The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Translational Research Presentations

Clinical Technologies and Systems
(ordered by start date and time)


New fiber-based approaches for optical biopsy
Paper 10058-5

Author(s):  Jessie R. Weber, INO (Canada), et al.
Conference 10058: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII
Session 1: Optical Fibers and Sensors I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 9:50 AM

Optical biopsy of tissue using fibers has proven to be a powerful tool for diagnostics. However, there are still many challenges to improving diagnostic value and commercial translation of these techniques. Many fiber-based methods are limited by background noise. Validation of optical measurements with histopathology remains problematic. Complexity, cost, and disposability/sterilizability are roadblocks to clinical use. Here, we present new concepts designed with the goals of being simple and disposable, with improved control of light-sample interactions, and better quality control of the biopsy process. Concepts and preliminary validation in phantoms and tissue for the new implementations will be presented.


Spectral band optimisation for multispectral fluorescence imaging
Paper 10057-8

Author(s):  Dale J. Waterhouse, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10057: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XII
Session 2: Microscopy and Endoscopy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 10:50 AM

Multispectral imaging has the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in biomedical imaging through simultaneous acquisition of both morphological (spatial) and chemical (spectral) information. Performing multispectral imaging in real time, for example in endoscopy or intraoperative imaging, requires a direct trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. We sought to quantitatively assess the impact of spectral band selection, including both center wavelength and bandwidth, on fluorescent contrast agent detection in molecular endoscopic imaging.


Characterizing breast lesions using multimodal diffused optical tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and elastography
Paper 10057-11

Author(s):  Bin Deng, Athinoula A. Martinos Ctr. for Biomedical Imaging (United States), et al.
Conference 10057: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 1:20 PM

Developing biomarkers for the early and accurate prediction of breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) outcomes is needed to tailor treatment on an individual basis for improved disease free and overall survival. In this work, we present a multimodal breast imaging system that is comprised of an 8-channel magnetic resonance (MR) compatible diffuse optical tomographic (DOT) unilateral breast coil with integrated MR elastography (MRE) actuator. Our results show that a rich set of structural and functional biomarkers quantified from complementary imaging technologies can be used to characterize breast lesions.


Real-time fluorescence T/B ratio calculation in multimodal endoscopy for detecting GI tract cancer
Paper 10057-12

Author(s):  Yang Jiang, Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10057: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 1:40 PM

Multimodal endoscopy, with fluorescence-labeled peptides binding to overexpressed molecular targets, is a promising technology to visualize early-stage cancer. However, the current target/background ratio (T/B) calculation, which correlates fluorescence regions to cancer, is slow and cannot provide real-time feedback for guiding biopsy and therapy. Here we applied Chan-Vese algorithm together with a semi-implicit gradient descent method to segment high-risk regions in fluorescence videos and achieved real-time T/B calculation and high-risk regions of cancer localization. With a processing speed of 2 fps, we obtained accurate segmentation of high-risk regions examined by experts, using clinical fluorescence video recordings from Barrett’s esophagus patients.


Measurement and evaluation of digital cervicography programs in two cervical cancer screening camps in Kenya
Paper 10055-12

Author(s):  David Levitz, MobileODT Ltd. (Israel), et al.
Conference 10055: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings III
Session 3: Global Health Related Optical Technologies
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 2:00 PM

Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women in low-resource settings. To improve care, governments and NGOs developed outreach camps, where patients can access screening, diagnosis, and treatment onsite. However, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of screening camps is difficult. To address this challenge, an inexpensive, connected mobile colposcope was deployed at Kenyan screening camps for nurses to image the cervix. A novel job aid in the app guided nurses through imaging and recorded decisions. Aggregate job aid data enabled live M&E of the screening camps. This paper compares screening camps at two sites in Kenya. Differences documented through the job aid enabled targeted program improvements and provider training.


Towards practical implementation of biophotonics-based solutions for cost-effective monitoring of food quality control
Paper 10055-15

Author(s):  Igor Meglinski, Univ. of Oulu (Finland), et al.
Conference 10055: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings III
Session 4: Global Health, Agriculture and Development Related Optical Technologies
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 3:30 PM

Biophotonics-based diagnostic and imaging modalities have been widely used in various applications associated with the non-invasive imaging of the internal structure of a range biological media from a range of cells cultures to biological tissues. With the fast growing interest in food securities there remains strong demand to apply reliable and cost effective biophotonics-based technologies for rapid screening of freshness, internal defects and quality of major agricultural products. In current presentation the results of application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and encapsulated optical bio-sensors for quantitative assessment of freshness of agricultural products, such as meat and sea foods, are presented, and their further perspectives are discussed.


