The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Papers at Photonics West on 3D Printing, Fabrication, and Manufacturing

This conference highlights papers from BiOS, LASE, and OPTO that showcase innovative ways to apply this multidimensional / multidisciplinary technology.

Papers ordered chronologically by start date and time


Multimodal, 3D pathology-mimicking bladder phantom for evaluation of cystoscopic technologies
Paper 9689-48

Author(s):  Audrey K. Ellerbee, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 9689B: Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Urology
Session 1: Advanced Technology in Urology
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 10:00 AM

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) have shown potential as adjunct technologies to traditional white light cystoscopy (WLC) for early bladder cancer detection. Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for evaluation of new cystoscopic technologies and image-processing algorithms prior to tissue validation. We present the first 3D hollow, multi-layered bladder phantom with healthy and pathology features suitable for endoscopic detection using WLC, OCT and BLC. The realistic appearance of the phantom under several modalities and its long shelf life make it both a useful training tool for doctors and a useful research tool for engineers.


Customized three-dimensional printed optical phantoms with user-defined absorption and scattering
Paper 9700-7

Author(s):  Darren M. Roblyer, Boston Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 9700: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies IX
Session 2: Printed Phantoms
Date and Time: Saturday, February 13, 2016, 11:10 AM

A three-dimensional printing process was developed for the fabrication of optical phantoms with arbitrary geometry and customizable optical properties. Optical phantoms were created using the 3D printable thermoplastic, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and the addition of an absorbing dye, nigrosin, and scattering agent, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Repeatability in user-defined optical properties was achieved within 11.2% for µa and 7.04% for µs`. Additionally, a complex heterogeneous phantom mimicking the geometry and optical properties of a hairless mouse with an implanted tumor was fabricated via a dual extrusion process.


Ultra-small 3D printed micro-lens and mirror assembly for endoscopic assessment of the airway
Paper 9691-50

Author(s):  Robert A. McLaughlin, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia), et al.
Conference 9691B: Optical Techniques in Pulmonary Medicine III
Session 12: New Approaches, Advancements and Techniques
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 9:30 AM

We have developed a miniature 0.6 x 1.3mm 3D printed lens and reflector assembly, designed for OCT imaging of airway lumen. The IP-S (Nanoscribe, Germany) assembly includes a top dome that collimates the beam, and a cylindrical body with a diagonal airgap orientated at 48 degrees to redirect the beam using total internal reflection. It was mounted on a micromotor and incorporated into an endoscopic probe. We compare it to a probe comprising a GRIN lens focusing light onto a tilted mirror. We present a characterization of the performance of both probes, and show results acquired with ex vivo airway.


High-precision 3D printing for biomedical applications
Paper 9740-6

Author(s):  Ruth Houbertz, Multiphoton Optics GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 9740: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVI
Session 2: New Technologies
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 11:00 AM

The interaction of ultra-short laser pulses to create high-precision 3D printed structures from biocompatible or biodegradable materials is of high interest. The appeal of this method is an intrinsic scalability from the sub-100 nm to the cm range. For the restoration of diseased or damaged tissue, the growth of cells on 3D porous scaffolds is a promising approach to generate autologous tissue. Appropriate types of functionalization create binding sites for cells, thus allowing a precise control of cell adhesion, spreading, growth, and differentiation. The influence of structure type and size has been shown already for primary human microvascular endothelial cells.


Pyro-EHD ink-jet printing for direct functionalization of 3D lab-on-chip devices
Paper 9705-22

Author(s):  Pietro Ferraro, Istituto di Cibernetica Eduardo Caianiello (Italy), et al.
Conference 9705: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XIV
Session 5: Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 2:50 PM

A challenging request in the fabrication of microfluidics and biomedical microsystems is a flexible ink-jet printing for breaking the rigidity of classical lithography. A pyroelectric-EHD system is presented. The system has proved challenging spatial resolution down to nanoscale, printing of high ordered patterns, capability of dispensing bio-ink as DNA and protein array for biosensing fabrication, single cells printing and direct printing of nanoparticles. With the method proposed high viscous polymers could be easily printed at high resolution in 2D or in 3D configuration. The pyro-EHD process has been proved for the fabrication of biodegradable microneedles for trasndermal drug delivery and 3D optical waveguides.


Packaging and micro-structuring for enabling multi-functional fiber-cladding photonics and lab-in-fiber
Paper 9759-14

Author(s):  Moez Haque, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 3: Light Extraction and Guiding
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 3:00 PM

The control of ultrafast laser interactions inside transparent media has led to a profound range of applications exploiting the laser formation of dense three-dimensional (3D) optical circuits, phase-shifted Bragg grating waveguides, 3D microfluidic networks, tapered hole arrays, optical resonator sensors (Fabry Perots, wavefront splitters, and arrays), and glass art. These devices rely on advanced methods of femtosecond laser irradiation with selective chemical etching (FLICE) to extend these structures and sensors into optical fibers for the novel opportunity of creating integrated, multi-purposed, and packaged systems. We present examples of dense fiber core-cladding optical circuits, laser welding of fibers into packaged arrays, and multiplexed lab-in-fiber sensors. With these methods, highly integrated optical, mechanical, and fluidic structures can be incorporated into the fiber communication backbone for wide ranging applications in chemical and biological sensors, telecom sensing networks, biomedical probes, low-cost health care products, and OEM manufacturing.


Single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures
Paper 9759-16

Author(s):  Diana A. Grishina, Univ. Twente (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 4: 3D Photonic Structures
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 4:30 PM

We present a method to fabricate a 3D etch mask that allows to etch 3D monolithic nanostructures by using only CMOS-compatible processes. The mask is written in a hard-mask layer on two adjacent inclined surfaces of a Si wafer in a single step. Therefore mutual alignment between patterns on inclined surfaces in ensured in the design. We observe an alignment accuracy of better than 3.0 nm between the mask patterns on the inclined surfaces. We demonstrate 3D mask fabrication for 3D diamond-like photonic band gap crystals in silicon and for other 3D structures.


