D printing to achieve phantoms with realistic variations in tissue optical properties for evaluating biophotonic device performance.

3D-printed biomimetic cerebrovascular phantoms for biophotonic imaging and spectroscopy
Paper 10056-5

Author(s):  Pejhman Ghassemi, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (United States), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session 2: 3D Printed Phantoms
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 2:40 PM

We have investigated methods for fabricating 3D-printed cerebrovascular phantoms. This work involved modifying an existing segmented cerebral CT image volume into a printable form, customizing 3D-printed phantom optical properties, cleaning residual uncured photopolymer from vessel-simulating channels and validation of printed phantoms geometry using micro-CT imaging. The cerebral vascular phantoms were then tested by: (a) injecting hemoglobin solutions and imaging with a hyperspectral oximetry system and (b) injecting a mixture of Hb and indocyanine green and performing measurements with a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. Results indicated that 3D-printed biomimetic phantoms show significant promise for improving assessment of biophotonic diagnostic devices.

A 3D particle focusing device based on tightly curving 3D microchannels
Paper 10061-9

Author(s):  Petra Paiè, CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (Italy), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 2: Microfluidic Devices I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 4:40 PM

In this work we present a compact microfluidic device that focuses particles in 3D by exploiting inertial microfluidics and Dean flow in tightly curving 3D channels. The device layout consists of a set of parallel channels originating from a single inlet. Each channel comprises 3D helices separated by straight channel components. This simple 3D layout permits a shorter channel length for inertial focusing with no need for additional sheath channels. This device is obtained by femtosecond laser micromachining followed by chemical etching technique, a two-step fabrication process that allows creating 3D structures in fused silica substrates.

In vivo implantation study of ultrafast laser lithography made SZ2080 3D microstructured scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering
Paper 10094-2

Author(s):  Mangirdas Malinauskas, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 10094: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII
Session 1: Novel Biomedical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 8:50 AM

Direct laser writing 3D lithography is a well-established technique for the creation of various free-form bioscaffolds. Despite owning potential to create specific constructs, just a few exceptions of alive cells or primitive organisms encapsulated into a polymer matrix were demonstrated so far. We report a preclinical study of 3D artificial microstructured scaffolds out of hybrid SZ2080 material fabricated using the aforementioned technique. The created 2.1×2.1×0.21 mm^3 membrane constructs are tested both by preseeding chondrocytes in vitro and by implanting them into rabbit organisms in vivo for one to six months. An ex vivo histological examination shows that certain pore-geometry and the pre-growing of chondrocytes prior-implantation significantly improve its biocompatibility.

3D printed disposable optics and lab-on-a-chip devices for chemical sensing with cell phones
Paper 10061-15

Author(s):  Daniel Filippini, Linköping Univ. (Sweden), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 4: Applications I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 10:30 AM

Autonomous lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices for cell phone chemical sensing require specific features that can be achieved using stereo lithography 3D printing (SLA). Optical components and unibody-LOC devices using consumer grade printers are presented. Unibody-LOC devices integrate actuation in the form of finger pumps, as well as the calibration range required for quantitative detection. Coupling to phone camera readout depends on the detection approach, and includes different types of optical components. Optical surfaces can be locally configured with a simple polishing-free post-processing step, and the representative costs are 0.5 US$/device, same as LOC devices, both involving fabrication times of about 20min.

Integration of 3D printed dome-shaped lens with InGaN light-emitting diodes with enhanced light extraction efficiency
Paper 10115-8

Author(s):  Yu Kee Ooi, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 2: Nanoplasmonics I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 11:30 AM

We proposed the integration of 3D printing with LED fabrication as a cost-effective, straightforward, and highly-reproducible method to improve LED η_exe. Dome-shaped lens is 3D-printed layer-by-layer using optically transparent acrylate-based photopolymer on planar blue-emitting InGaN LED structure, followed by UV curing with 405 nm laser beam. The 3D-printed lens is post-cured in UV curing oven for ~30 minutes. The refractive index of the printed lens has been characterized as ~1.5. Our analysis on the various geometries of the 3D-printed lens shows that up to 1.61-times enhancement in the LED η_exe can be achieved as compared to conventional planar structure.

Development and testing of a homogenous multi-wavelength LED light source
Paper 10055-29

Author(s):  Frank J. Bolton, MobileODT Ltd. (Israel), et al.
Conference 10055: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings III
Session 6: Emerging Techniques for Resource Limited Settings
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 11:50 AM

Multispectral imaging is a powerful method which can help differentiate tissues or identify pathology; this requires imaging at multiple wavelengths and fitting the measured data to a model. Such imaging of distant objects has inherent challenges, notably it requires bright and homogenous illumination. This paper compares illumination options optimizing for brightness and homogeneity. These are: LEDs illuminating the target directly, LEDs focussed by a 3d-printed miniature lens array, and LEDs with a mixing and focussing optical system. To test illumination homogeneity and intensity we developed a low cost illumination quality test tool using 3d-printed parts, low cost electronics, and open source software.

LOPA-based direct laser writing of multi-dimensional and multi-functional photonic submicrostructures
Paper 10115-9

Author(s):  Ngoc Diep Lai, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan (France), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 2: Nanoplasmonics I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 11:50 AM

We have developed a simple and low-cost fabrication technique, based on low one-photon absorption (LOPA) phenomena in a weakly absorbing photoresist (532 nm laser versus SU8 photoresist). This novel approach enables production of submicrometer 2D and 3D structures and could allow for imaging of submicrometer structures in 3D using a very modest laser power. This technique is also demonstrated as a simple technique to couple a single nanoparticle (nonlinear, metallic, or fluorescent) to polymer-based photonic structures. It is recently demonstrated that the LOPA based direct laser writing also allowed to realize as desired plasmonic and magneto-photonic nanostructures

Modeling cell-matrix interaction in ovarian cancer through image based 3D biomimetic scaffolds created by multiphoton excited fabrication
Paper 10075-16

Author(s):  Paul J. Campagnola, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States), et al.
Conference 10075: Biophysics, Biology and Biophotonics II: the Crossroads
Session 4: Optical Methods to Study Cancer Cells and Microenvironment
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 2:30 PM

We investigated the role of ECM alterations on invasion/metastasis in ovarian cancer by creating 3D biomimetic scaffolds using multiphoton excited (MPE) polymerization. The scaffolds are based on SHG images of different ovarian tumors, and are seeded with different cancer cell lines, allowing decoupling of the roles of cell characteristics and ECM structure and composition on adhesion/migration/proliferation dynamics. The malignant stromal structure promoted enhanced migration persistence and cell proliferation and also cytoskeletal alignment. Further, the migration dynamics are dependent on the fiber size and alignment. We suggest the MPE image-based fabrication method will enable a variety of studies in cancer biology.

A capillary-mimicking optical tissue phantom for diffuse correlation spectroscopy
Paper 10056-37

Author(s):  Jameson P. O'Reilly, Northeastern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session PSun: Posters-Sunday
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:30 PM

Presented in detail is a design for a new optical tissue phantom that mimics the flow behavior of actual capillary tissue more accurately than previous models. This is achieved by utilizing advances in 3D printing technology that allow for smaller tunnels in the phantom and by randomizing the direction of each capillary repeatedly. Numerical simulations were used to verify the random nature of the capillary paths. The potential application of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is highlighted and verified with Intralipid experiments demonstrating a relationship between exponential decay rate of the DCS curve and the flow rate through the phantom.

Metal micro-additive manufacturing based on parallel femtosecond laser machining and electrodeposition
Paper 10094-20

Author(s):  Dien Wang, The Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China), et al.
Conference 10094: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII
Session 5: Novel Beam Delivery and Control
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 8:20 AM

In this work, we present a parallel laser machining method using femtosecond lasers for additively printing high precision metal devices via electrodeposition. To achieve parallel micromachining, a femtosecond laser is first projected to a DMD, which spatially disperses the spectrum into different directions. After a collimating lens, an objective lens recombines all the dispersed spectrum to the focal region, forming a high-intensity thin light sheet for micromachining. The patterns on the light sheet can be arbitrarily controlled by the DMD. Preliminarily, we processed a 1 micron thick electrodeposited nickel layer on a substrate with 40 pulses of 50mW over 100×60 µm2. Complex 3-D metal structures can be fabricated by repeating the micromachining and electrodeposition processes.

