BioScience Research Collaborative, Rice Univ.
    Houston, TX, United States
    16 - 17 May 2016
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    Posters

    Wide spectral-range imaging spectroscopy of photonic crystal microbeads for multiplex biomolecular assay applications
    Paper 9155-16

    Author(s):  Jianping Li, Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong, China), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Photonic crystal microbeads-based suspension array is a novel way to increase reaction speed and multiplexing in detecting and quantifying biomolecular analytes. Nonetheless, on the detection end, it is also of great need to have powerful decoding of these optically color-encoded microcarriers for ultimate high-throughput measurements. We propose an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) features in very wide spectral range of ~350-1000nm and well-inherited Connes advantage of high wavelength measurement accuracy besides wide-field spatial resolving ability. Reflection spectroscopy experiments on novel silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs) demonstrated the practical potential of the approach for high-throughput and multiplexed suspension array-based molecular assays.


    Assessing pediatric postoperative chylothorax at the bedside using near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging
    Paper 9155-17

    Author(s):  Duraisamy Balaguru, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014  5:00:00 PM

    Diagnostic imaging could aid decision making for timely management of chylothorax, of which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. Non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging was used on a 5-week-old infant, who developed chylothoraces after heart surgery, to determine whether thoracic duct ligation or pleurodesis would restore normal drainage. Images showed that lymph flow from feet stopped at groins. From left hand injection, no lymph flowed into the subclavian vein, but instead, into the left pleural space. Based on the imaging results, left pleurodesis was performed with the result of temporary reduction of chest tube drainage.


    Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue
    Paper 9155-18

    Author(s):  Maria K. Jimenez, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.


    Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes
    Paper 9155-19

    Author(s):  John C. Rasmussen, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.


    Handheld system for multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with real-time image processing
    Paper 9155-20

    Author(s):  Shuna Cheng, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:0000 PM


    Dentin hypersensitivity diagnosis based on polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)
    Paper 9155-21

    Author(s):  Yao-Sheng Hsieh, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Wide-field endoscopic fluorescence imaging technique for tumor detection with glucose analogue
    Paper 9155-22

    Author(s):  Yun He, Tsinghua Univ. (China), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    The lack of functional information and specific imaging in conventional endoscopy leads to a high miss-rate of early tumor detection. The combination of fluorescence imaging and endoscopy presents a promising approach. Here we introduce a new endoscopy method employing a home-made flexible wide-field epi-fluorescence endoscope that can be inserted through the working channel of a gastrointestinal endoscope with the glucose analogue 2-DeoxyGlucosone as the near-infrared fluorescent probe. System characterization indicates a good sensitivity and linearity over a large field of view. Its capability of tumor identification and location is demonstrated with experiments of in-vivo imaging of xenografted tumor model.


    Dominant frequency analysis of prefrontal cortex: a study of resting-state functional optical topography
    Paper 9155-23

    Author(s):  Ching-Cheng Chuang, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Brain functional connectivity in resting-state by using functional optical topography (fOT) measurement has become one of important approach to understanding the organization of the human brain. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play an important role in “higher” brain functions such as personality and emotion that may associated with several mental disorders. We propose a method of dominant frequency mapping to analyze resting-state fOT data, which refers to the spontaneous neural activity. The fOT method can provide high potential to be the ideal choice for resting-state functional studies in the fields of developmental and clinical neuroscience that can apply to several mental disorders diagnosis.


    Periodontal disease diagnosis with swept-source Doppler optical coherent tomography
    Paper 9155-24

    Author(s):  Cheng-Han Huang, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Usefulness of simultaneous electroencephalography near-infrared spectroscopy in diagnosis of neurological disorders
    Paper 9155-25

    Author(s):  Dai-Chen Lu, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool for measuring evoked functional changes of brain oxygenation. Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence can be used to evaluate the functionality of cortical connections and to obtain information of regional cortical activity. Coregistration of EEG-NIRS is a recent technique that was used to analyze the changes in both electrical and local hemodynamic activities of human brain. This coregistration is useful to avoid misleading interpretation of NIRS, especially in the diagnosis of neurological disorders. In this research, we investigate a approach to the analysis of enhance accuracy of NIRS by EEG for physiological activities in mental focus task.