The effect of pulse duration, energy deposited and pulse energy on the formation of nanogratings
Paper 9740-54

Author(s):  Yves Bellouard, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 9740: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVI
Session 4: Characterization and Measurement
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 4:40 PM


Stacking of polymer nano-gratings by electron beam writing to form 3-level diffractive optical elements for 3D holographic lithography
Paper 9759-18

Author(s):  Leon Yuan, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 4: 3D Photonic Structures
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 5:10 PM

Multilevel nanophotonic structure is a major goal in providing advanced optical functionalities such as found in photonics crystals and metamaterials. A three-level nanograting phase mask has been fabricated in electron-beam resist (ma-N) to meet with the requirement for holographic generation of diamond-like 3D nanostructure in SU-8 photoresist in a single exposure step. The 2D mask provided a 600 nm periodicity, first order diffraction efficiency of up to 3.5% for 800 nm light, and appropriate pi/2 phase shift on the x- and y-axis diffracted beams. A reversible soft-coating method (aquaSAVE) enabled SEM inspection and verification of each insulating grating layer. A thin SiO2 layer was used to isolate the grating layers and multiple spin-coating steps served to planarize the final resist layer. The resulting 3D structure is anticipated to provide an 8% complete PBG upon Silicon inversion. The method is extensible to assembling multiple layers of nanophotonic structure.


Development of 3D printing probe for dermatologic optical coherence tomography
Paper 9689-39

Author(s):  Meng-Tsan Tsai, Chang Gung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
Conference 9689A: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery
Session PSun: Posters-Sunday
Date and Time: Sunday, February 14, 2016, 5:30 PM

We demonstrated a portable, functional optical coherence tomography system for dermatology study. To miniaturize the size of the scanning probe for the OCT system and to scan arbitrary locations of skin, we used use 3D printer to fabricate mechanical components to integrate the electrical devices and optical components. Such probe can provide the advantages of low cost, light weight, high flexibility. The developed OCT system can reconstruct 3D structural OCT images and 3D vascular patterns of skin, simultaneously. Finally, the developed system was used for the study on hair follicles and papilla of facial skin.


Fluorescent detection of C - reactive protein from blood plasma on a 3D-printed device
Paper 9715-4

Author(s):  Shreesha Jagadeesh, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), et al.
Conference 9715: Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Session 1: Point-of-Care Diagnostics I
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 9:20 AM

This paper presents a 3D printed platform for detecting Sepsis from blood plasma. Sepsis infection can be quantified by measuring C - reactive protein (CRP) removing blood cells. The 3D printed devices contain internal fluidic channels that allow fluid flow but trap Nylon beads. The CRP from the plasma is adsorbed by the bead surface. Upon addition of suitable primary and fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies, a simple fluorescent microscope can be used to quantify the emission signal. This method can be extended to other proteins. This module could provide for newer ways of testing in Point-of-Care diagnostics.


Progress on femtosecond laser-based system-materials: three-dimensional monolithic electrostatic micro-actuator for optomechanics
Paper 9740-23

Author(s):  Tao Yang, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 9740: Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVI
Session 5: Novel Processing for Advanced Devices
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 9:50 AM

In optomechanics, the number of actuation principles suitable for optical devices in the visible ranges remains limited. Nonetheless, they are of high interest for various optical applications like optical microscopy, tunable optical devices for waveguide coupling, near-field probes as well as adaptive optics for high power lasers. To advance this field, and also inspired by the 3D fabrication capability of femtosecond laser in fused silica, we investigate a monolithic transparent 3D micro-actuator based on dielectrophoresis force suitable for optics operating in the visible ranges.


Single-beam Denisyuk holograms recording with pulsed 30Hz RGB laser
Paper 9771-1

Author(s):  Stanislovas J. Zacharovas, Geola Digital uab (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 9771: Practical Holography XXX: Materials and Applications
Session 1: Materials and Processes
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 10:30 AM

It is well known fact that holograms can be recorded ether by continuous wave (CW) laser, or by single pulse coming from pulsed laser. However, multi-pulse or multiple-exposure holograms were used only for interferometric measurements as well as for information storage. We have used Geola's pulsed RGB laser to record Denisyuk type holograms. Objects situated at the distance of more than 30cm we successfully recorded employing the multi-pulse working regime of the laser. In the article we describe the pulsed RGB laser, hologram recording setup and used photo-material processing scheme.


Laser nanofabrication for advanced micro-cavities
Paper 9727-7

Author(s):  Hong-Bo Sun, Jilin Univ. (China), et al.
Conference 9727: Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XVIII
Session 2: Novel Microresonator Optics II
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 10:50 AM

Optical microcavities play important roles as an integrated element in photonic devices such as micro-modulators, micro-filters, and micro-sensors. In particular, the microcavities that can produce unidirectional single-mode lasing emission are greatly demanded to meet the challenge of integrating high-efficiency and high-sensitivity optical functional systems. Due to the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser pulses with high peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration, femtosecond laser shows the ability to carry out ultrahigh precision micromachining of a variety of transparent materials. Here we experimentally demonstrate fabrication of several types of active polymer microcavities by using femtosecond laser direct writing via two-photon polymerization of dye-doped resins. These active polymer microcavities exhibit excellent lasing characteristic at room temperature. Our work shows that the laser nanofabrication technology can indeed be applied for high-precision microcavities micromachining of organic transparent materials through nonlinear interaction.


High-precision 3D printing: fabrication of micro-optics and integrated optical packages
Paper 9753-2

Author(s):  Ruth Houbertz, Multiphoton Optics GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 9753: Optical Interconnects XVI
Session 1: Novel Optical Waveguide and Interconnect Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 11:00 AM

We present new concepts for micro-optical devices that allow for higher integration and degrees of automation by additive manufacturing. Our two-photon-absorption (TPA) machine achieves surfaces of optical quality. The fabrication process is compatible with ORMOCER® materials of excellent transmission at data and telecom wavelengths. We introduce a new type of grating coupler, which allows to significantly decrease the overall package size. The focus of our discussion is on production speed, reliability, automation and reduction of total process steps for fabrication of electro-optical boards.


The floating 3D language
Paper 9771-8

Author(s):  Yin-Ren Chang, De Montfort Univ. (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 9771: Practical Holography XXX: Materials and Applications
Session 2: Holography, Art and Perception
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 2:20 PM

This series integrates pictorial, sculptural and holographic elements to create a solid but dynamic visual statements of the holo-aesthetic message, through the use of principle of perspective, computer aided design, additive manufacturing and holography. The combination between holography and anamorphosis could give 3D-printed object an extra dimension, as well as an advanced spatial-temporal artistic interpretation. This experimental approach enriches the holo-textual narrative, but also links the anamorphic projection with digital modelling and fabrication; the figure with the holographic landscape in an ambiguous relationship of form and space. It also explores new contextual possibilities and relationships, and redefines connections across media.