Three-dimensional printed ultrasound and photoacoustic training phantoms for vasculature access
Paper 10064-30

Author(s):  Daniil I. Nikitichev, Univ. College London (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10064: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2017
Session 5: Multimodality Imaging and Contrast Agents
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 9:00 AM

Ultrasound imaging is widely used to guide vascular access procedures. Photoacoustic imaging is well suited to image medical needles and catheters that are commonly used for vascular access. To improve the procedure success rate, a certain level of proficiency is required that can be gain through extensive practice on phantoms. There is a great demand for anatomically realistic ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging phantoms for training medical staffs. We developed such phantoms with anatomically realistic vasculature network, 3D-printed using a water dissolvable filament material. The results show that 3D printing can facilitate the fabrication of phantoms with anatomically realistic geometries.

Elastomeric phase masks, transfer stamps, and assembly platforms: Fabrication methods for unusual micro/nano-optical systems
Paper 10115-17

Author(s):  John A. Rogers, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 5: 10th Anniversary Session
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 10:30 AM

Research over the last decade has led to the emergence of several powerful methods for micro/nanofabrication, with direct relevance to optics and optoelectronic systems. This talk summarizes our development of techniques that use (1) conformal phase masks for photodefining 3D structures with applications in photonic crystals, (2) rubber transfer stamps for integrating inorganic semiconductor materials on plastic substrates for solid state lighting, emissive displays and efficient photovoltaics, and (3) stretchable assembly platforms for controlled transformation of 2D precursor structures into well-defined, complex 3D architectures for optical MEMS. In each case, we review the basic operating principles and provide some examples of enabled applications in optics and optoelectronics.

3D laser lithography: Quo vadis?
Paper 10115-18

Author(s):  Martin Wegener, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 5: 10th Anniversary Session
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 11:00 AM

3D printing on the macroscale is a huge trend worldwide. Ultimately, one would like to 3D print anything, including complete functional devices. Apart from boosting printing speed and pushing spatial resolution to the nanometer scale, 3D printing of many different materials poses a major challenge. In 2D graphical printers, thousands of different colors can be printed from just three color cartridges. By analogy, future 3D printers may print thousands of effective (meta-)materials from just a few materials cartridges. These metamaterials should not only be tailored in terms of their optical properties, but also electrical, magnetic, thermodynamic, mechanical, and bio-chemical.

Fabrication and properties of porous silicon and silica 3D gradient refractive index micro-optics
Paper 10115-19

Author(s):  Paul V. Braun, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 5: 10th Anniversary Session
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 11:30 AM

Via electrochemical etching of silicon, followed by materials conversion, 3D gradient refractive index micro-optics were formed. Elements including flat lenses, Bragg mirrors, polarization sensitive optical splitters and structures with nearly arbitrary refractive index distributions were formed with a particular focus on micro-optics important for solar energy harvesting. The conversion from silicon to silica and titania enabled the optics to operate in the visible with minimal loss, something particularly important for solar energy harvesting applications.

Advanced fabrication for complex nanooptics and metamaterials
Paper 10115-20

Author(s):  Harald Giessen, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 5: 10th Anniversary Session
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 12:00 PM

Advanced fabrication techniques have contributed majorly in the advance of nanooptics, metamaterials, and plasmonics. Particularly complex nanophotonic devices and functionalities such as sensing, polarization control, nonreciprocity, and nonlinearity benefited from advanced fabrication. One key element is multilayer electron-beam lithography and multilayer stacking. This allows for the fabrication of 3-dimensional structures, where the upper layer can add functionality through coupling. Furthermore, multilayer lithography allows for the combination of different materials which can also give additional functionality. A premier example is the combination of a high-quality gold nanoantenna with a palladium nanodisk closeby, which allows for nanoantenna-assisted gas sensing.

Multi-functional laser fabrication in diamond
Paper 10094-28

Author(s):  Martin J. Booth, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10094: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII
Session 7: 3D Structuring of Transparent Materials I
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:30 PM

Ultrafast laser fabrication enables micro-structuring of diamond with a range of functionality. An ultrashort pulsed beam focused beneath the diamond surface induces structural modifications which are highly localised in three dimensions. We present a high resolution study of the structural change following laser-induced breakdown of the diamond lattice. Large area 3D radiation detectors, subsurface optical waveguides and single isolated coherent nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres can all be produced from this versatile processing platform. All these processes are improved by processing at high numerical aperture (NA), for which adaptive optics aberration correction is essential.

Laser direct writing of viscous liquids by flow focusing
Paper 10095-1

Author(s):  Paul Delrot, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 1: Laser Direct Writing and LIFT
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:30 PM

We present here a laser-assisted drop-on-demand system able to dispense highly viscous fluids (1-200 mPa s) with a sub-nozzle resolution thanks to a flow-focusing phenomenon. We experimentally demonstrate that the printability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian inks with this novel laser printing technique is significantly extended compared to conventional inkjet printers. Moreover, we show that this laser-assisted technique can be employed to print photopolymers and sensitive bio-inks without loss of their functionality.

3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing
Paper 10080-9

Author(s):  Artem Danilov, Aix-Marseille Univ. (France), et al.
Conference 10080: Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine XIV
Session 2: Plasmonic Detection and Imaging
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:40 PM

We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*10^4 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology.

Ultra-short laser interactions with nanoparticles in different media: from electromagnetic effects to thermal transformations
Paper 10093-9

Author(s):  Tatiana E. Itina, Lab. Hubert Curien (France), et al.
Conference 10093: Synthesis and Photonics of Nanoscale Materials XIV
Session 3: Nanoparticles: Laser Interactions and Functional Architectures
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:40 PM

Key issues of the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructures, as well as laser-particle interactions are considered in the context of the latest applications appearing in many fields such as photonics, medicine, 3D printing, etc. The results of a multi-physics numerical study of laser interaction with nanoparticles will be presented in the presence of several environments. In particular, attention will be paid to the numerical study of laser interactions with heterogeneous materials (eg. colloidal liquids and/or nanoparticles in a dielectric medium) and the aggregation/sintering/fragmentation processes induced by ultra-short laser pulses.

Fabrication of 3D gold/polymer conductive microstructures via direct laser writing
Paper 10095-2

Author(s):  Eva Blasco, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 1: Laser Direct Writing and LIFT
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:50 PM

The aim of the current work has been the preparation of electrically conductive 3D microstructures via direct laser writing. The used photoresist has been newly developed. It consists of an acrylate-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) derivative and HAuCl4 as the gold precursor. By varying the gold content of the photoresist, different structures have successfully been prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The conductivity of individual wires between prefabricated macro-electrodes has been measured as well. Subsequently, the material has been employed to demonstrate the possibility of true 3D microscale electrical connections.

Holographic Space: presence and absence in time
Paper 10127-7

Author(s):  Yin-Ren Chang, De Montfort Univ. (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10127: Practical Holography XXXI: Materials and Applications
Session 2: Holography, Art, and Perception
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:10 PM

Holography, as a time-based medium, pushes this visual-oriented narrative a step further, which brings a real 3D image to invite and allow audiences revisiting the scene of the past, the moment of recording and space in time. This project generates 3D printing technique to explore the nature of material aesthetics, transiting between material world and holographic space. In addition, this series of creations also reveals the unique temporal logic of hologram, presence and absence, an equivocal relationship existing in this media.

Femtosecond laser assisted three-dimensional freeform fabrication of electrodes embedded in fused silica
Paper 10094-30

Author(s):  Fatmah Ebrahim, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10094: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII
Session 7: 3D Structuring of Transparent Materials I
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:20 PM

Femtosecond laser exposure of fused silica combined with chemical etching has opened up new opportunities for three-dimensional freeform processing of micro-structures that can form complex micro-devices of silica, integrating optical, mechanical and/or fluidic functionalities. Here, we demontrate an expansion of this process with an additional fabrication step that enables the integration of three-dimensional embedded metallic structures out of useful engineering metals such as silver, gold, copper as well as some of their alloys. This additional step is an adaptation of the pressure infiltration for the insertion of high conductivity, high melting point metals and alloys into topologically complex, femtosecond laser-machined cavities in fused silica. This produces truly 3-dimensional microstructures, including microcoils and needles, within the bulk of glass substrates.

High-speed imaging and evolution dynamics of laser induced deposition of conductive inks
Paper 10095-3

Author(s):  Ioanna Zergioti, National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 1: Laser Direct Writing and LIFT
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:20 PM

During the last decade there is an ever-increasing interest for the study of laser processes dynamics and specifically of the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique, since the evolution of the phenomena under investigation may provide real time metrology in terms of jet velocity, adjacent jet interaction and impact pressure. The study of such effects leads to a more thorough understanding of the deposition process, hence to an improved printing outcome and in these frames, this work presents a study on the dynamics of LIFT for conductive nanoparticles inks using high-speed imaging approaches.