Visibility of solid and liquid fiducial markers used for image-guided radiation therapy on optical coherence tomography: an esophageal phantom study
Paper 10056-7

Author(s):  Pouya Jelvehgaran, Academisch Medisch Centrum (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session 3: Phantoms II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 3:50 PM

Fiducial markers provide guidance for target localization on computed tomography (CT) for esophageal cancer radiation therapy (RT) planning. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can potentially better visualize microscopic tumor deposits, which would improve the accuracy of the RT targeting. The visibility of fiducial markers on OCT is paramount to integrate OCT findings with CT using image registration between these modalities. We fabricated dedicated Silicone-based phantoms to investigate the visibility of solid and liquid fiducial markers on OCT at various depths. We demonstrated that all the included fiducial markers were visible at all investigated depths with superior visibility of solid fiducial markers.


Combined multispectral spatial frequency domain imaging and computed tomography system for intraoperative breast tumor margin assessment
Paper 10057-17

Author(s):  David M. McClatchy, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States), et al.
Conference 10057: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XII
Session 4: Hybrid and Preclinical Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 28, 2017, 4:10 PM

There is a dire clinical need for surgical margin guidance in breast conserving therapy (BCT). We present a multispectral spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system, spanning the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, combined with a shielded X-ray computed tomography (CT) system designed for intraoperative breast tumor margin assessment. While the CT can provide a volumetric visualization of the tumor core and its spiculations, the co-registered SFDI can provide superficial and quantitative information about localized changes tissue morphology from light scattering parameters. A complete system analysis, co-registered SFDI-CT data of anthropomorphic phantoms, and preliminary human specimen data will be presented.


High resolution computational on-chip imaging of biological samples using sparsity constraint
Paper 10055-22

Author(s):  Yair Rivenson, Univ. California, Los Angeles (United States), et al.
Conference 10055: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings III
Session 5: Novel Microscopy and Sensing Techniques for Low-resource Settings
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 8:40 AM

Microscopic imaging of pathology slides is one of the standard diagnostic methods for screening diseases. Previously we demonstrated a wide-field and compact lens-free on-chip microscope, which enables high-resolution imaging of biological samples, such as pathology slides, using in-line holography. Here we demonstrate that to reconstruct clinically relevant images with high resolution and contrast, we require <50% of the previously reported nominal number of holograms, which is achieved by incorporating a sparsity constraint as part of the iterative holographic reconstruction. The success of this sparsity-based computational lens-less microscope is demonstrated by imaging pathology slides of breast cancer tissue and Pap smears.


Multi-spectral fiber spectroscopy in 0,4-16µm range for biomedical applications
Paper 10058-24

Author(s):  Viacheslav Artyushenko, art photonics GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 10058: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII
Session 7: Optical Fibers and Sensors VI
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 10:40 AM

Spectral fiber sensing for label free analysis of tissue composition helps to differentiate malignant and normal tissue to secure minimal invasive, but complete tumor removal or treatment. All key methods of Raman, fluorescence, diffuse reflection & MIR-absorption spectroscopy will be compared when used for the same spot of tissue - to select the most specific, sensitive and accurate method or to combine them for the synergy enhanced effect. The most informative spectral features for distinct organs/ tumor can be used to design special fiber sensors to be developed for portable and low cost applications with modern IT-features.


Real-time artifact removal for blood vessel detection during intraoperative surgery
Paper 10058-27

Author(s):  Amal Chaturvedi, BriteSeed, LLC (United States), et al.
Conference 10058: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII
Session 7: Optical Fibers and Sensors VI
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 11:50 AM

The lack of tactile and visual feedback during minimally invasive surgery increases the complexity of already difficult procedures. Existing intraoperative imaging technologies are either too expensive or too cumbersome to be included into existing surgeries. We have developed a low-cost, contrast agent-free, miniaturized smart dissector. The system is able to compensate for the non-uniform illumination while removing motion artifacts in real time. The technology has been verified to detect blood vessels ranging 2-8mm with a resolution of 0.5mm. These techniques have undergone successful ex-vivo validation, and will be tested in-vivo.