A cantilever based optical fiber acoustic sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining
Paper 9738-2

Author(s):  Jie Liu, Clemson Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 1: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring: Joint Session with Conferences 9735 and 9738
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 2:30 PM

In this paper, we present a pure silica micro-cantilever based optical fiber sensor for acoustic pressure detection. The cantilever is directly fabricated by fs laser micromachining on an optical fiber tip functioning as an inline Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The applied acoustic wave pressurizes the micro-cantilever beam and the corresponding dynamic signals can be probed by the FPI. The thickness, length, and width of the micro-cantilever beam can be flexibly designed and fabricated so that the sensitivity, frequency response, and the total measurement range can be varied to fit many practical applications. Experimental and simulation results with various designs will be presented and analyzed. Due to the assembly free fabrication of the fs-laser, multiple micro-cantilever beams could be potentially fabricated in/on a single optical fiber for quasi-distributed acoustic mapping with high spatial resolution.


Fabrication of waveguide spatial light modulators via femtosecond laser micromachining
Paper 9759-25

Author(s):  V. Michael Bove, MIT Media Lab. (United States), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 6: Advanced Manufacturing using a DMD or other SLM: Joint Session with Conferences 9759 and 9761
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 2:50 PM

We have previously introduced an anisotropic leaky-mode modulator as a waveguide-based, acousto-optic solution for spatial light modulation in holographic video display systems. Waveguide fabrication for these and similar surface acoustic wave devices relies on proton exchange of a lithium niobate substrate, which involves the immersion of the substrate in an acid melt. While simple and effective, waveguide depth and index profiles resulting from proton exchange are often non-uniform over the device length or inconsistent between waveguides fabricated at different times using the same melt and annealing parameters. In contrast to proton exchange, direct writing of waveguides has the appeal of simplifying fabrication (as these methods are inherently maskless) and potential of fine and consistent control over waveguide depth and index profiles. In this paper, we explore femtosecond laser micromachining as an alternative to proton exchange in the fabrication of waveguides for anisotropic leaky-mode modulators.


Laser-assisted morphing of complex three dimensional objects
Paper 9735-12

Author(s):  Jakub Drs, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 9735: Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXI
Session 3: Laser 3D Micro/Nano Structuring: Joint Session with Conferences 9735 and 9738
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 3:10 PM

Morphing refers to the smooth transition from a specific shape into another one, in which the initial and final shapes can be significantly different. Here, we demonstrate a process of laser-induced morphing, driven by surface tension and thermally-controlled viscosity.


Laser-assisted inkjet printing of highly viscous fluids with sub-nozzle resolution
Paper 9738-3

Author(s):  Paul Delrot, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 2: Laser Direct Writing: Joint Session with Conferences 9735 and 9738
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 4:00 PM

In most drop-on-demand systems, the droplet diameter and therefore the resolution are defined by the nozzle diameter, thus preventing the use of viscous inks to avoid clogging of the nozzle. We present here a laser-actuated drop-on-demand system able to dispense highly viscous fluids with a sub-nozzle resolution thanks to a flow-focusing phenomenon. Single micro-droplets of photopolymer inks were generated with a diameter less than 20% that of the nozzle. Two-dimensional patterns were printed with a good controllability and consequently cured, which opens up new possibilities for the additive manufacturing of microstructures.


Laser induced forward transfer: a novel tool for printing sensors and characterizing surface wetting properties
Paper 9735-13

Author(s):  Ioanna Zergioti, National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece), et al.
Conference 9735: Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXI
Session 4: Laser Direct Writing: Joint Session with Conferences 9735 and 9738
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 4:20 PM

The aim of this work is to further advance Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) as a biotechnological platform to develop chemical and biosensors by means of the direct immobilization process. Enzymatic and aptameric biosensors will be discussed in this presentation. In addition the LIFT technique was introduced to characterize the surface wetting properties that withstand high liquid impact pressures without losing their liquid repelling properties, as well as to outline their possible applications.


Laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries
Paper 9738-4

Author(s):  Peter Smyrek, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 2: Laser Direct Writing: Joint Session with Conferences 9735 and 9738
Date and Time: Monday, February 15, 2016, 4:40 PM

Since commercially available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. Therefore, laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring techniques were combined in order to develop advanced three-dimensional (3D) electrodes composed of LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC). First, LFP and NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was applied to form 3D structures. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode design suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.


3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry
Paper 9745-13

Author(s):  Patrice L. Baldeck, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (France), et al.
Conference 9745: Organic Photonic Materials and Devices XVIII
Session 4: Materials I
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 8:00 AM

The 3D printing of natural organic materials is important for biomedical applications, but also to develop green 3D water-based processes of natural and biodegradable materials. Polylactic acid, a thermoplastic polyester derived from corn starch, tapioca roots, or sugercane, is one of the rare bioplastics that can be used in fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Most organic materials are sensitive to heat treatment. Thus, 3D printing processes of natural organic materials will most likely use photochemistry steps to crosslink their macromolecules dispersed in water solutions. In the first part of the lecture, I will review our works on two-photon fabrication of 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, enzymes, and DNA with their applications: collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, red blood cell typing with anti-body pads, real time biochemistry with a 3D trypsin micro-reactor, 3D woodpiles and optical microlenses with DNA. In the second part of the lecture, I will present our first results on using commercial 3D photochemistry 3D printers to fabricate centimeter size objects made of different types of natural organic materials. Then, I will discuss their photochemistry reactions using Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, and I will present the first characterizations of their thermal and mechanical properties.


Multilayer optical interconnects using ultrafast laser direct written 3D waveguides and ion exchange surface waveguides
Paper 9753-15

Author(s):  Kevin Chen, Univ. of Pittsburgh (United States), et al.
Conference 9753: Optical Interconnects XVI
Session 4: Electrical-Optical PCB Technologies
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 8:00 AM


Complex micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond 3D direct laser writing
Paper 9759-33

Author(s):  Harald Giessen, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 8: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography I: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 8:30 AM

We present complex micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond 3D direct laser writing. We fabricate optical free-form lenses directly onto single mode fiber tips and achieve near-perfect centration and alignment. We measure the beam propagation of a variety of free-form surfaces such as spheres, aspheres, astigmatic lenses which deliberately introduce astigmatism, as well as diffractive structures. Flat-top intensity distributions as well as deliberately designed donuts have been achieved. When using more complex manufacturing methods, multi-lens micro-objectives can be fabricated with near-perfect alignment onto single- and multi-mode fibers, as well as on transparent surfaces or directly onto CCD chips.