    Oxygenation dynamic monitoring using time-resolved diffuse optical imaging system with time division multiple access
    Paper 9155-26

    Author(s):  Chen-Wun Ciou, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    We present the experimental results of in-vivo oxygenation dynamic monitoring based on a time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TRDOI) system. The TRDOI was performed with picosecond diode lasers (dual-wavelength near-infrared source) and a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) that coupled to a time-correlated single-photon counting electronics. The TRDOI enables depth-resolved estimation of changes in absorption by using moment calculation of the times-of-flight of photons (DTOFs). The oxygenation dynamic image of local tissue can be measured in clinical diagnosis.


    Study on functional electrical stimulation therapy for knee osteoarthritis complicating quadriceps muscular atrophy with near-infrared spectroscopy measurement
    Paper 9155-27

    Author(s):  Wei-Long Kao, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Point of care pathology with miniature microscopes for early detection and surgical guidance
    Paper 9155-28

    Author(s):  Michael J. Mandella, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Miniature dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes are being developed for various clinical applications, including the early detection of oral cancers and for guiding brain tumor resection. We will discuss the design of MEMS-scanned DAC microscopes, the analysis and optimization of DAC microscope performance, and preclinical tests with phantoms and animal models. A translational strategy for oral-cancer detection and brain-tumor resection in humans will also be described.


    Confocal autofluorescence microscopy of inflamed biopsies to improve oral cancer detection
    Paper 9155-29

    Author(s):  Anne Hellebust, Rice Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Inflammatory lesions often appear visually similar to precancerous lesions, making inflammation a common source of false positives during visual autofluorescence examination. While the relationship between inflammation and cancer is complex, the ability to distinguish between the two would aid in observation of high risk patients and provide a tool to reduce false positives in low-prevalence patient populations. To help us understand the biological origins of changes in optical properties of oral tissue with inflammation, confocal microscopy was used to assess changes in epithelial and stromal optical properties from fresh tissue oral biopsies with inflammation.


    Rapid multiplexed molecular phenotyping of ex vivo and in vivo tissues with targeted SERS NPs
    Paper 9155-30

    Author(s):  Yu Wang, Stony Brook Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Design and evaluation of confocal endoscope for early oral cancer detection
    Paper 9155-31

    Author(s):  Joey M. Jabbour, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Early detection of oral cancer significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care is biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. We present the design and development of a novel rigid reflectance confocal endoscope probe towards the early assessment of the oral mucosa in vivo and in real time. The endoscope tip has an outer diameter of 6.5 mm, and a focus tunable lens is used for axial scanning. The system has a 7 Hz frame rate, 0.7 numerical aperture, 500 micron field of view, and subcellular lateral and axial resolution.


    In vivo molecular contrast OCT imaging of methylene blue in a zebrafish embryo
    Paper 9155-32

    Author(s):  Wihan Kim, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Incorporating a 663 nm diode laser into an otherwise typical 830 nm spectral-domain OCT system has enabled in vivo imaging of methylene blue (MB) in a zebrafish embryo. Volumetric images show accumulation of MB in the pronephric ducts , which is the primary excretory organ. Accumulation in the pronephric ducts was expected since the embryo was stained by immersing it in a 0.01% solution of MB for 6 hours. Gaining molecular contrast in OCT images from an FDA approved dye such as MB could find use both as a research tool and clinically to enhance the contrast of OCT images.


    Simplified transient absorption ultrasonic microscope for achieving optically resolved photoacoustic imaging
    Paper 9155-33

    Author(s):  Scott P. Mattison, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Transient absorption ultrasonic microscopy (TAUM) provides subcellular axial resolution for high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). TAUM is a based on pump-probe spectroscopy and requires co-propagation of independently modulated pump and probe beams to provide optical axial sectioning. Here, we describe a more efficient design to obtain the same subcellular resolution. Modulation of the pulsed laser source of a traditional high-resolution PAM system shifts the TAUM signal to the second harmonic of the modulation frequency. This allows for collection of TAUM images with a very simple modification to a traditional PAM setup. We demonstrate this system with volumetric images of fixed erythrocytes.


    Modulated alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues
    Paper 9155-34

    Author(s):  Steven Y. Leigh, Stony Brook Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    A strategy is presented to enable optical-sectioning microscopy with improved contrast and imaging depth using low-power (0.5 mW) diode laser illumination. This method is a modification to the DAC microscope architecture in which intersecting illumination and collection beams significantly improve the spatial-filtering and optical-sectioning performance of confocal microscopy, we propose that modulating the spatial alignment of the dual-axis beams at a frequency f, such the focal volume signal of the microscope is modulated at 2f, further provides nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in optical-sectioning contrast. Lock-in detection is used to remove the unmodulated background light, thereby enhancing our ability to image deeply within highly scattering tissues.