An optofluidic approach for Gold nanoprobes based-cancer theranostics
Paper 10061-22

Author(s):  Nishtha Panwar, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 5: Optofluidics I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 2:40 PM

For suppression of overexpressed gene mutations in pancreatic cancer cells, the feasibility of using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as non-toxic, biocompatible and stable non-viral transfection agents is investigated for gene delivery. Secondly a new, portable optofluidic method is presented for determining the transfection efficiency of the nanoformulation in real time. The optical fiber-integrated microfluidic chip provides a powerful and convenient tool to quantitatively determine the siRNA transfection into cancer cells without using bulky flow cytometer. The excellent gene knockdown performance (over 81%) of the proposed model outline the role of AuNRs as potential non-viral gene delivery vehicles, and their suitability for microfluidics-based lab-on-chip flow cytometry applications.


Tumor margin assessment of surgical tissue specimen using hyperspectral imaging and machine learning
Paper 10054-12

Author(s):  Baowei Fei, Emory Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 4: Fluorescence Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 3:50 PM

We are developing a label-free hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and machine learning approach for objective assessment of cancer margins. HSI data, hypercube (x,y,λ), consists of a series of high-resolution images of the same field of view that are acquired at different wavelengths. We developed image processing, quantification and feature extraction methods for HSI data. We compared 11 classification algorithms for distinguishing cancer from benign tissue. We tested our approach in eight tumor-bearing mice and surgical tissue specimens from 28 head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of using label-free HSI technology for surgical margin assessment.


Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with multimodal multiscale optical analysis
Paper 10054-16

Author(s):  D. Abi-Haidar, Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 4: Fluorescence Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:10 PM

Exploration of endogenous brain fluorophores seems to be a promising way to avoid any bias and metabolic alteration related to an external marker. We investigate autofluorescence of normal human brain, different tumor types and infiltrated boundaries, in order to build a database of tissue optical signature. The main limit is the difficulty to give a reliable response with one or even two modalities of optical analysis. To further enhance the specificity and sensitivity of optical analysis, we provide a study ranging from ultraviolet to infrared exploring all known endogenous molecules in order to define optical indicators discriminate healthy from boundering tissues.


Graphics processor unit acceleration enables realtime endovascular doppler optical coherence tomography imaging
Paper 10053-87

Author(s):  Dexter Barrows, Ryerson Univ. (Canada), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session PSun: Posters I: Technology and Image Processing
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:30 PM

Endovascular Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has previously been used in both bench-top and clinical environments to produce vascular images, and can be helpful in characterizing, among other pathologies, plaque build-up and impedances to normal blood flow. However, the image processing is computatioanlly expensive which has limited it's use in a real-time environment. We leveraged Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to perform live processing of Doppler OCT, making immediate usage with catheter-based clinical OCT systems in surgical procedures possible.


Evaluation and diagnosis of brain death by Functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Paper 10054-46

Author(s):  Ting Li, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session PSun: Posters-Sunday
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:30 PM

Brain death is hard to be judged precisely for some clinical reasons. The traditional diagnostic methods are time consuming, expensive and some are even dangerous. Here, we attempt to use portable functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to diagnose brain death. Ten brain death patients and seven normal subjects participated in fNIRS measurements. We found that the concentration variation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) in brain death patients is significantly higher than normal subjects, and emerges the uptrend as time went on. With the raise of the FIO2, Δ[Hb] presents the more significant downtrend in the brain death patients. The findings indicated the potential of fNIRS-measured hemodynamic index in diagnosing brain death.


3D splint prototype system for applications in Muscular Rehab by Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
Paper 10056-34

Author(s):  Mauricio I. Saldaña Martínez, Univ. Autónoma De Nuevo León (Mexico), et al.
Conference 10056: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies X
Session PSun: Posters-Sunday
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:30 PM

We are proposing a prototype for medical applications that reduces the cost and accelerates the rehabilitation process. The prototype features a 3D scanner that develops a digital model through a CAD software co-integrated with a mechanical gear that fits properly the patient upper limb. Once scanned and analyzed, the splint is printed among other materials, SLA. In order to improve the patient recovery time, a device was integrated into the splint design that works as a rehabilitator by using a set of electrical impulses according to TENS. This device will be either added or activated according to the best judgment of the GP.