Study of 3D printing method for GRIN micro-optics devices
Paper 9759-34

Author(s):  Pei-Jen Wang, National Tsing Hua Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 8: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography I: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 9:00 AM

Three dimensinal printing technology has been widely adopted for making various devices and components in the industry and research communities. If 3D printing can be used to make optical devices especially devices like lenses and mirrors for conceptual design proving, the optics industry would have more innovative and fast turn over of products in the future. GRIN lenses are the main intersts for utilization of 3D printing technnology for reducing cumbersome grinding and polishing of surfaces of glass blocks. Initial results show promising future of 3D printing for prototyping of GRIN lenses.


Ultrafast laser direct micro-/nano-fabrication: Towards 4D optical printing
Paper 9736-6

Author(s):  Mangirdas Malinauskas, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania), et al.
Conference 9736: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing X
Session 2: Laser Nano-Structuring and Processing
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 10:30 AM

Ultrafast laser based micro- and nano-processing technologies enable the most advanced material manufacturing options. It is proved in terms of spatial resolution, fabrication throughput, choice of materials, and 3D structuring capability. Femtosecond pulses empower precise determination of interaction mechanisms creating a potential to choose the type of material modification within a confined volume. Selectivity of femtosecond direct laser writing enables tuning of physical (mechanical stiffness, refractive index), chemical (reactivity), biological (biocompatibility, resorption) material properties. This can be employed for 4D optical printing, where besides the 3 coordinates in space, the material deposition (modification of its properties) can be distinctively controlled.


3D micro/nano manufacturing of spatial light modulators for highly compact spectroscopy systems
Paper 9760-4

Author(s):  Sascha P. Heussler, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore), et al.
Conference 9760: MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XV
Session 2: Spatial Light Modulator Technologies for 3D Applications: Joint Session with Conferences 9760 and 9761
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:00 AM

We present an ultra-precise 3D manufacturing technology on the basis of gray scale x-ray lithography capable of producing spatial phase shifting arrays for extremely compact spectrometers. The process allows shaping the third dimension of a polymeric substrate material at about 150 nm resolution. For its use in a Fourier transform spectrometer Shannon Sampling Theorem dictates accurate phase shifting of at least half the wavelength of light being analyzed. We present initial results of manufactured phase shifting arrays allowing accurate detection down to 380 nm wavelength at a spectral resolution of about 3 nm, thus opening doors for most compact, fast, and cost-effective spectrometer solutions.


STED lithography for applications in biology
Paper 9759-39

Author(s):  Thomas A. Klar, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 9: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography II: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:00 AM

Similar to the further development of two-photon microscopy into two-photon lithography, it is possible to extend STED microscopy to STED lithography allowing to write three dimensional structures comprising feature sizes of some tens of nanometers only. Recently, it was shown that such structures show unspecific binding of proteins, which allows for bio-functionalization down to the single protein level. We now head for specific, ideally covalent binding of bio-molecules to the STED lithographically prepared structures.


3D SLM-based STED-lithography
Paper 9759-40

Author(s):  Julian Hering, Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 9: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography II: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:20 AM

As the fabrication of almost arbitrarily polymer structures via 3D direct laser writing (DLW) [1] is diffraction limited, an especially shaped second laser beam depletes the polymerization reaction via stimulated emission (STED). Using spatial light modulators (SLMs) for both laser beams allows for automatically aligning the setup, correcting aberrations, and varying the phase masks used for the depletion laser. With SLM generated doughnut- and bottlebeam-modes [2] we observe a reduction of the lateral and axial feature size of more than 50% . Furthermore, numerically calculated multifoci-modes [3] show at least comparable performance to the results achieved for doughnut and bottlebeam phase masks, while being conceptually much simpler to realize. [1] Shoji Maruo, Osamu Nakamura, and Satoshi Kawata: “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization”, Optics Letters. 22, 132 (1997) [2] Joachim Fischer and Martin Wegener: “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit”, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 22 (2013) [3] Erik H. Waller and Georg von Freymann: “Multi foci with diffraction limited resolution”, Optics Express. 21, 21708 (2013)


Waveguides and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass containing Ag2S nanocrystals
Paper 9736-8

Author(s):  Juliana M. P. Almeida, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil), et al.
Conference 9736: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing X
Session 2: Laser Nano-Structuring and Processing
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:20 AM

We have encompassed the features of As2S3 and Ag2S-NCs in a waveguide, produced by femtosecond laser micromachining. This technique enables to write complex geometry, which is an important step towards integrated systems. At first, thin films were produced on glass substrates. Then, femtosecond laser micromachining (800 nm, 50 fs, 5 MHz) was employed to obtain the threshold energy for inducing modification, being 0.19 ± 0.02 nJ. Adjusting the fabrication conditions we have been able to write slab waveguides. In addition, the nonlinear optical properties of pure As2S3 and Ag2S-NCs doped waveguides have been investigated at the ultra-short pulses regime.


Multi-photon lithography of 3D micro-structures in As2S3 and Ge5(As2Se3)95 chalcogenide glasses
Paper 9759-41

Author(s):  Casey M. Schwarz, Univ. of Central Florida (United States), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 9: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography II: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 11:40 AM

Chalcogenide glasses (ChG) have excellent IR transparency, large refractive indices, low coefficients of thermal expansion, and low change in refractive index with temperature with potential applications in detectors, sensors, photonic waveguides, and acousto-optics. Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and germanium doped arsenic triselenide (Ge5(As2Se3)95) are ChGs that can be thermally deposited to create photosensitive thin glassy films of molecular clusters. Nano-structured arrays were photo-patterned in thin films of As2S3 and Ge5(As2Se3)95 by MPL and the resulting nano-structure morphology and chemical composition were characterized and correlated with the film properties and processing conditions.