Development of large area high resolution microstereolithography system using digital mirror device array
Paper 10117-6

Author(s):  Aftab Bhanvadia, Univ. of Florida (United States), et al.
Conference 10117: Emerging Digital Micromirror Device Based Systems and Applications IX
Session 2: Advanced Fabrication with DMD and SLM Devices: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10117
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:40 PM

One of the challenges of using digital mirror device (DMD) for 3D printing is the trade-off between build area and lateral resolution. The image stitching approach was developed in order to achieve larger build area without sacrificing lateral resolution. The build area is divided into smaller sections. Each section is exposed sequentially along with lateral translation of the projection to incorporate the entire build area. Using de-magnifying optics, the resolution of each sectional projection is further improved from the native resolution of the DMD array. This approach enables fabrication of novel devices on the micrometer scale.

How post-processing by selective thermal reflow can reduce the roughness of 3D lithography in micro-optical lenses
Paper 10095-5

Author(s):  Helmut Schift, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 1: Laser Direct Writing and LIFT
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 3:00 PM

Polymer microlenses are used in various devices, including smartphones. However, the trajectories and layering during the direct writing process often results in roughness in the range of the writing increment, which has adverse effects for optical applications. By using 172 nm UV exposure we modified the PMMA at a defined depth, which enabled a molecular weight dependent reflow at elevated temperatures. A roughness of 100 nm could be removed while preserving the concave shape with up to 40 um high structures. This was also confirmed optically for a microlens array.

Selective laser melting of copper using ultrashort laser pulses
Paper 10095-7

Author(s):  Lisa Kaden, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 2: Additive Processes with Ultrafast Laser and of Glass
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 4:30 PM

Selective laser melting of copper using ultrashort laser pulses at 1030 nm is demonstrated. The underlying additive manufacturing process is based on the powder bed method. In order to investigate suitable processing windows, an extensive parameter study was performed using powder of different grain sizes at different processing atmospheres under several illumination strategies and laser parameters. Additionally the influence of burst processing was studied. In contrast to common laser systems, ultrashort pulse lasers offer the advantage to overcome processing limitation of copper which is governed by its extraordinary high thermal conductivity as well as high reflectance in the NIR.

Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass
Paper 10095-8

Author(s):  Edward C. Kinzel, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 2: Additive Processes with Ultrafast Laser and of Glass
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 4:50 PM

Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower costs for small production volumes. Current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Conventional AM approaches are difficult because the much higher viscosity of molten glasses does not allow entrapped bubbles to escape from the processing region. We present ongoing work on a unique filament-fed approach that smoothly melts glass using a CO2 laser. This presentation focuses on printing borosilicate glasses and focuses on understanding and remediating thermal stresses generated during the printing process as well as avoiding bubble entrapment.

Comparison and use 3D scanners to improve the quantification of medical images (surface structures and volumes) during follow up of clinical (surgical) procedures
Paper 10054-34

Author(s):  Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk, Vrije Univ. Medical Ctr. (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 8: New Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:00 PM

3-D scanners can provide quantitative measurements as to surface areas and volumes to follow up of treatments in e.g. dermatology. plastic, esthetic and reconstructive surgery. Anatomical phantoms were developed to compared low-cost to high end as to resolution, working range, surface color representation, user friendliness. The 3D scans files were processed to measure the deviation compared to the high resolution scanner (Artec Spider). The HP Spout fringe projection proved to be good but not practical for clinical use yet. Scanner as successfully used in the clinic to measure the facial change of transgender patients. 3D scanners can greatly improve quantitative measurements in the clinic.

Novel approaches in plasmonic biosensing: From bulk to 3D nanoscale architectures
Paper 10093-15

Author(s):  Artem Danilov, Aix-Marseille Univ. (France), et al.
Conference 10093: Synthesis and Photonics of Nanoscale Materials XIV
Session 4: Control of Energy Flow at the Nanoscale: Synthesis and Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:00 PM

We overview our on-going activities on the improvement of physical sensitivity of plasmonic biosensors. Our approach is based on the employment of phase properties of light reflected from plasmonic transducer instead of amplitude ones in order to improve its detection limit in studies of biomolecular interactions between a target analyte and its corresponding receptor. Originally, phase-sensitive biosensing concept was demonstrated in conventional Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) geometry using a thin Au film in Kretschmann-Raether arrangement, but the resulting sensitivity had some limitations because of a rough relief of the gold film surface. We then demonstrate the possibility for the extension of this concept to novel nanoscale architectures of designed plasmonic metamaterials in order to further improve the sensitivity of plasmonic biosensing technology. The latter approach also profits from much enhanced electric field in coupled nanostructures exposed to illumination, therefore enabling spectroscopy analysis (Raman, Fluorescence, IR etc) methods to increase sensitivity level (potentially down to single molecule).

Optical microdevices fabricated using femtosecond laser processing
Paper 10095-24

Author(s):  Adriano J. G. Otuka, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 2: Additive Processes with Ultrafast Laser and of Glass
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:10 PM

In this work, we present optical microdevices fabricated by femtosecond laser processing. Using multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP), we fabricate three-dimensional structures doped with fluorescent or birefringent dyes. These structures can be used in several optical applications, such as, RGB fluorescent microdevices, microresonators, or optical data storage. Using laser ablation technique, we fabricate periodic microstructures inside polymeric bulks doped with xanthene dyes and single-walled carbon nanotubes, aiming applications in random laser experiments.

3D printing based on cellular level optical coherence tomography images
Paper 10053-128

Author(s):  Michael R. Wang, Univ. of Miami (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session PMon: Posters II: Functional and Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

We report on 3D printing based on high quality cellular level 3D images acquired from optical coherence tomography (OCT) with digital image processing. To obtain cellular level images, we improve the resolution and quality of 3D OCT images. A 100 nm broadband superluminescent diode light source at 850 nm center wavelength and a compatible optical spectrometer are used to acquire 3D OCT images. Applying deconvolution method to A-scan, we improve the axial resolution to ~ 3 µm. Using multi-frame superresolution technique with the optimal scanning strategy, we improve the lateral resolution to 3 µm with 60 mm focal length lens. We introduce high dynamic range method to effectively improve the OCT image brightness uniformity over the whole imaging depth range. The high quality cellular level 3D image is then transformed into a 3D triangular mesh file for 3D printing, showing clear cell structures. This OCT image enabled 3D printing has potential for future bioprinting of tissues and organs.

Low cost production of a versatile 3D-printed perfusion chamber for quantitative phase imaging of primary neurons in culture
Paper 10074-63

Author(s):  Erik Bélanger, Institut Univ. en Santé Mentale de Québec (Canada), et al.
Conference 10074: Quantitative Phase Imaging III
Session PMon: Posters-Monday
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

We developed a low cost and versatile 3D-printed perfusion chamber for quantitative phase imaging of primary neurons in culture. First, the cell chamber is 3D-printed in biocompatible plastic. The chamber is easily convertible between a closed configuration, for decoupling, and an open arrangement, for electrophysiology. In the closed system, the imaging volume is small, allowing a rapid laminar flow with fast turnover between two perfusion solutions with a different RI. In the open structure, the field of view is large, to visualize neurons network, and the profile of the chamber is shallow, permitting the access of pipettes to neurons.

3D printed microfluidic diffusivity meter: A tool to optimize CO2 driven enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
Paper 10095-31

Author(s):  Sanket Goel, Birla Institute of technology and Science, Pilani (India), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 2: Additive Processes with Ultrafast Laser and of Glass
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

Energy problems raising daily leading towards renewable energy resource for the energy dependency. But, the available non-renewable source has to be properly used. In oil fields, even if the amount of oil extracted is increased by 1% can save millions of dollars. So moving in that direction CO2-EOR is one of the better resulting method. This depends on the concentration of the CO2. The amount CO2 to be supplied for better result can be decided by the diffusivity-meter. Designing the diffusivity meter in micro level is the challenge, which is achieved by the 3D printer and by DAQ the data is verified with traditional diffusivity meter.