High-sensitivity interpretation of lateral flow immunoassay results using lock-in thermography
Paper 10061-46

Author(s):  Nima Tabatabaei, York Univ. (Canada), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session PSun: Posters-Sunday
Date and Time: Sunday, January 29, 2017, 5:30 PM

Existing optical immunoassay readers rely on reflective signals (color intensity) of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to interpret result, missing a large amount of signal from gold nanoparticles (GNP) trapped inside of the bulk of the LFA. In this work, we report on a lock-in thermography detection system at 808nm for detecting GNPs within the bulk of the LFA. Experimental results from LFA samples suggest superior detection threshold and sensitivity of the lock-in thermography system over conventional methods.


Ultra-compact swept-source optical coherence tomography handheld probe with motorized focus adjustment
Paper 10053-3

Author(s):  Francesco LaRocca, Duke Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 1: New Ophthalmic Imaging Technology
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 9:00 AM

We describe an ultra-compact swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) handheld probe weighing only 211 g with 20.1 µm lateral resolution, 7 µm axial resolution, 102 dB peak sensitivity, a 27° x 23° field of view, and motorized focus adjustment for refraction correction between -10 to +16 D. A 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner, a converging beam-at-scanner telescope configuration, and an optical design employing 6 different custom optics were used to minimize device size and weight while achieving diffraction limited performance throughout the system’s field of view. Retinal images were acquired from adult volunteers to demonstrate imaging performance.


Clinical applications of high-speed blood flow measurements with diffuse correlation spectroscopy
Paper 10059-4

Author(s):  Ashwin B. Parthasarathy, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 1: Advances in Instrumentation and Technology I: Flow
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 9:10 AM

We report two clinical applications of high-speed measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a recently developed fast Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) instrument. We employ the fast-DCS device to quantify an index of cerebral (blood pressure) autoregulation, a potential biomarker of brain injury. Our pilot experiments in healthy volunteers show that DCS measured rates of micro-vascular regulation are higher than conventional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) metrics. Second, we utilized pulsatile CBF oscillations to estimate the critical closing pressure (CrCP), i.e., blood pressure at which CBF approaches zero. Pilot experiments in healthy subjects show good agreement between CrCP measured with DCS/TCD.


Optical coherence tomography guided smart laser knife for cancer surgery
Paper 10054-20

Author(s):  Nitesh Katta, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 5: Optical Coherence Tomography: Guidance Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 9:50 AM

Neurological cancer surgeries require specialized tools that enhance imaging and allow for precise cutting and removal of tumor cells and tissues without damage to delicate normal neurological structures which are adjacent or underlying (e.g., nerves and microvessels). We have constructed an image-guided laser surgical system using a nanosecond pulsed thulium laser and high-resolution and fast swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) – we call this system a smart laser knife. The surgical utility of the bench-top smart laser knife is evaluated in phantoms to remove tissue adjacent and overlying embedded micro blood vessels using OCT guidance.


Simultaneous estimation of absolute blood oxygenation and flow index by multi-color multi-distance diffuse correlation spectroscopy
Paper 10059-6

Author(s):  Parisa Farzam, Athinoula A. Martinos Ctr. for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 1: Advances in Instrumentation and Technology I: Flow
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 9:50 AM

Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measures microvascular blood flow index (BFi) employing prior information of absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs′). We propose a novel method that deploys multi-wavelengths multi-distance DCS to uniquely separate μa, μs and BFi. To this end we have built a state-of-the-art DCS exploits novel long-coherence-length-lasers with custom laser driver board for fast multiplexing of three colors, high efficiency single-photon APDs, and FPGA-based correlator board. In summary, we demonstrate the new generation of DCS with an extensive improvement in both instrumentation and data analysis that sets the stage for a new range of clinical applications. Acknowledgements: Grants R01GM116177 and R21NS093259.


Anastigmatic needle probe for high-speed interstitial OCT imaging
Paper 10053-12

Author(s):  Scott Wu Yuan, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 2: Endoscopy/Cardiology
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 11:45 AM

We report an anastigmatic needle probe made with fiber-optic ball lens for high-speed circumferential interstitial OCT imaging. The anastigmatic design affords a high transverse resolution of ~11.9 µm. The improved mechanical design enables a robust circumferential scanning speed up to ~26.8 frames per second. The miniaturized needle probe has an outer diameter of ~620 µm including the encasing metal guard and glass microcapillary. The performance of the anastigmatic OCT needle was demonstrated by imaging rat belly tissues and rat liver ex vivo with a 1300-nm swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system. The preliminary results suggest the potential of the needle probe for minimally invasive interstitial imaging and image-guided biopsy.