Cloaked contact fingers on solar cells enabled by 3D laser lithography
Paper 9738-5

Author(s):  Martin F. Schumann, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 5: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography III: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 1:30 PM

Metallic contact fingers on the sun-facing side of solar cells are necessary to reduce Ohmic losses but also represent optically dead regions reducing the energy conversion per area. In this talk, we present two approaches to solve this problem by “cloaking the contacts”. The first approach uses graded-index metamaterials designed by two-dimensional Schwarz-Christoffel conformal maps, the second free-form surfaces designed by one-dimensional coordinate transformations. We provide proof-of-principle demonstrators using direct laser writing of polymer structures on silicon wafers with opaque metal contacts. Using the so-called shell-writing mode, fabrication times for “masters” are reduced significantly, potentially enabling mass fabrication via imprinting.


Light-modulated patterns of plasmonic, upconversion, and graphene nanoparticles in liquid crystals
Paper 9769-9

Author(s):  Ivan I. Smalyukh, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States), et al.
Conference 9769: Emerging Liquid Crystal Technologies XI
Session 3: Optical Manipulation and Imaging
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 1:30 PM

Graphene materials and structures have become an essential part of modern electronics and photovoltaics. However, despite many production methods, applications of grapheme-based structures are hindered by high costs, lack of scalability and limitations in spatial patterning. This lecture will discuss how we fabricate three-dimensional functional solid microstructures of reduced graphene oxide in a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal of graphene oxide flakes using a pulsed near infrared laser. This reliable, scalable approach is mask-free, does not require special chemical reduction agents, and can be implemented at ambient conditions starting from aqueous graphene oxide flakes. Orientational ordering of graphene oxide flakes in self-assembled liquid-crystalline phases enables laser patterning of complex, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide structures and colloidal particles, such as trefoil knots, with ‘frozen’ orientational order of flakes. These structures and particles are mechanically rigid and range from hundreds of nanometres to millimetres in size, as needed for applications in colloids, electronics, photonics and displays.


Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-acrylate composites
Paper 9738-6

Author(s):  Yongfeng Lu, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 5: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography III: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 2:20 PM

Various arbitrary functional 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-acrylate composite resins have been successfully developed via two-photon polymerization (TPP). 0.2 wt% MWCNTs have been uniformly incorporated and stabilized into thiol-acrylate resins for TPP micro/nanofabrication. The obtained composite exhibits an extraordinary electrical conductivity (2 × 103 S/m), enhanced mechanical strength (reduced Young’s Modulus 2.08 GPa, 1.3-fold enhancement; hardness 113 KPa, 1.7-fold enhancement), high optical transparency (95% at 550 nm for 3 um film) and flexibility. TPP micro/nanofabrication using the MWNT-acrylate composite promises a wide range of applications, including MEMS/NEMS, 3D electronics, integrated optics, biomimetics, and metamaterials.


3D direct laser writing of metal structures for novel optical applications
Paper 9759-43

Author(s):  Michael G. Moebius, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (United States), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 11: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography IV: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 4:00 PM

We present advances in 3D direct laser writing of metal structures. We fabricate structures within a polymer matrix, allowing both connected and disconnected structures with arbitrary shape. This technique can produce features


Manufacturing of functional micro/nano structures by fs-laser microfabrication
Paper 9738-9

Author(s):  Cleber R. Mendonça, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 6: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography IV: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 4:30 PM

Femtosecond laser microfabrication has prompted as a powerful tool for manufacturing advanced materials, aiming at applications from photonics to biology. This work presents results on the development of functional microstructures by fs-laser fabrication methods, such as light emitting devices, waveguides containing metal nanoparticles, micro-optical storage devices and microstructures for biological applications, using either multiphoton lithography or fs-laser micromachining. Results on the optical, mechanical and bio-related properties will be presented, which indicate the proposed strategies for the development of applications from displays to biological systems monitoring.


Femtosecond laser direct-write of lab-in-fiber sensors through polymer-coated optical fiber
Paper 9759-44

Author(s):  Kevin A. J. Joseph, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session 11: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography IV: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 4:50 PM

Multifunctional lab-in-fiber (LIF) technology seeks to translate the accomplishments of optofluidic lab-on-chip (LOC) devices to silica fiber, a robust, flexible, and ubiquitous optical communication platform. This creates new opportunities for bringing LOC-style sensing to vast, expansive networks and to tightly confined, sinuous spaces. Currently, fibers are processed after stripping their polymer buffer-jacket, increasing processing time and mechanically weakening the device. In this study, 3D-LIF devices were processed with femtosecond lasers by distortion-free immersion-lens focusing through urethane-acrylate-coated fiber. Optical waveguides were shown to efficiently couple with pre-existing core waveguides, while chemically-etched laser tracks facilitated further integration of microfluidic cavities and MEMS structures, without damaging the polymer jacket.


Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures
Paper 9738-10

Author(s):  Natalia A. Bakhtina, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 6: 3D Laser Structuring Devices and Lithography IV: Joint Session with Conferences 9738 and 9759
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 5:10 PM

In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with excellent optical and electrical characteristics. This was achieved via the development of novel crosslinkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components with a resolution down to 150 nm. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.


Femtosecond laser processing of transparent materials for assembly-free fabrication of photonic microsensors
Paper 9735-47

Author(s):  Lei Yuan, Clemson Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 9735: Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXI
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 6:00 PM

In this paper, we summarize our recent research progresses on the understanding, design, fabrication, characterization of various photonic sensors for energy, defense, environmental, biomedical and industry applications. Femtosecond laser processing/ablation of various glass materials (fused silica, doped silica, sapphire, etc.) will be discussed towards the goal of one-step fabrication of novel photonic sensors and new enabling photonic devices. A number of new photonic devices and sensors will be presented.


Improving accuracy of overhanging structures for selective laser melting through reliability characterization of single track formation on thick powder beds
Paper 9738-44

Author(s):  Sankhya Mohanty, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 6:00 PM

A systematic approach towards establishing reliability of overhanging structure production by selective laser melting has been adopted. A calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model is used to simulate the single track formation on a thick powder bed. Single tracks are manufactured on a thick powder bed to capture the effect of changes in incident beam power distribution. The experimental results are used in combination with numerical model, and subjected to uncertainty and reliability analysis. The technique is subsequently extended for reliability characterization of single- and multiple layers produced on a thick powder bed without support structures.