Multi-photon microfabricated three dimensional capillary-scale vascular networks enables assays of endothelial cell migration and leukocyte adhesion
Paper 10115-23

Author(s):  Mark A. Skylar-Scott, Harvard Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 8: Direct Laser Writing for Biological and Medical Applications: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:10 AM

Biomimetic models of microvasculature could enable assays of complex cellular behavior at the capillary-level. However, existing 3D printing methods for generating perfusable microvasculature with defined geometries have insufficient resolution to recapitulate the microscale geometry of capillaries. Here, we present a multiphoton method that combines the ability to microfabricate precise 3D, branched microvascular networks in collagen, and micropatterning of homing ligands. When endothelial cells were added, they formed perfusable lumens with diameters as small as 15 microns, and micropatterning of homing ligands enabled the selective trapping of leukocytes in defined regions of the microvascular network.

Femtosecond laser direct-write of optofluidics in polymer-coated optical fiber
Paper 10094-40

Author(s):  Kevin A. J. Joseph, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), et al.
Conference 10094: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII
Session 9: Nanostructured Optical Fibers: Joint Session with Conferences 10091 and 10094
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:30 AM

Multifunctional lab-in-fiber (LIF) technology seeks to translate the accomplishments of optofluidic lab-on-chip (LOC) devices to silica fiber, a robust, flexible, and ubiquitous optical communication platform that may underpin the ‘Internet of Things’ with distributed sensors, or enable LOC functions deep inside our bodies. Femtosecond lasers have driven significant advances in 3D processing, enabling optical circuits, microfluidics, and micro-mechanical structures to selectively form around the core waveguide of the fiber. However, such processing typically requires the stripping and recoating of a polymer buffer-jacket, increasing processing time and mechanically weakening the device. This paper reports on a comprehensive assessment of laser and chemical etching damage for urethane-acrylate-coated fiber. The results show a sufficient processing window is open for femtosecond laser and chemically assisted laser etching of the fiber without damaging the polymer jacket. The fiber core, cladding and buffer could be simultaneously processed without removal of the buffer jacket. 3D-LIF devices were successfully fabricated by distortion-free immersion-lens focusing, presenting fiber-cladding optical circuits and chemically-etched channels that have facilitated integration of optical, microfluidic cavities and MEMS structure inside buffer-coated fiber.

Demonstrating negative refraction in a three-dimensional core-shell photonic crystal lattice
Paper 10112-14

Author(s):  Victoria Chernow, California Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10112: Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures VII
Session 4: Photonic Crystal Structures
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:40 AM

We demonstrate the fabrication and experimental characterization of a polymer-Germanium core-shell 3D photonic crystal lattice which exhibits nearly all angle negative refraction over a large frequency range in the mid-infrared. Based on the numerical simulations of Luo, Johnson, and Joannopoulos (Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352 (2002)), a 3D photonic crystal resembling a BCC lattice of air cubes in dielectric media was fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing followed by sputtering. The band gap properties of the lattice were verified through FTIR spectroscopy reflectance measurements, and negative refraction was demonstrated through the use of angle resolved mid-IR transmission measurements.

3D STED lithography: Protein binding and non-binding
Paper 10115-24

Author(s):  Thomas A. Klar, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 8: Direct Laser Writing for Biological and Medical Applications: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:40 AM

STED lithography can be used for the assembly of acrylic structures down to several tens of nanometers. Some compositions of acrylic monomers turned out to be adhesive to proteins, while others are not. However, the reasons for adhesion or non-adhesion remain unclear, possibly they are of electrostatic or hydrophilic/phobic nature. A much more elegant and more controlled way of protein functionalization would be to include functional groups such as thiols or carboxyl-groups. Going beyond initial experiments with zirconium-oxo clusters, we report on other strategies to covalently bind proteins, specifically antibodies, to the spot, featuring nano-anchors with some tens of nanometers.

Accurate core position control in polymer optical waveguides using the Mosquito method for three-dimensional optical wiring
Paper 10109-17

Author(s):  Kumi Date, Keio Univ. (Japan), et al.
Conference 10109: Optical Interconnects XVII
Session 4: Electrical-Optical PCB Technologies
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:50 AM

Polymer optical waveguides with graded-index (GI) circular cores are fabricated using the Mosquito method, in which the positions of cores are accurately controlled for low insertion loss. We investigate the factors affecting the core height and find the gravity could be negligible, resulting in accurate parallel core heights. The height variance is controlled in ±2 micrometers for the 12 cores. Also, the relationship between the needle-tip height and the formed core height is investigated. By applying this relationship to the needle-scan program, the core heights are accurately controlled even if the cores are aligned on multiple layers.

3D-printing high-resolution bioresorbable vascular stents
Paper 10115-25

Author(s):  Henry Oliver T. Ware, Northwestern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 8: Direct Laser Writing for Biological and Medical Applications: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:00 AM

Through a combination of continuous SLA 3D printing and development of a bioresorbable ink, we have produced a polymer stent with similar mechanical properties to Nitinol metal stents and degradation over the course of 2 years. The bioresorbable ink that was utilized (methacrylated polydiol-citrate) is citric acid based, degrades via the Krebs cycle, is antioxidant, and exhibits hemocompatibility. Continuous SLA fabrication reduces fabrication time by an order of magnitude (hours to minutes) and allows for relatively cheap patient-specific (potentially on the spot) fabrication of endovascular stents. Bioresorbability of produced stents allows for the prevention of stent restenosis in the patient.

Nanostencil lithography with scanning optical fiber tip
Paper 10115-27

Author(s):  Raquel Flores, Masdar Institute of Science & Technology (United Arab Emirates), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 8: Direct Laser Writing for Biological and Medical Applications: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:40 AM

In this work, nanolithographic patterning by means of a nanostencil inscribed on an optical fiber tip is presented. One-shot registration of multiple-sized features within a 4 μm diameter patterning circle has been experimentally tested on photoresist AZ5214E coated silicon substrate, with features as small as 160 nm beign obtained, replicating the original stencil with excellent agreement.

Micro and nano- biomimetic structures for cell migration study fabricated by hybrid subtractive and additive 3D femtosecond laser processing
Paper 10092-6

Author(s):  Felix Sima, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Japan), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session 2: Laser Micro Structuring and Processing II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 10:30 AM

We have developed a new technology by combining subtractive ultrafast laser assisted chemical etching of glasses and additive two-photon polymerization to integrate 3D glass and polymer microstructures in a single biochip. The innovative hybrid “ship-in-a-bottle” approach allows tailoring 3D environments and fabrication of biomimetic appropriate in vivo architectures. With the view of understanding cancer cells behavior such as migration or invasiveness inside human body, different geometrical configurations and chemical conditions were proposed. Cells were found responsive to a gradient of nutrient concentration through 2 µm diameter channels of a 3D polymeric scaffold integrated inside glass biochip.

Progress in fabrication of waveguide spatial light modulators via femtosecond laser micromachining
Paper 10115-29

Author(s):  Sundeep Jolly, MIT Media Lab. (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 9: 3D Laser Lithography for Production: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 11:00 AM

In this paper, we present femtosecond laser-based direct-write approaches for the fabrication of structures for a guided-wave acousto-optic spatial light modulator: (1) waveguide in-coupling gratings and (2) volume Bragg reflection gratings via permanent refractive index changes within the lithium niobate substrate.

Scheimpflug multi-aperture Fourier ptychography: coherent computational microscope with gigapixels/s data acquisition rates using 3D printed components
Paper 10076-27

Author(s):  Pavan Chandra Konda, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10076: High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy II: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management
Session 6: High-throughput Imaging II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 11:20 AM

Obtaining gigapixel images is a challenging task because of the aberrations present in a conventional optical system and slow data capture rates. Multi-Aperture Fourier Ptychography (MAFP) was proposed recently by us to increase the data acquisition rates by parallelizing data capture using an array of lenses coupled with detectors. Here we present an advanced MAFP system based on Scheimpflug configuration which has better performance at high NAs. We designed a 3D printed Scheimpflug MAFP setup to tackle the complications of this configuration and decrease the cost. We will present our 3D printed setup designs and gigapixel images obtained.

Strategies for rapid and reliable fabrication of microoptical structures using two-photon polymerization
Paper 10115-30

Author(s):  Sönke Steenhusen, Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC (Germany), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 9: 3D Laser Lithography for Production: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 11:20 AM

Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has attracted broad interest for the fabrication of microoptical elements due to its design flexibility and precision. Along with tailored hybrid polymers a higher level of functional Integration and new application concepts are enabled. As the entire volume of the desired 3D structure is filled in a point-by-point approach, fabrication can require several days inhibiting the adoption of 2PP as an additive manufacturing process at industrial level. We review different strategies for overcoming the limitation in throughput and their impact on the patterning result. Particularly, processing using galvoscanner technology and replication of 2PP structures are highlighted.