    Cost-effective fluorescence microscope for point of care read out of bead-based assays
    Paper 9155-35

    Author(s):  Alessandra J. Forcucci, Rice Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Many new platforms have been developed for multiplexed bioassays that rely on imaging targeted fluorescent beads labeled with different fluorescent dyes (e.g. Luminex). These systems typically rely on macroscale readers that are too bulky and expensive for use at the point-of-care. We developed a compact modular fluorescence microscope that can be used for mutiplexed, bead-based assays that would reduce cost and support point-of-care applications. The microscope is composed of 3D-printed plastic modules that can be modified depending on the application. The objective and tube lens module houses a 4x, 0.25 NA infinity-corrected microscope objective and tube lens with manual focus adjustment capability. We successfully validated system performance with synthetic and non-synthetic targets.


    Development and optimization of a line-scanned dual-axis confocal (LS-DAC) microscope for high-speed pathology
    Paper 9155-36

    Author(s):  Danni Wang, Stony Brook Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    We have developed a line-scanned dual-axis confocal (LS-DAC) microscope with subcellular resolution suitable for real time diagnostic imaging at shallow depths. This design serves as a benchtop prototype for a handheld version of the LS-DAC intended for rapid point-of-care pathology. We have assessed the performance trade-offs between the LS-DAC and a point-scanning dual-axis confocal (PS-DAC) microscope via diffraction-theory analysis, Monte-Carlo simulations, and characterization experiments with phantoms and fresh tissues. In addition, we are exploring the use of a sCMOS detector array and rapid 3D deconvolution to improve the sensitivity and resolution of our LS-DAC microscope.


    Excitation of fluorescence in the mouse lung using an internal diffusing fiber source and whole-animal optical imaging
    Paper 9155-37

    Author(s):  Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    The identification of main molecules in chicken fascia and skin at spectral lines in-vitro
    Paper 9155-38

    Author(s):  Olga A. Smolyanskaya, National Research Univ. of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    The chicken fascia and skin spectra was obtained in-vitro by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The spectral lines of main bio-molecules including amino acids were matched with spectral lines of the samples. Several substances were identified in chicken fascia and skin such as tryptophan, D-glucose, adenosine diphosphate, valine and reticulin. This spectral lines including amino acids connects with oscillation modes which conditioned chemical reactions, hydration processes and conformation changes of molecules in skin. The spectral lines of amino acids and other molecules, taking part in metabolic processes, was found at fascia and skin spectra. It is really important to develop THz diagnostic setup with maximal sensitivity and selectivity. It seems very promising to design metamaterial filters for improve the method sensitivity. It can allow us to use that method for precise skin diagnosis.


    Multimodal foveated endomicroscope for the detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus
    Paper 9155-39

    Author(s):  Adam Shadfan, Rice Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    A foveated endomicroscope is proposed that improves upon current detection methods of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) such as the Seattle Protocol and the use of small field-of-view (FOV) high-resolution endoscopes. This objective mimics the human eye by utilizing a large FOV to provide browsing of BE segments, which can then be inspected for EAC with the high-resolution center of the FOV. The non-invasive device is integrated with a confocal microscope and hyperspectral camera to observe changes to morphological structures and biochemical signatures of the cells, further improving upon current techniques and reducing the number of biopsies taken.


    Assessing lymphatic response to treatments in head and neck cancer using near-infrared fluorescence imaging
    Paper 9155-40

    Author(s):  I-Chih Tan, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Care for head and neck (HN) cancer could be improved with better mapping of lymphatic drainage pathways in HN region as well as understanding the effect of the cancer treatments on lymphatics. In this study, near-infrared fluorescence imaging was used to visualize the lymphatics in human subjects diagnosed with HN cancer before and after treatments. Imaging results showed the lymphatic architecture and contractile function in HN. Reformation of lymphatics during the course of cancer care was also seen in the longitudinal imaging. It allowed us to better understand the lymphatics in HN cancer patients.