Maskless lithography stage-shutter-free microfabrication based on serial area-controlled hologram
Paper 9738-42

Author(s):  Chenchu Zhang, Univ. of Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 6:00 PM

We demonstrate a maskless lithographic system to perform serial micropatterning based on two photon polymerization (TPP). We present a stage-shutter-free microfabrication approach to achieve arbitrary three dimensional (3D) micro structures without the use of 3D stage and shutter. An easy and efficient area-controlled approach is provided to increase the uniformity of focus in order to get 3D micro structures with higher quality. Here we apply holograms with different active size based on the diffraction function of 2D grating to eliminate the nonuniformity of target focus. Several cubes are made and compared to optimize the fabrication parameters. In the end, a 3D Olympic Games logo was fabricated without moving stage and shutter, showing the promising application in cost reduction of 3D integrated TPP fabrication systems.


Optically active acrylate/SWCNT composite microdevices produced by multi-photon polymerization
Paper 9738-41

Author(s):  Adriano Jose Galvani Otuka, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session PTue: Posters-Tuesday
Date and Time: Tuesday, February 16, 2016, 6:00 PM

In this work, we fabricated polymeric composites microdevices, functionalized with SWCNT and organic dyes, using multi-photon absorption polymerization. The SWCNT is added to improve mechanical properties of the device and the organic dyes are used to alter the optical properties of the sample. We observed changes in the elastic modulus and viscoelasticity of the device, while optical properties of the dyes were maintained. The approach presented here is a promising alternative for functionalization of polymers, enabling the production of devices with special features for different fields.


Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects
Paper 9738-12

Author(s):  Alberto Piqué, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 7: Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT)
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 2:30 PM

The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal interconnects precisely over devices contact pads to make functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for flexible circuits or thermal mismatch. These interconnect “bridges” can span wide gaps (on the order of several hundred microns) and accommodate height differences of tens of micron between adjacent devices.


3D fabricated microoptic system for multispectral tissue fluorescence lifetime measurements
Paper 9711-51

Author(s):  Luwei Zou, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn (United States), et al.
Conference 9711: Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues IX
Session 8: Instrumentation II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 3:20 PM

Significant knowledge can be extracted from the composition of different collagen types in the ocular tissue. With the combination of spectral and frequency-domain phase modulation lifetime detections, different compositions of collagens can be measured from intact ocular tissue. The portable device can be used to measure collagen and tissue matrix protein lifetimes at multiple wavelength, which can help clinicians know more about the components and states of the tissue, allow them to be diagnosed non-invasively.


3D manufacturing of micro and nano-architected materials
Paper 9738-14

Author(s):  Lorenzo Valdevit, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 8: Materials, Processes, and Post-Printing Processes for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 3:40 PM


Aperiodic mechanical metamaterial: Bridging the gap between matter and machine
Paper 9738-15

Author(s):  Corentin Coulais, Leiden Univ. (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 8: Materials, Processes, and Post-Printing Processes for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 4:10 PM

We introduce a combinatorial strategy to create a vast number of distinct, three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials. These materials consist of aperiodic stackings of anisotropic building blocks. We create such metamaterials by 3D printing, and experimentally demonstrate that the information embedded in the stacking order spawns completely novel properties. First, their surfaces can morph into an arbitrary texture. Second, their mechanics is sensitive to the pattern of the surface they are in contact with. Our combinatorial approach opens pathways for the design of functional structures programmed with specific mechanical tasks, which blur the boundary between material and machine.


The TEMPS facility for optical property metrology of materials at high temperatures: Goals and current status
Paper 9738-16

Author(s):  Sergey Mekhontsev, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 8: Materials, Processes, and Post-Printing Processes for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 4:40 PM

TEMPS (Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids) is a new facility under construction at NIST, which is designed for the accurate measurement of material emittance, reflectance and true surface temperature and is aimed at the establishment of measurement traceability and best practices for non-contact thermometry in additive manufacturing. This will enable improvements in the reproducibility and control of manufacturing processes. This paper describes the objectives, goals, and development status of this facility.


Electrochemistry and corrosion of multi-metal printed structures
Paper 9738-17

Author(s):  Owen Hildreth, Arizona State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 8: Materials, Processes, and Post-Printing Processes for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 5:00 PM

In this paper, the electrochemistry and corrosion properties of 3D printed metals is examined for multi-material metals. Special focus is paid to the interface of the two metals and how both the printing process and post-printing heat treatments impact electrochemistry, corrosion and etch rates.


Laser powder injection additive manufacturing of novel alloys and composites
Paper 9738-18

Author(s):  Baolong Zheng, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 8: Materials, Processes, and Post-Printing Processes for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 5:30 PM

In this report, recent research and progress associated with development of alloys and composites using LENS are reviewed. The microstructure of novel materials can be tailored by controlling both composition and process parameters. For processing improvement, the closed-loop diagnostics and controls with in-situ molten pool sensor and Z-height control subsystems are being developed, while the thermal behavior measurement with thermal imaging and thermocouple methods, and numerical simulation are also being extensively investigated. The trends and challenges associated with direct laser fabrication of novel materials, as well as existing problems with residual stress and porosity in deposited materials are also discussed.


Dielectric elastomer-based laser beam pointing method with broadband wavelength
Paper 9742-72

Author(s):  Tomohiko Hayakawa, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan), et al.
Conference 9742: Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXIV
Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 6:00 PM

We will report a novel method to manipulate the direction of a laser beam by controlling the deflection of the dielectric elastomer. The system is activated by adjusting different voltages on multi-layers of the dielectric elastomers without mechanical movement. We had employed different wavelengths of laser beams to test our system, and the experimental result showed that it was well transmittance in ultraviolet and visible wavelength bands and had achieved high-precision controlled in micro-millimeter. It is possible to be used in the partial of the laser application field, such as a laser cutting or drilling machine or 3D printing.


Direct write grayscale lithography as a fabrication technology for deep micro-optical freeform surfaces
Paper 9759-62

Author(s):  Hans-Christoph Eckstein, Fraunhofer-IOFFraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik (Germany), et al.
Conference 9759: Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX
Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 17, 2016, 6:00 PM

We present a novel direct write grayscale lithography system for the fabrication of micro-optical freeform surfaces, micro-lenses, diffusors and diffractive optics. The exposure principle offers an accurate and high dynamic control of the dosage and allows high structure depths of >100µm as well as the possibility of very steep edges in the profiles (>80°). The patterning speed of up to 100cm²/h makes the concept suitable for large scale applications. We outline the benefit of this technology for the fabrication of micro-asphere-arrays for imaging applications which we fabricated with a superior low surface deviation below 0.2% RMS of the surface sag.