The development of a piezoelectric polymer-based photo-curable resin for 3D printing process
Paper 10115-31

Author(s):  Henry Oliver T. Ware, Northwestern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 9: 3D Laser Lithography for Production: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 11:40 AM

We have developed and tested a new piezoelectric polymer based photo-curable resin that is compatible with stereolithography 3D printing process. The viscosity and the piezoelectric property have been optimized experimentally. This material was able to generate 115mV under 1N of force after being polled at 80°C for 40 minutes and the optimal results had a piezoelectric coefficient of 105x10^(-3)V.m/N. Material can be enhanced with inclusion of nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes or barium titanate, which is currently being explored. Combination of material and new continuous SLA technologies will enable rapid and cheap manufacturing of piezoelectric products.

Ultrafast laser 3D lithography for rapid prototyping of pure cross-linkable materials at a nanoscale
Paper 10115-33

Author(s):  Mangirdas Malinauskas, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 10: 3D Laser Lithography: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 1:50 PM

Linear and non-linear light-material interactions can result to a precise spatially-controlled meso-scale processing of polymers. This is employed for diverse applications: microoptics, nanophotonics, and tissue engineering. A special emphasis on photo-physical and photo-chemical mechanisms will be figured in. It will be highlighted which phenomena are advantageous for tunable material properties modifications at different degrees. Employing sub-picosecond pulsed light a 3D nanolithography of pure cross-linking materials will be demonstrated. This enables production on demand of transparent integrated micro-optical components, high laser-energy resistant nanophotonic devices, and non-cytotoxic bio-scaffolds. Lithography with polarization structured light will be shown enabling precise tuning of voxel dimensions.

MEMS scanner with 2D tilt, piston, and focus motion
Paper 10116-3

Author(s):  Sebastien Lani, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10116: MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVI
Session 2: MEMS Scanners and Microscanners
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 2:00 PM

A MEMS scanner with a high level of motion freedom has been developed. It includes a 2D tilting capability of +/- 15° mechanical, a piston motion of 50µm and a focus/defocus control system with a 2mm diameter mirror. The tilt and piston motions are achieved with an electromagnetic actuation (moving magnet and fixed micro coil). The focus control is done by deforming a reflective surface with pneumatic actuation. The fabrication relies on 3 SOI wafers to form the compliant membrane that integrates the pneumatic channel and the deformable mirror bonded on the top.

Reliability evaluation of a MEMS scanner
Paper 10116-5

Author(s):  Sebastien Lani, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10116: MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVI
Session 2: MEMS Scanners and Microscanners
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 2:40 PM

Previously, the realization and closed loop control of a MEMS scanner integrating position sensors made with piezoresistive sensors was presented. It was consisting of silicon compliant membrane integrating the position sensors on which a mirror and a magnet were assembled. This device was mounted on a PCB containing coils for electromagnetic actuation. In this work, the reliability of such system was evaluated through thermal (thermal cycling and accelerated electrical endurance) and mechanical analysis (shock and vibration).

Nonlinear polymer/quantum dots nanocomposite for two-photon nanolithography of photonic devices
Paper 10115-38

Author(s):  Ksenia Abrashitova, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow SU (Russian Federation), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session 10: 3D Laser Lithography: Joint Session with Conferences 10115 and 10095
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 4:10 PM

High quality quantum dots have been homogeneously dispersed in commercial photoresist SU-8 and the obtained functional resin has been successfully structured via direct laser writing with the resolution less than 500 nm. The nanocomposite possesses high optical nonlinearity which has been measured by Z-scan technique. All this make the manufactured resin highly attractive for application in active optical devices including all-optical switchers.

Fast adaptive laser shaping based on multiple laser incoherent combining
Paper 10097-3

Author(s):  Lionel Garcia, CAILabs (France), et al.
Conference 10097: High-Power Laser Materials Processing: Applications, Diagnostics, and Systems VI
Session 2: Beam Shaping II: Joint Session with Conferences 10090 and 10097
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 5:45 PM

We introduce a novel technique allowing simultaneous combining and reshaping of several non-coherent laser sources. This Multi-Plane Light Conversion technique is based on a passive, tailored and multi-reflective phase element which realizes intrinsically lossless unitary transforms. This approach is particularly suitable for multiple kilowatt laser beam shaping applied to improved material processing. We present experimental and simulations results of a beam combiner managing up to ten incoherent laser beams and achieving two different functions: one is power combining with an optimum output beam quality (M²), the other is the generation of an adaptive tailored beam.

Photoacoustic signal detection via atomic force microscopy cantilevers: a theoretical and simulation study
Paper 10064-181

Author(s):  Aytac Demirkiran, Bogaziçi Univ. (Turkey), et al.
Conference 10064: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2017
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever is applied to study the detection of photoacoustic signals. Cantilevers, the probe part of AFM, are very small and sensitive to any external force, hence the force acting on cantilever due to photoacoustic pressure can bend it. Here, a theoretical and simulation study about the oscillation dynamics of the cantilever which is driven by the photoacoustic force is presented approximating the dynamics of cantilever in water as the forced mass-spring-damper system. With this concept, first, for a Gaussian spatiotemporal source term, solving the photoacoustic wave equation based on the Fourier transform analytically, the photoacoustic pressure is presented for various absorbers taking the laser parameters and the absorption coefficients into account. Then, to see the overall effect of photoacoustic pressure waves on the oscillation dynamics of cantilever, the characteristic N-shape photoacoustic wave form is repeated in time domain regarding the pulse repetition frequency of the laser via a self-written code in MATLAB. Then, the equation of the forced-damped oscillation is solved numerically using the finite difference method and the dependency of the amount of deflection to the cantilever properties and photoacoustic parameters is analyzed. The results show the oscillation characteristics of the cantilever is strongly related to both laser and absorber parameters. So that, the oscillation amplitude maximizes when the pulse repetition frequency of the laser matches the resonant frequency of the cantilever. And also it is indicated that the generated photoacoustic wave from microlevel samples leads to an oscillation amplitude in several nanometres level which is large enough for the level to be measured in an actual AFM system.

Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with improved structural stability and acoustic directivity for real-time photoacoustic tomography
Paper 10064-194

Author(s):  Young Cho, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10064: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2017
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

Micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without using complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. However, they suffer from two fundamental issues that limit their practical applications: 1) structural instability due to low mechanical stiffness; and 2) poor acoustic reception directivity due to small detector area. In this paper, 3D-printed polymer micro linker structures and a tapered input-terminal design were investigated to address the above two issues. Our results show that these two approaches are effective for improving the structural stability and acoustic reception directivity of micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines.

Third order optical nonlinearities and defect generation in diamond with ultrashort pulses
Paper 10092-55

Author(s):  Cleber R. Mendonça, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

In this work, femtosecond laser pulses were used to study third-order optical nonlinearities in type II diamond, in the range from 300 up to 1500 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such nonlinear spectrum is reported in this range. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions for nonlinear refraction in solids. Such data, as well as optical Kerr gate results also obtained, are of foremost relevance to understand ultrafast optical processes in diamond. We have also investigated femtosecond laser micromachining in diamond, aiming at producing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to be used as single-photon sources for quantum optics.

Evaluation of Bessel beam machining for scalable fabrication of conductive channels through diamond
Paper 10092-64

Author(s):  Lloyd M. Davis, Ctr. for Laser Applications, The Univ. of Tennessee Space Institute (United States), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

Diamond detectors with columnar electrodes written by slowly translating a femtosecond laser focus through the diamond have established proof of concept for radiation-hard high-energy particle tracking, but much faster procedures are needed to manufacture large arrays of electrodes. We have used a Bessel beam to quickly write columns through ~0.5 mm-thick diamonds without axial translation. We employ a microscope to visualize columns, Raman spectroscopy to ascertain graphitization, and cat-whisker probes to test conductivity. Bessel focusing provides a scalable manufacturing method, but reduction in electrode resistivity is desired. We evaluate a range of pulse parameters seeking to improve graphitization and conductivity.

Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of chalcogenide glasses with femtosecond pulses
Paper 10095-33

Author(s):  Cleber R. Mendonça, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

In this study, we have investigated the Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of chalcogenide glasses (ChG) aiming its application in all-optical circuits for nonlinear optics. LIFT has been applied with femtosecond laser pulses, which is particularly interesting due to the ability to improve the resolution of the deposited structures due to multiphoton absorption and for maintaining the properties of the source material by minimizing thermal effects. Thin films of arsenic trisulfide have been used as target material for fs-LIFT, which has enabled the produce microstructure of this ChG with promising applications on all-optical and spectral broadening devices for the mid-infrared.