    Nonlinear optical imaging of the basement membrane in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis
    Paper 9155-41

    Author(s):  Rahul Pal, The Univ. of Texas Medical Branch (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Survival rate of oral cancers depend on the stage of diagnosis and mostly early and pre-neoplastic alterations go unnoticed due to the lack of proper screening. Multiphoton Autofluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy have provided noninvasive real-time information of tissue microarchitecture with subcellular resolution. We have utilized a combination of these nonlinear optical imaging techniques to assess tissue morphology in a hamster model of oral carcinogenesis and identified alterations in the basement membrane in (pre)neoplasia of the disease. Our data suggests irregularities basement membrane, along with cellular morphology could be used in delineating normal and inflamed tissue from dysplasia.


    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the middle ear using an akinetic swept laser source
    Paper 9155-42

    Author(s):  Jesung Park, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Auditory processing in the middle ear changes sound waves to a mechanical vibration by the movement of the tympanic membrane and ossicles. Monitoring the morphological structure and mechanical vibration of the middle ear is a crucial diagnostic approach for conductive hearing loss. Phase-sensitive OCT can visualize the morphological structures of the middle ear and measure its mechanical vibration. We developed a fiber-based phase-sensitive OCT system with an akinetic swept laser source for the measurement of mechanical vibration in the middle ear, and acquired the structures and vibrations of the middle ear of an ex vivo mouse model.


    A simple optofluidic platform for label-free cell-surface marker screening
    Paper 9155-43

    Author(s):  Mustafa A. Mir, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Improvements in frequency-domain based NIRF optical tomography modality for preclinical studies
    Paper 9155-44

    Author(s):  Chinmay D. Darne, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Herein we present recent improvements in system design and performance evaluation of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system developed for small animal fluorescence tomography and installed within a commercial micro-CT/PET scanner. We improved system performance by increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through use of high powered rf modulation, novel data collection scheme, and data discrimination based on the associated noise levels. Noise characteristics show improvement with these techniques and are currently being employed to improve 3-D fluorescence for tomographic reconstructions in phantoms before incorporating into hybrid scanner.


    Performance evaluation of integrating detectors for near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging
    Paper 9155-47

    Author(s):  Banghe Zhu, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Although there has been a plethora of devices advanced for clinical translation, there has been no standards to compare and determine the optical device for fluorescence molecular imaging. In this work, we compare different CCD configurations using a solid phantom developed to mimic pM – fM concentrations of near-infrared fluorescent dyesin tissues. Our results show that intensified CCD systems (ICCDs) offer greater contrast at larger signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in comparison to their un-intensified CCD systems operated at clinically reasonable, sub-second acquisition times. Furthermore, we compared our investigational ICCD device to the commercial NOVADAQ SPY system, demonstrating different performance in both SNR and contrast.


    Study on temperature effect of microcirculation using near-infrared laser Doppler system
    Paper 9155-48

    Author(s):  Chun-Jung Huang, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Performance evaluation of fluorescence tomography in a Siemens Inveon multimodality scanner
    Paper 9155-49

    Author(s):  Yujie Lu, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    A tri-modal (PET/CT/Optical) small animal tomographic imaging system was developed by integrating our advanced non-contact intensified CCD (ICCD) frequency-domain fluorescence imaging components into a Siemens Inveon scanner. We performed a performance evaluation of the developed imaging system by using the developed regularization-free high-order radiative-transfer-based reconstruction algorithm and custom solid phantoms. Our results show that frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) fluorescence tomography can achieve better tomographic images with less artifacts and more precise fluorescent source localization compared to the continuous-wave counterpart. The developed multimodal tomographic imaging system provides a powerful tool for translational biomedical research.


    In vivo microscopy for malaria diagnosis
    Paper 9155-51

    Author(s):  Jennifer Burnett, Rice Univ. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    High-quality malaria diagnostics are critical to measure the efficacy of prevention and treatment efforts and to avoid misdiagnosis and over treatment. Conventional malaria diagnostics requires the collection of a finger-prick blood sample, which is stained and analyzed under a microscope. This method has varying performance from technician to technician, and is dependent on the quality of the prepared blood smear. Our approach is to detect malaria infected blood cells as they circulate in vivo, avoiding the generation of biohazards and the need for a trained specialist. This concept was evaluated in a mouse model using a portable, homebuilt microscope system.