Modeling the metal additive manufacturing process at the scale of the part and the powder
Paper 9738-19

Author(s):  Wayne King, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 9: Modeling, Design, Process Monitoring, and Controls for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 8:00 AM

Forty-seven percent of manufacturers surveyed indicated that uncertain product quality was a barrier to adoption of additive manufacturing. In this presentation, we discuss how high performance computing and advanced modeling and simulation could play a key role in the successful introduction of additive manufacturing in US industry.


Graded photonic crystal structures for single-pass all-angle light extraction from light-emitting diodes
Paper 9756-51

Author(s):  Martin F. Schumann, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany), et al.
Conference 9756: Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures VI
Session 12: Photonic Crystal Structures I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 8:00 AM

While the internal quantum efficiency of state-of-the-art light-emitting diodes (LED) can be close to 100%, their external quantum efficiency is much lower because not all the light can be coupled out from the high-index LED stack to free space. Many approaches have been discussed, but none of them has provided a complete solution. Here, we use transformation optics with Schwarz-Christoffel transformations to design single-pass omni-angle out-couplers comparable in size to the LED. The calculated graded-index distributions can, e.g., be mapped onto graded three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals which can be fabricated by direct laser writing. The latest status will be presented.


Towards in-situ process monitoring in selective laser sintering using optical coherence tomography
Paper 9738-20

Author(s):  Kristian M. Groom, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 9: Modeling, Design, Process Monitoring, and Controls for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 8:30 AM

Selective laser sintering (SLS) enables fast, flexible and cost-efficient polymer part production. However, a lack of process monitoring and feedback control of process parameters prevents its wider uptake in high value manufacturing. We use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate Polyamide parts produced by SLS. We analyse surface and sub-surface (down to 400µm depths) defects built into the part, compare with process parameters, and quantify the limiting factors associated with the measurement technique. Typical defects such as voids, contaminants and regions of controlled porosity are examined on a ~30µm scale using a commercial 1300nm OCT system.


Optical design and initial results from NIST's AMMT/TEMPS Facility
Paper 9738-22

Author(s):  Steven E. Grantham, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 9: Modeling, Design, Process Monitoring, and Controls for Additive Manufacturing
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 9:20 AM


Large area micro-/nano-structuring using direct laser interference patterning
Paper 9735-40

Author(s):  Andres F. Lasagni, Fraunhofer IWS Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 9735: Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXI
Session 13: Laser Surface Structuring II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 10:30 AM

Smart surfaces are a source of innovation in the 21st Century. Potential aplications can be found in a wide range of fields where improved optical, mechanical or biological properties can benefit the functions of products. In this study, the fabrication of spatially ordered structures using Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) is demonstrated. Different application examples, including the processing of 2D and 3D surfaces are introduced und applied to improve the surfaces properties of polymers, metals and coatings. Initial investigations of large area structuring of stamps for 2D and R2R processing are also discussed.


Laser post-processing of Inconel 625 made by selective laser melting
Paper 9738-26

Author(s):  David B. Witkin, The Aerospace Corp. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 10: SLM, DMLS, SLS, SLM with Ultrafast Lasers
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 11:30 AM

The effect of laser remelting of surfaces of as-built Selective Laser Melted (SLM) Inconel 625 was evaluated for its potential to improve the surface roughness of SLM parts. A CW fiber laser at 1064 nm was amplitude modulated with a pulse profile to induce remelting without spallation or ablation. The results show that with an appropriate pulse profile that meters the heat-load, surface features such as partially sintered powder particles and surface connected porosity can be mitigated via a secondary remelting/annealing event.


Observation of melting conditions in selective laser melting of metals (SLM)
Paper 9741-26

Author(s):  Ulrich Thombansen, Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik (Germany), et al.
Conference 9741: High-Power Laser Materials Processing: Lasers, Beam Delivery, Diagnostics, and Applications V
Session 7: Process Monitoring
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 11:30 AM

Melting of metal powder by laser radiation is moving to a broad variety of manufacturing businesses. This move is accompanied by several providers of machines that offer a professional handling of materials and a sound design of the process. However, the path from the planned course of the process towards the achieved material properties is still not fully described. Today, several approaches exist to monitor the course of the process. Several works have been carried out on the application of pyrometers and thermal imaging cameras. The work presents a comparison by using a system that acquires all this information synchronously. It compares the acquired signals and provides orientation towards future implementation.


Fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy processed using selective laser melting
Paper 9738-27

Author(s):  Hu Zhang, Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology (China), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 10: SLM, DMLS, SLS, SLM with Ultrafast Lasers
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 11:50 AM

The proposed paper illustrates fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) process. Al-Cu-Mg parts with relative high density of 99.8% were obtained. Tensile tests reveal a remarkable mechanical behavior: the samples show yield and tensile strengths of about 276 MPa and 402 MPa, respectively, along with fracture strain of 6%. The effect of heat treatment on microstructure and related tensile properties is examined and the results demonstrate that the mechanical behavior of the SLMed Al-Cu-Mg samples can be tuned within a wide range of strength and ductility through proper heat treatment.


Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications
Paper 9738-28

Author(s):  Edward C. Kinzel, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 11: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 1:10 PM

Additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly accepted for printing plastics, metals, and some ceramics. However, comparatively little work has been performed on printing glass. Ongoing work on depositing transparent glass components will be presented including printing using soda-lime, fused quartz, and optical fiber. This presentation will focus on filament-fed results. In this process a CO2 laser is used to locally heat and melt the glass. The build platform is scanned by moving a heated build platform under a stationary laser beam. Material is consolidated by the melting process, solidifies as the part translates relative to the laser beam.


Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multilevel multiscale optimization of cellular scanning strategy
Paper 9738-29

Author(s):  Sankhya Mohanty, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 11: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 1:40 PM

Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. A calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. A multilevel optimization strategy is adopted using a customized genetic algorithm developed for optimizing cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting, with an objective of reducing residual stresses and deformations. The thermo-mechanically optimized cellular scanning strategies are compared with other strategies used to manufacture standard samples.