Effect on beam profile of Ti alloy plate fabrication from powder by sputter-less selective laser melting
Paper 10095-34

Author(s):  Yuji Sato, Osaka Univ. (Japan), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

Titanium alloy plates were fabricated by SLM in vacuum owing to investigation of the phase transformations for Ti64. Melting and solidification process were captured with high speed video camera, it was found that sputter was depended on the surface roughness. The sputter-less fabrication for SLM in vacuum was developed to minimize the surface roughness to 0.40µm at the laser scanning speed of 10mm/s. It was also determined the crystal orientations of fabricated Ti64 plates. It was clarified that the phase transformation for Ti64 was controlled by changing the baseplate temperature.

Multifunctional cube-like system for biomedical applications featuring 3D printing by dual deposition, scanner, and UV engraving
Paper 10095-36

Author(s):  Jose Valentin V. Guzman-Gonzalez, Univ. Autónoma de Nuevo León (Mexico), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

A cubic-like structure is proposed in order to scan tools used as medical equipment and printed them at low cost for under development countries.

Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing
Paper 10095-37

Author(s):  Xi Luo, Cambridge Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

Understanding the galvanometer based scanning technology and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the Laser Additive Manufacturing technologies and its applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the high accuracy and low drift digital scanning system that incorporates smart control techniques to deliver uniform laser density which is often required by the LAM industry to achieve a high quality finish part. The scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but the overall throughput processing a typical LAM job can also be improved by 20% compared to that of the conventional control method.

Integrated two-photon and direct write lithography for 3D structure production
Paper 10095-39

Author(s):  Steven E. Kooi, MIT Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 6:00 PM

Two-photon (2PL), holographic and direct write lithographic techniques, in positive and negative tone photoresists, have been combined to produce 3D nano and microscale structures for photonic and mechanical applications. In order to access a wider range of optical and mechanical properties, conversion of the polymeric structures produced by the lithographic techniques to higher index of refraction and higher strength materials are explored and the resulting structures are characterized. The 3D structures are tested by spectroscopic techniques to evaluate photonic properties as well as static and dynamic mechanical measurements to investigate size and structure dependent mechanical properties.

Multi-scale femtosecond laser structuring with structured light
Paper 10120-18

Author(s):  Yannick G. Petit, Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (France), et al.
Conference 10120: Complex Light and Optical Forces XI
Session 5: Optical Structuring and Fabrication
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 8:20 AM

We recently demonstrated for the first time the high potential of 3D bulk material structuring with structured light that bears optical vortices, leading to multi-scale architectures with sub-wavelength features with linear and nonlinear optical properties in innovative silver-containing glasses, as index change, silver cluster fluorescence, electric field induced second and third harmonic generation, and even plasmonic properties of metallic nanoparticles. Currently, we investigate the spin-orbital momenta coupling under tight focusing, and its implication in silver-containing oxyde material structuring, which could further lead to all-optical super-resolution approaches, so as to compete nanoscale manufacturing technologies.

Development and characterization of a microsnap-fit for optical assembly
Paper 10120-20

Author(s):  Jannis Köhler, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany), et al.
Conference 10120: Complex Light and Optical Forces XI
Session 5: Optical Structuring and Fabrication
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 9:20 AM

Snap-fits are classified as interlocking connections and commonly used to assemble two or more components in a fast and cost efficient way. By scaling and transferring the snap-fit mechanism into micrometer scale, advantages can also be utilized to assemble complex microsystems. In this paper, a microsnap-fit based on a cantilever design is developed and investigated by means of optical techniques only. Two-photon polymerization as micro-stereolithography is utilized to manufacture the microcomponents and the mechanical flexibility is analyzed by optical forces in a holographic optical tweezer setup. It can be demonstrated that assembling as well as disassembling of microcomponents is achievable.

OpenLMD, Multimodal Monitoring and Control of LMD processing
Paper 10097-9

Author(s):  Jorge Rodríguez-Araújo, AIMEN Ctr. Tecnológico (Spain), et al.
Conference 10097: High-Power Laser Materials Processing: Applications, Diagnostics, and Systems VI
Session 3: Process Monitoring and Control
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 9:30 AM

This paper presents OpenLMD, a novel open-source solution for on-line multimodal monitoring of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The solution is also applicable to a wider range of laser-based applications that require on-line control (e.g. laser welding). OpenLMD is a middleware that enables the orchestration and virtualization of a LMD robot cell, using several open-source frameworks (e.g. ROS, OpenCV, PCL). The solution also allows reconfiguration by easy integration of multiple sensors and processing equipment. As a result, OpenLMD delivers significant advantages over existing monitoring and control approaches, such as improved scalability, and multimodal monitoring and data sharing capabilities.

3D micro-lenses for free space intra-chip coupling in photonic-integrated circuits
Paper 10123-31

Author(s):  Robert Thomas, Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10123: Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers XVI
Session 7: Lasers for Sensing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 9:40 AM

We demonstrate first use of 3D micro-lenses to improve the coupling efficiency of monolithically integrated in-plane lasers. We compare the coupling efficiency of monolithic laser sections with and without micro-lenses through photo-voltage and beam profile measurements and discuss optimisation of lens design.

Application of laser ultrasonic pulse-scripts to material processing
Paper 10095-9

Author(s):  Jeffrey K. Wuenschell, The Aerospace Corp. (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 6: Process and Post Process Development and Materials for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 2:00 PM

Laser-induced ultrasonic waves are studied as a tool for guiding the phase transition of materials undergoing laser induced heating. Prior work has shown that the presence of ultrasonic waves can influence the kinetics of phase transitions through changes in nucleation and diffusion rates. Scripted amplitude modulation of both the laser heating and ultrasonic sources provides careful control over the local heating/cooling process and the timing of the perturbation within this cycle. This approach was applied in a series of experiments on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and thin-film molybdenum disulfide, both systems where patterned control over the final crystal structure is valuable.

Investigation of micro-structured Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
Paper 10092-26

Author(s):  Peter Smyrek, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session 6: Advanced Laser Structuring for Energy Storage and Conversion II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 2:30 PM

Lithium-ion batteries are under intense investigation regarding an improvement in cell life-time, cycle stability and high rate capability by simultaneously providing reasonable costs. In industry and application-oriented research, composite thick film cathodes with lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) as active material are currently of main interest. Based on preliminary investigations, three-dimensional (3D) micro-structures were generated in Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes by removing the active material down to the substrate. Nevertheless, direct chemical analysis is quite important in order to correlate electrochemical properties with 3D architectures. For this purpose, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in order to investigate post-mortem the lithium distribution of unstructured and fs laser-structured NMC electrodes at different State-of-Health.

Direct laser interference patterning of metallic sleeves for roll-to-roll hot embossing
Paper 10092-27

Author(s):  Valentin Lang, TU Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session 6: Advanced Laser Structuring for Energy Storage and Conversion II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 2:50 PM

Periodic patterns in the micrometer- and sub-micrometer-range on surfaces proved to enable optimization of mechanical, chemical and biological characteristics of surfaces. Direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) unites fabricating high resolution features with considerable potential in processing speeds. In recent years DLIP achieved fabrication speeds up to approximately 1 m²/min. Further increase of fabrication speed can be enabled by treating a tool instead of treating the substrate directly. We show an attempt of structuring nickel sleeves, which are installed in a roll-to-roll hot embossing unit afterwards in order to pattern polymer foils with speeds up to 15 m²/min.

Laser additive manufacturing of multimaterial tool inserts: A simulation-based optimization study
Paper 10095-13

Author(s):  Sankhya Mohanty, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 7: Process and Post Process Development and Materials for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 4:00 PM

This paper documents activities towards enabling production of multi-material tool inserts using selective laser melting. A copper-nickel specimen cold-sprayed with a thin layer of steel is selected as a starting point for additively manufacturing the standard-shaped tool insert. High-fidelity numerical simulations of the thermo-microstructural effects in the Nickel layer is performed to identify key parameters and process characteristics. An evolutionary algorithm based optimization study is then undertaken so as to produce a dense part while preserving the microstructure in the nickel-copper layers. The optimized parameters and process plans are subsequently used for production of multi-material tool inserts.