    Phantom tissue elastic properties assessment using hyperbolic modulation in dynamic spatial frequency domain imaging (DSFDI)
    Paper 9155-52

    Author(s):  Jose E. Calderon, Univ. de Puerto Rico Mayagüez (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Identification of mechanical properties of phantom tissue are important for biomedical research of laser photo therapeutic applications. Using a non-contact pattern illumination Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging technique, we evaluated the effectiveness to correlate the changes in the elastic properties subjected to photothermolysis. The illumination of modulated patterns correlated to scattering and absorption optical properties of the interrogated target were contrasted against resulting elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength of material. Method include a CCD Camera with a 30X lens, a digital marrow display projector, and prototype Arduino UNO microcontroller with sensors where orchestrated using a desktop computer with parallel computing capabilities under Mathematica 9.0 (Wolfram Research) software and processing by a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) GeForce 6300 from NVidia. Phantom Tissue was Siloxane with Achiote extract and Titanium Dioxide serving as absorption and scattering agents respectively. A controlled 465 nm +/- 20% blue 2 watts laser diode induced the thermal shock at for 2 seconds at 5 Hz and 50 millisecond pulse duration over a 50 mm diameter interrogating area. Elastic properties where determine using a tensionmeter Model ESM301. Image captured the structured illumination from modulated asymptote of hyperbolic and based ratio ellipsoid from 1 to 2Pi and from 0 to 1 respectively. Quantitative analysis from correlation between specimen UTS , PL and YS correlation of 0 .7. Histogram showed standard deviation of 20 percent. Qualitative data shows potential non-contact technique to determine elastic properties of phantom. Further research needed under enhanced pattern illumination resolution.


    Device for monitoring blood oxygenation levels in the tibia
    Paper 9155-54

    Author(s):  Joseph L Hollmann, Northeastern Univ (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Osteoporosis is a common side effect of spinal cord injuries. Blood perfusion in the bone provides an indication of bone health and may help to evaluate therapies addressing bone loss. Current methods for measuring blood perfusion of bone use dyes and ionizing radiation, and yield qualitative results. We present a device capable of measuring blood oxygenation in the tibia. The device illuminates the skin directly over the tibia with a white light source and measures the diffusely reflected light in the near infrared spectrum. Multiple source-detector distances are utilized so that the blood perfusion in skin and bone may be differentiated.


    Automated frame selection process for analyzing high resolution microendoscope images
    Paper 9155-55

    Author(s):  Ayumu Ishijima, Rice University (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high resolution microendoscope images. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by comparing automatically selected frames to manually selected frames using quantitative image parameters. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings, where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.


    Automated layer segmentation in retinal OCT images
    Paper 9155-56

    Author(s):  Jonathan Luisi, The Univ. of Texas Medical Branch (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM


    Quantitative "label-free" imaging of dynamic biological events
    Paper 9155-57

    Author(s):  Katherine Creath, 4D Technology Corp. (United States), et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    The ability to view cells’ direct response before, during and after exposure to a treatment or drug is an important means to discovering reaction mechanisms and morphology changes. One new method that is providing new insight into dynamic cellular morphology is quantitative phase microscopy. This label-free imaging modality shows great utility in its ability to examine optical thickness and volume changes, directly proportional to dry cell mass over a range of timescales [1]. This paper describes new and recent research related to measuring optical thickness via a quantitative phase microscope and using it to study small populations of beating cardiac myocytes’ and their response to a drug. Additional measurements are shown of blood flow in a 3-day old zebrafish and vesicle motion within actin fibers in myoblasts.


    Hand-held multi-modal imaging probe for oral cancer diagnosis
    Paper 9155-62

    Author(s): Laura M. Higgins, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, et al.
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    We present the design, characterization, and preliminary in vivo testing of a hand-held probe for simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution epi-fluorescence (HRF) imaging.  OCT provides cross-sectional imaging of tissue micro-architecture to a depth of approximately 2 mm, while HRF provides high-resolution en face imaging over a 0.75 mm square field-of-view.  The optical design delivers OCT and HRF beams along a common optical path, allowing simultaneous, real-time display of co-registered images.  The probe is designed to permit assessment of the oral mucosa, using HRF to identify abnormal lesions within the epithelium and OCT to determine depth of sub-mucosal involvement.