Application of laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique to additive manufacturing
Paper 9738-30

Author(s):  Henry Helvajian, The Aerospace Corp. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 11: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 2:00 PM

The change in properties of a propagating ultrasonic wave has been a mainstay characterization tool of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) industry for identifying subsurface defects (e.g. damage). A variant of this concept could be applicable to 3D additive manufacturing where the existence of defects (e.g. pores) within a sublayer could mark a product as non-qualifying. We have been exploring the utility of pulsed laser ultrasonic excitation coupled with CW laser heterodyne detection as an all optical scheme for characterizing sub surface layer properties. Current tests include characterizing properties of weld joints between two thin stainless steel plates.


Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing
Paper 9738-31

Author(s):  Jason B. Jones, Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 11: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 2:20 PM

Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based industrial 3D printing (additive manufacturing, AM) systems are not yet able to produce parts with the accuracy and surface finish of CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. The engineering to achieve combined processing has also led to a novel beam delivery approach that allows automated changeover between milling and laser-processing in mainstream CNC machines. This presentation highlights its development, challenges and future impact on laser processing.


Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system
Paper 9770-14

Author(s):  Thibault North, Haute Ecole Spécialisée de Suisse occidentale (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 9770: Advances in Display Technologies VI
Session 3: 3D, Holographic, and HM Displays
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 2:30 PM

A compact binocular head-up display integrated in a motorcycle helmet is presented and characterized. The use of a laser micro-projector using a 2D MEMS-mirror enables the formation of a bright image, superimposed on the user vision. A fully-functional and adjustable 3D-printed prototype, thereby fitting the morphology of most users, is presented.


Optical screw-wrench for 2PP-microstructure interlocking
Paper 9764-48

Author(s):  Jannis Köhler, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany), et al.
Conference 9764: Complex Light and Optical Forces X
Session 11: Laser Microfabrication and Microassembly
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 2:40 PM

Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as a powerful platform for processing three-dimensional microstructures with high resolution in the nanometer range. However, to manufacture complex microsystems, assembling techniques are required. In this paper, a qualitative approach for assembling multiple 2PP written building blocks utilizing optical forces is presented. Therefore, screw and nut shaped subcomponents are produced by 2PP-technique and screwed together using a holographic optical tweezer (HOT). The results do not only provide the assembling of building blocks to complex microsystems, rather different functionalized 2PP-microstructures can be combined by simply screwing them together with the use of optical forces.


Using optical trapping to incorporate particles with different properties in specific areas of a microstructure fabricated using multi-photon polymerization
Paper 9738-40

Author(s):  Meisam Askari, The Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 11: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing I
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 2:50 PM

Multi-Photon Polymerization (MPP) is a powerful technique to fabricate complex 3D structures using ultra-short laser pulses. To be able to fabricate microstructures with high resolution and different mechanical, electrical and optical properties, we combined the multi-photon polymerization rig with an optical trapping setup. By embedding particles with specific properties in the polymer, the Polymer properties can be tailored.


Femtosecond laser written microresonators and nanophotonic circuitry
Paper 9738-32

Author(s):  Robert A. Norwood, College of Optical Sciences, The Univ. of Arizona (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 3:30 PM

The advent of advanced solid-state lasers, specifically fiber lasers, has ushered in a new era in laser writing. Compact, femtosecond fiber lasers enable turn-key multiphoton lithography systems to be a reality, and provide a route to the creation of sophisticated photonic structures, such as 3D microresonators and integrated nanophotonic circuitry. We present the use of a Ti:sapphire laser for the creation of microresonator disks with high quality factors in optical fiber and then discuss the development of modelocked femtosecond fiber laser based systems for nanophotonic circuit writing, as well as polymer material advances with potential for applications in the mid-infrared.


NASA FrankenEye UAS: A scalable, modular aircraft enabled by 3D printing
Paper 9738-33

Author(s):  Kevin Reynolds, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 4:00 PM


Inkjet printed 3D micro- and nano-structures for Phased Array Antenna
Paper 9738-34

Author(s):  Ray T. Chen, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 4:20 PM

A complete inkjet-printed 3D structure containing 50 Ohm transmission lines, CNT-based FET, switching network and phased array antenna pads are printed in a conformable substrate. Large steering angles and high frequency switching speed of the CNT-based FET are demonstrated which can be used for air-borne and space-borne applications for remote sensing and free space wireless communications.


Improving resolution of periodic patterns with three-color photolithography
Paper 9738-35

Author(s):  Zuleykhan Tomova, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 4:50 PM

Novel visible-light-based lithographic techniques have demonstrated high potential in achieving the super resolution of the fabricated features. Nonlinear interaction of light can lead to the formation of the isolated structures with size in the sub-100 nm range. Different exposure schemes, involving a second light source, allow for smaller structures creation, however, the two competing chemical processes, deactivation and free-radical formation, limit its potential for close-packed features fabrication. This problem can be avoided by employing a three-color lithography scheme, in which the state that produces free radicals, differ from a deactivation state. We investigated various exposure schemes to achieve smallest pitch.


Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP)
Paper 9738-36

Author(s):  John Tumbleston, Carbon3D, Inc. (United States), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 5:10 PM

Recently, the core technology of Silicon Valley start-up, Carbon3D, was unveiled in a simultaneous presentation at TED and publication in Science. This additive manufacturing technology, known as CLIP, allows for complex, functional 3D objects to be fabricated in a continual process. Advantages to a continual process are three-fold: i) Parts can be fabricated 25 to 100 times faster than with conventional 3D printers, ii) monolithic parts are produced with internal uniformity and integrity, and iii) the comparatively gentle nature of the process lends itself to producing both delicate structures and parts with unconventional materials. This presentation will detail specifics of CLIP along with opportunities for fundamental research and new applications.


The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation
Paper 9738-37

Author(s):  Jimin Chen, Beijing Univ. of Technology (China), et al.
Conference 9738: Laser 3D Manufacturing III
Session 12: Applications, Systems, Process Developments for Additive Manufacturing II
Date and Time: Thursday, February 18, 2016, 5:40 PM

Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hitech which conbimes traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. Along with the progress of technology, the application of 3D printing in medical field is becoming more and more popular. In this paper we intruduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. It is concluded that the new type guide with 3D printing is dominantly advantageous.


Important Dates

Author Notification
26 September 2016

Manuscripts Due
See individual conferences


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