Direct measurements of laser absorptivity during metal melt pool formation associated with powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) processes
Paper 10095-14

Author(s):  Alexander M. Rubenchik, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 7: Process and Post Process Development and Materials for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 4:20 PM

Additive manufacturing of liquid lenses
Paper 10101-42

Author(s):  Katja Schlichting, Univ. of Applied Sciences Aalen (Germany), et al.
Conference 10101: Organic Photonic Materials and Devices XIX
Session 10: Materials II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 4:30 PM

We produced liquid lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design in order to fulfill the individual requirements for specific applications.

3D scanning and printing of airfoils for modular UAS
Paper 10095-16

Author(s):  Robert P. Dahlgren, CSUMB/NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 7: Process and Post Process Development and Materials for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 5:00 PM

Unmanned airborne systems (UAS) are useful for obtaining remote sensing data for many applications, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than satellite or other orbital platforms. The NASA Ames Research Center has been at the forefront of repurposing surplus DoD aircraft (drones) into research platforms using rapid prototyping techniques. This talk will present several lessons learned. In particular, the difficulty in scanning and matching customized components to the subtle curvature of high-performance airfoils will be discussed. It was learned that a hybrid approach using both rapid and traditional methods was optimal to obtain precisely-matched airfoils with minimal design iterations.

Additive manufacturing: a new approach to realize complex and unconventional optical components
Paper 10101-44

Author(s):  Andreas Heinrich, Hochschule Aalen (Germany), et al.
Conference 10101: Organic Photonic Materials and Devices XIX
Session 10: Materials II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 5:10 PM

We report on the realization of complex freeform optics using standard 3D printers. We briefly point out the characteristics of 3D printing and its influence on the optical properties. Additionally we address the needed rework of 3D printed optical components. Therefore we apply two different methods - a robot-based fluid jet polishing and a coating method. The advantage of a 3D printed optic lies in its shape complexity. Thus a complex shaped optical element is discussed, which generates an arbitrary shaped laser line from a laser spot (e.g. needed for optical metrology). Additionally we demonstrate 3D printed diffractive optical elements.

Laser shock wave assisted patterning on NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces
Paper 10092-72

Author(s):  Byron Grant, Western Kentucky Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 6:00 PM

Patterned micro indents were generated on NiTi SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser combined with suitable transparent overlay, a sacrificial layer of graphite, and copper grid. Laser pulses at different energy densities generating pressure pulses up to 10 GPa on the surface was focused through the confinement medium, ablating the copper grid to create plasma and transferring the grid pattern onto the NiTi surface. One dimensional profile analysis show that depth of the pattern initially increased linearly until the optical breakdown of the transparent overlay occurs and dense ionized plasma absorbs and reflects the laser beam.

Bioresists from renewable recourses as a sustainable photoresins for 3D laser microlithograhy: Material synthesis, cross-linking rate, and characterization of the structures
Paper 10115-42

Author(s):  Edvinas Skliutas, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 6:00 PM

The commercially available resins are not cheap and of limited applicability, often of unknown chemical ingredients and fixed to certain mechanical properties. In our aimed research, it is important to have bioresin appropriate to 3D print micro-scaffolds for cell proliferation and tissue engineering. A chosen substance glycerol diglycidyl ether can be obtained from renewable recourses, is biodegradable and can be synthesized as a sustainable photosensitive material. UV lithography was employed to determine its photocross-linking rate and cured material properties. The resin was compared to FormLabs Form Clear and AutoDesk Ember PR48 as standard stereolithography materials.

Quantum dot based 3D photonic devices
Paper 10115-48

Author(s):  Ioanna Sakellari, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany), et al.
Conference 10115: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X
Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 6:00 PM

In this work, we present our most recent results on the fabrication of 3D high-resolution woodpile photonic crystals containing an organic-inorganic silicon-zirconium (Si-Zr) composite and Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The structures are fabricated by the combination of 3D Direct Laser Writing by two-photon absorption and in-situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles inside the 3D photonic matrix. The CdS-Zr-Si composite material exhibits a high nonlinear refractive index value measured by means of Z-scan method. 3D woodpile photonic structures with varying inlayer periodicity from 600nm to 500nm show clear photonic stop bands in the wavelength region between 1000nm to 450nm.

Improvement of 3D surface reconstruction using fringe projection by Talbot effect and extended Fourier transform
Paper 10126-25

Author(s):  Arturo Olivares-Pérez, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico), et al.
Conference 10126: Advances in Display Technologies VII
Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 6:00 PM

The 3D surface reconstruction is done by analyzing the deformation of the image of binary grating projected onto the relief of an object, after that, the phase of the deformed pattern is extracted by Fourier transform and unwrapping the phase. In this work one of the self-image of a grating is used for projection on the relief of an object. The deformed image is captured by a camera and is analyzed by a Fourier Transform algorithm proposed called Extended Fourier Transform (XFT). The XFT algorithm is an enhancement of the common FFT algorithm and allows an improvement in surface reconstruction. A comparison between the reconstructed surfaces using traditional FFT algorithm and the proposed XFT algorithm is presented.

Optofluidic label free sensor fabricated by hybrid femtosecond laser micromachining
Paper 10095-17

Author(s):  Eugenia Lepera, CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (Italy), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 8: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 8:00 AM

Label free sensor have been integrated inside a closed glass microchannel by a hybrid subtractive -additive femtosecond laser manufacturing. The process consist of Femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching (FLICE) of a glass followed by two photon polymerization (2PP) in SU-8 photopolymer. The label free sensor consist on a 3D suspended micro-resonators and an adjacent optical waveguide fabricated in SU8 photopolymer by 2PP, in such a geometry that allow us to directly couple light into them by optical fibers. Different fabrication parameters and geometries have been explored in order to obtain the highest quality factor.

Two-component 3D printed microlattices allowing sign reversal of thermal expansion
Paper 10095-18

Author(s):  Martin Wegener, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 8: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 8:20 AM

In many situations, uncontrolled thermal expansion is a nuisance and can lead to destruction or failure of structures and materials. It is thus desirable to control the thermal length-expansion coefficient of 3D printed materials. Here, following theoretical suggestions by Lakes, we design, fabricate, and characterize 3D microstructured metamaterials allowing for negative or zero thermal expansion from two different constituents, both with positive thermal expansion. The two different constituents are obtained by dip-in 3D laser lithography, a single photoresist, and gray-tone lithography. The characterization is based on cross-correlation analysis of optical microscopy images taken at different sample temperatures.

Adapting the axial focus in high-power laser processing machines within mm-range
Paper 10097-18

Author(s):  Teresa Kopf, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik (Germany), et al.
Conference 10097: High-Power Laser Materials Processing: Applications, Diagnostics, and Systems VI
Session 6: Beam Manipulation, Transport, and Measurement
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 8:40 AM

The High-Power Focus Mirror allows focus position adaption along 3.6 mm in high-power laser manufacturing. We developed and tested a new design for a unimorph deformable mirror that provides an extensive focal length range down to -2 m focal length. The mirror enables high-power applications up to 2 kW (1200 W/cm²) whereas the laser’s optical beam quality M² is stable over the entire actuation. We incorporated the High-Power Focus Mirror into a laser-cutting test bench and demonstrated that this mirror can address innovative high-power application fields in 3D laser processing such as laser cutting, welding, and structuring.

Ultra-strong mechanical metamaterials by two-photon lithography
Paper 10095-19

Author(s):  Jens Bauer, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 8: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 8:50 AM

We have fabricated nano-architected lattice materials from ceramic-polymer-composites as well as from carbon, by applying 3D direct laser writing and subsequent techniques such atomic layer deposition and pyrolysis. The materials achieve extremely high effective strengths of up to 1 GPa at densities well below 1 g/cm³. Due to the small dimensions of their individual structural features, with diameters in the range of 200 nm they are able to make use of size-dependent material strengthening effects. An overview of applied manufacturing routs and relevant processing details will be given. The interplay of size-dependent strengthening effects with different topological and material design approaches are shown. Up scaling methods, such as multi-level hierarchy approaches as well as limitations in practical application will be discussed.

Influences of exposure strategies and focusing optics on the fabrication of large scale microlenses via two-photon polymerization
Paper 10095-20

Author(s):  Daniel Kuehn, Multiphoton Optics GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 8: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 9:20 AM

Entering the industrial level, high-precision 3D printing via two-photon polymerization offers a wide range of applications with novel design opportunities for different fields in optics, photonics, biomedicine, and life sciences. Due to the highly flexible fabrication process, arbitrary freeform structures like micro-optical elements are feasible. As it will be demonstrated in this work both, quality and fabrication time of microlenses, crucially depend on the used focusing optics, and thereby the voxel dimension, as well as on the underlying exposure strategy. Furthermore, we demonstrate the writing of large microoptical components in the range of several hundred micrometers in height and diameter.