    Super-resolution optical microscopy with standard clinical H&E stains: bringing definition to diagnostics
    Paper 9155-64

    Author(s): Arnold Vainrub, The Univ. of Texas Medical Branch
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Emerging super-resolution (SR) optical microscopy has yet to be innovatively applied in clinical pathology. We recorded and compared conventional transmission images and SR images using microscopic samples. We found that standard H&E or Diff-Quick stains of bacteria, cells, and tissue sections provide high-contrast SR images in both reflected and fluorescent light modes. In SR images the lateral resolution is over ten times sharper than with transmission microscopy and the optical sectioning is substantially improved due to a shorter focus depth. Histological details are seen on a size scale of 0.1 to 2 microns, opening up possibilities for a 2D and 3D assessment of sub-cellular morphology on a much smaller scale than could previously be achieved. The results are illustrated by images of bacteria, leukocytes, and mouse retina sections.


    Our structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) system built at UTMB provides super-resolution imaging of pathology slides in transmitted, reflected and/or fluorescent light modes. The lateral and axial resolutions of 0.09 microns and 0.25 microns, respectively, double the diffraction limit of resolution in conventional optical microscopy. Our SIM system is based on a popular Nikon Eclipse Ti microscope, but is compatible with many manufacturers’ commercial microscopes. Two key developments achieve super-resolution. First, the hardware is upgraded to a custom designed and homebuilt structured illuminator. Second, customized software reconstructs 2D or 3D super-resolution images from a set of experimental images obtained via specific illumination patterns.

     


    Development of a spatial frequency domain imaging system platform
    Paper 9155-65

    Author(s): David Cuccia, Modulated Imaging, Inc.; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Quantitative characterization of tissue structure and function is one of the most challenging problems in medical imaging. To this end, we present development of a robust and user-friendly platform Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) system for wide-field mapping of optical properties and chromophores. We will present: 1) Design and fabrication of a clinic-ready hardware platform with increased field-of-view (20cm x 15cm), spectral multiplexing (11 wavelengths), improved stability (<0.5% drift/hr) and enhanced ease of use (cart-mounted instrumentation); 2) Development of clinic-friendly software with automated analysis and refined algorithms; 3) Development of internal and external verification and validation procedures; 4) In-vivo evaluations to establish benchmarks of performance and sensitivity for quantitative hemoglobin and water parameter recovery. Application areas include research in chronic wound healing, pressure sore staging, burn assessment, reconstructive surgery, and preclinical studies. This work was developed with support from SBIR/STTR grants W81XWH11C0108 (TATRC), R43-RR025985 (NCI), and R42GM077713 (NIGMS).


    Hyperspectral Raman imaging (HSRI) for multiplexed molecular imaging
    Paper 9155-67

    Author(s): Ji Qi, Univ. of Houston; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Raman scattering and Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been employed to encode multiple "color channels" for multiplexed molecular imaging. In Raman scattering, molecular information are encoded in various endogenous vibrational features. In SERS, different labels are used to tag plasmonic nanoparticles such as nanospheres and nanoshells. Raman spectroscopic microscopy systems are needed to acquire full Raman spectra. Spectroscopic pattern matching and/or unmixing is then employed for correct channel assignment. Compared to fluorescence, Raman and SERS have the potential advantage of higher multiplexing capacity (i.e., more "color channels"), single excitation wavelength, and no photobleaching. However, current Raman spectroscopic microscopy systems are very slow.


    Recently, we have developed a hyperspectral Raman imaging (HSRI) system for simultaneously collecting Raman spectra from multiple points [1-3]. This scheme is realized by multiple-point laser active-illumination using a spatial light modulator coupled with wide-field imaging. We have acquired full Raman spectra from as many as ~200 laser spots (equivalent to ~500 diffraction limited imaging pixels) within 1 second without mechanical scanning, inside a 100x100 μm2 field of view. Such throughput is significantly higher than state-of-the-art commercial systems.