Laser beam diagnostics in laser 3D manufacturing applications
Paper 10095-21

Author(s):  Otto W. Märten, PRIMES GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 8: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 9:40 AM

3D Laser manufacturing processes are sensitive to changes in system components in the beam path and the galvo scanner while thermal effects can additionally lead to focus shift. Furthermore, lasers for selective laser melting are triggered to emit laser radiation at precisely the correct time. Due to delays between the laser trigger and laser emission, the pulse-delay trigger has to be perfectly synchronized. We have performed analyses on the pulse emission and focus shift in the beam path of a 400 W single mode laser, showing the influence of optical components in the beam path and galvo.

Bulk diamond optical waveguides fabricated by focused femtosecond laser pulses
Paper 10095-23

Author(s):  Shane M. Eaton, Politecnico di Milano (Italy), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 9: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 11:00 AM

Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and their ability to be located, manipulated and read out using light. In this work we show the possibility of buried waveguide fabrication in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. We use microRaman spectroscopy and other methods to gain better insight into the structure and refractive index profile of the optical waveguides. High quality NV properties are observed in waveguides formed in diamond, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems.

Simultaneous position and angle control techniques for outgoing laser beam design using two galvos
Paper 10085-34

Author(s):  Tomohiko Hayakawa, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan), et al.
Conference 10085: Components and Packaging for Laser Systems III
Session 8: Components and Packaging for Laser Beam Engineering
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 11:30 AM

In this study, we propose a method that enables position and angle control simultaneously using two commercially available galvos. Two mirrors are set next to each other, and each standard angle is set at +45° and -45° from the horizontal. Mathematical calculations revealed that the outgoing beam angle from the system is defined by the angles of the two mirrors, and the one-dimensional position of the outgoing beam is defined by the angles of the two mirrors along with the distance between the rotational center of the two mirrors. Finally, we confirmed that the one-dimensional position and angle can be configured arbitrarily by our method.

Significance of laser pre placed cladding in 3D metal printing by direct metal laser sintering
Paper 10097-25

Author(s):  Shiva P. Gadag, Southern Methodist Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10097: High-Power Laser Materials Processing: Applications, Diagnostics, and Systems VI
Session 7: Surface Treatment I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 11:30 AM

Laser preplaced cladding of St-6, WC and Inconel powders is carried out using 1064 nm Pulsed Nd:YAG or 808 nm HPDL CW lasers. A special powder dispenser to deliver an uniform layer of powder and simultaneously compact the powder on coupon is based on roller flour mill design. A conical coaxial nozzle surrounding the square laser head of HPDL diode laser is specially developed. Laser processing parameters - power, scan rate, spot size and inert gas and powder carrier gas pressure are established for optimum performance. Analytical and numerical 3D models of preplaced cladding are formulated by heat and mass transfer. A good correlation between experimental cladding conditions comparing with numerical simulation and analytical predictions are confirmed.

Femtosecond laser 3D microstructuring of plasmonic nanoparticle doped hybrid polymer
Paper 10092-42

Author(s):  Linas Jonušauskas, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session 9: Large Area Micro/Nano Structuring, Laser Interference Patterning II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 11:40 AM

In this work three dimensional laser lithography of a hybrid photopolymer SZ2080 doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is performed employing a femtosecond laser. The AuNP are generated via pulsed laser ablation in liquids and sized around ~7 nm. We found that by varying the nanoparticle concentration the fabricated line widths are both enlarged and diminished. Theoretical model for such phenomena is suggested. Additionally, it is shown that the doping has no adverse impact on the mechanical quality of 3D microstructures produced from the nanocompound. We also found that SZ2080 increases the long term (~months) colloidal stability of AuNP.

Micro and nano printing of carbon materials by pulsed laser deposition at atmospheric pressure
Paper 10095-25

Author(s):  Luis V. Ponce, Ctr. de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 9: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 11:50 AM

In this work, we present selected results on 3D microprinting departing from carbon nanomaterial targets by using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. Atomic force microscopy and optical results indicate that is possible to obtain micro and nanostructured layers and structures such as graphene oxide films and carbon quantum dots with interesting properties for energy and health applications, such as tunable luminescence between other. The discussed results provide new opportunities for designing and producing micro and nanodevices of diverse nature by a rapid and non-vacuum technique.

Accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device
Paper 10126-8

Author(s):  Byoung-Sub Song, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of), et al.
Conference 10126: Advances in Display Technologies VII
Session 2: 3D and Holographic Displays
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 1:30 PM

The changes in accommodation response of main eye in binocular condition should be studied to develop human-friendly 3D displays. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. In the results, we observed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

Wire-based laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V: Basic investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties from build up parts
Paper 10095-27

Author(s):  Martin Schulz, Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnologie IPT (Germany), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 10: Industrial Applications and Systems for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 2:10 PM

The wire-based laser metal deposition (LMD-W) is a new technology which enables to produce complex parts made of titanium for the aerospace and automotive industry. For establishing the LMD-W as a new production process it has to be proven that the properties are comparable or superior to conventional produced parts. The mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of microstructure and tensile test using a diode laser. Although not all technical issues could be solved, the investigation show that LMD-W of titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) is a promising alternative to other additive techniques as electronic beam melting or plasma deposition welding.

Additive manufacturing with laser metal fusion: Part production and generation of 3D features onto preformed structures
Paper 10095-29

Author(s):  Frank Geyer, TRUMPF Inc. (United States), et al.
Conference 10095: Laser 3D Manufacturing IV
Session 10: Industrial Applications and Systems for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 3:00 PM

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a hot trend that is discussed amongst many industries. In the field of AM with metal powders the methods Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Laser Metal Fusion (LMF) and are widely used. Each process offers a variety of advantages as well as limitations. Typically the process LMF is used to generate complete structures build on a substrate plate. This presentation will show an application where preformed parts get complex 3D features added through laser metal fusion in a production setup. With this process high production volumes can be achieved by combining conventional manufacturing methods with LMF for the higher complexity features, thus reducing the print and cycle times.

Light robotics: an all-optical micro- and nano-toolbox
Paper 10120-47

Author(s):  Jesper Glückstad, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark), et al.
Conference 10120: Complex Light and Optical Forces XI
Session 11: Optical Manipulation
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 3:10 PM

Optical nanoscopy can already surpass the far-field diffraction limit and provide optical resolutions down to a few nanometers. Moreover, it is possible to 3D laser-print nanoscopic structures with a voxel resolution down to below a few tens of nanometers. Adding a 3rd scientific accomplishment; the ability of focused light to capture, trap and manipulate tiny objects in 3D real-time - a triangulation of disruptive functionalities required for fully interactive Light Robotics can be obtained. Glückstad, J., Nature Photonics 5, 7 (2011). Palima, D., & Glückstad, J., Lasers & Photonics Reviews 17, 478 (2013). Wu, C., Palima, D, Novitsky, A; Ding, W; Gao, D; Shukovsky, S; and Glückstad, J., Nanophotonics 3, 181 (2014). Villangca, M., Casey, D., Glückstad, J., Biophysical Reviews 7, 379 (2015). Villangca, M., Palima, D., Bañas, A., Glückstad, J., Nature Publoshing Group, Light: Science & Applications, 5 (2016).

Recoverable stress induced two-way shape memory effect on NiTi surface using laser-produced shock wave
Paper 10092-71

Author(s):  Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev, Western Kentucky Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10092: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI
Session 11: Direct Write Processing, Ablation, and Surface Modification II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 2, 2017, 5:20 PM

The surfaces of NiTi shape memory alloys were patterned by laser shock-assisted direct imprinting. This approach is more simplistic and efficient than traditional indentation techniques. Different laser energy densities ranging from 5 mJ/pulse to 56 mJ/pulse were used to observe recovery on SMA surface. The temperature dependent heat profiles of the NiTi surfaces after laser scribing at 56mJ/pulse show the partially-recovered indents, which indicate a “two-way shape memory effect (TWSME).” Experimental data is in good agreement with theoretical simulation of laser induced shock wave propagation inside NiTi SMAs.

Important Dates

Abstracts Due
17 July 2017

Author Notification
25 September 2017

Manuscripts Due
See Individual Conferences


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