    Monolithic nanoporous gold disks with large specific surface area, tunable plasmon resonance, and high-density, internal plasmonic hot-spots
    Paper 9155-68

    Author(s): Jianbo Zeng, Univ. of Houston; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Plasmonic metal nanostructures have shown great potential in sensing, photovoltaics, imaging and biomedicine, principally due to enhancement of the local electric field by light-excited surface plasmons, the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons. Thin films of nanoporous gold have received a great deal of interest due to the unique 3-dimensional bicontinuous nanostructures with high specific surface area. However, in the form of semi-infinite thin films, nanoporous gold exhibits weak plasmonic extinction and little tunability in the plasmon resonance, because the pore size is much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here we show that by making nanoporous gold in the form of disks of sub-wavelength diameter and sub-100 nm thickness, these limitations can be overcome. Nanoporous gold disks not only possess large specific surface area but also high-density, internal plasmonic "hot-spots" with impressive electric field enhancement, which greatly promotes plasmon-matter interaction as evidenced by spectral shifts in the surface plasmon resonance. In addition, the plasmonic resonance of nanoporous gold disks can be easily tuned from 900 to 1850 nm by changing the disk diameter from 300 to 700 nm. Furthermore, nanoporous gold disks can be fabricated as either bound on a surface or as non-aggregating colloidal suspension with high stability.


    Improvement of tissue analysis and classification using optical coherence tomography combined with Raman spectroscopy
    Paper 9155-69

    Author(s): Ji Qi, Univ. of Houston, et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides significant advantages of high-resolution (approaching the histopathology level) real-time imaging of tissues without use of contrast agents. Based on these advantages, the microstructural features of tumors can be visualized and detected intra-operatively. However, it is still not clinically accepted for tumor margin delineation due to poor specificity and accuracy. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy (RS) can obtain tissue information at the molecular level, but does not provide real-time imaging capability. Therefore, combining OCT and RS could provide synergy. To this end, we present a tissue analysis and classification method using both the slope of OCT intensity signal versus depth and the principle components from the RS spectrum as the indicators for tissue characterization. The goal of this study was to understand prediction accuracy of OCT and combined OCT/RS method for classification of optically similar tissues and organs. Our pilot experiments were performed on mouse kidneys, livers, and small intestines. The prediction accuracy with five-fold cross validation of the method has been evaluated by the support vector machine method. The results demonstrate that tissue characterization based on the OCT/RS method was superior compared to using OCT structural information alone. This combined OCT/RS method is potentially useful as a noninvasive optical biopsy technique for rapid and automatic tissue characterization during surgery.


    Microfluidic label-free monitoring of DNA hybridization
    Paper 9155-70

    Author(s): Ji Qi, Univ. of Houston; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Label-free sensing of trace biomolecules such as DNA and pathogens such as viruses would enable powerful amplification-free biosensing Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for molecular detection and identification by exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance effect when the target molecules are near gold or silver nanostructures. However, effective and robust SERS assays have yet become a reality for trace detection.
    Recently, we have developed a SERS substrate by shaping nanoporous gold thin films into monolithic submicron disks, called nanoporous gold disks (NPGD). NPGD provides an effective surface area larger than its geometrical area and a SERS enhancement factor larger than 100 million [1]. Here we present examples of NPGD-based SERS label-free biosensing at the single-molecule level.


    Nanoporous gold disks for photothermal light harvesting and light-gated molecular release
    Paper 9155-71

    Author(s): Greggy Santos, Univ. of Houston; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    Nanoporous gold disks (NPGDs) with 400 nm diameter, 75 nm thickness, and 13 nm pores exhibit large specific surface area and effective photothermal light harvesting capability. A potential application is demonstrated by light-gated, multi-step molecular release of pre-adsorbed R6G fluorescent dye on arrayed NPGDs. Through the use of time-resolved temperature mapping, the spatial and temporal characteristics of photothermal heating in NPGD arrays is successfully demonstrated for both aqueous and air ambient environments. By applying a thermodynamic model to our experimental data, we determined the photothermal conversion efficiency at 56% for NPGD arrays. As a potential application, light-gated, multi-stage release of pre-adsorbed R6G dye molecules from NPGD arrays has been demonstrated. The results establish the foundation that NPGDs can be employed for photothermal light harvesting and light-gated molecular release.


    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for label-free, multiplexed, molecular sensing and imaging
    Paper 9155-72

    Author(s): Ming Li, Univ. of Houston; et al
    Conference 9155: SPIE Translational Biophotonics 2014
    Session PMon: Poster Session
    Date and Time: 5/19/2014 5:00:00 PM

    We report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach for label-free, multiplexed, molecular sensing and large-area, high-resolution molecular imaging on a surface. In this technique, nanoporous gold disk SERS substrates are physically brought to the surface where analytes of interested were pre-deposited, followed by SERS acquisition. This technique features simple sample preparation, low cost, and high reproducibility, which could lead to SERS-based sensing and imaging for point-of-care and forensics applications.