High-speed 4d intrasurgical microscope integrated optical coherence tomography at 800 kHz line rate using temporal spectral splitting
Paper 10053-13

Author(s):  Oscar Carrasco-Zevallos, Duke Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 3: Ophthalmology
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:30 PM

The en face operating stereomicroscope offers limited depth perception and ophthalmic surgeons must often rely on stereopsis and instrument shadowing to estimate motion in the axial dimension. We present a high-speed 4D microscope-integrated OCT (HS 4D MIOCT) system for volumetric imaging at 800 kHz A-scan rate. The proposed system achieves 4D imaging at 10.85 volumes/sec with 400x96x340 (X,Y,Z) usable voxels over a 5x5 mm lateral FOV. Using ANSI-limited optical power, HS 4D MIOCT was capable of imaging subtle volumetric tissue manipulations with high temporal and spatial resolution during porcine eye surgery and is readily translatable to the human operating suite.


Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Paper 10054-26

Author(s):  Ting Li, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 7: Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 1:50 PM

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) can result in serious mortality and morbidity. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those patients did not take treatments and normal population. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converges to the curves of normal subjects. Whereas the Δ[Hb] emerges the opposite trends. The findings indicate that NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.


Microfluidic system for in-vitro hypoxia assays
Paper 10061-37

Author(s):  Mathias Busek, Fraunhofer IWS Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 9: Applications III
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:00 PM

Hereby presented is a microfluidic system, including a micro pump, an oxygenator and a cell culture chamber for perfusion controlled hypoxia assays. It consists of laser-structured polycarbonate (PC) foils and an elastomeric membrane which were joined together using thermal diffusion bonding. The elastomer forms an oxygenator element. To observe the oxygen content the fluorescence decay is measured. This oxygen sensor, the micro pump, a controlling device and the gas mixture at the oxygenator forms a regulatory circuit to adjust the oxygen content in the cell culture chamber and helps to produce well-defined hypoxic conditions for the cells.


Novel lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with DNA-encoded chemical libraries
Paper 10061-38

Author(s):  Stefan Grünzner, Fraunhofer IWS Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 9: Applications III
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:20 PM

To over-come the extremely laborious and repetitive manual process, a fully automated device for high throughput drug discovery with heat-induced DNA-encoded chemical libraries was designed and characterized. The system is capable to generate stable temperature above 75 °C in a heated chamber for melting the double strands and to cool a second chamber to less than 15 °C, for reannealing the reshuffling library. Specific retaining structures hold back modified beads while these are permanently flushed with library molecules. Washing out unspecific bound molecules and elution of the protein-loaded beads with attached molecules can be done automatically.


Lymphatic Imaging in unsedated infants and children
Paper 10054-29

Author(s):  Eva M. Sevick-Muraca, The Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr. at Houston (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 7: Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 2:50 PM

We successfully demonstrated the use of near-infrared fluorescence lymphatics to safely assess the lymphatics in the pediatric patient population for determining source of chylothorax after surgery for congenital heart defect and to guide surgical management. In addition, we assessed whether abnormal lymphatic vasculature was the cause of congenital lymphedema in a 21 month old infant. Imaging was performed without the use of ionizing radiation or sedation. Continued experience using NIRFLI for point-of-care diagnostics may help advance the understanding of the lymphatics and may provide opportunities for individualized management of lymphatic dysfunction in the pediatric population.


Assessment of vascularization and myelination following peripheral nerve repair using angiographic and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography
Paper 10053-21

Author(s):  Ahhyun S. Nam, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 4: Small Animal
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 4:00 PM

Understanding the dynamics of the reinnervation process is crucial for improving surgical procedures for peripheral nerve trauma. In this work, we demonstrate the use of angiographic and polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to visualize the vascularization and myelination of graft repairs after crush and transection injuries of the rodent sciatic nerve. A customized microscope was built to provide 3.6 cm field along the nerve axis and contour tracking of the nerve surface. Angiographic methods for reducing motion artifacts and vectorial PS contrast algorithms were developed to reveal vascular and myelination status of the nerve with high fidelity.


Tumor-on-a-chip: a new ally against cancer
Paper 10061-42

Author(s):  Karolina Papera Valente, Univ. of Victoria (Canada), et al.
Conference 10061: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XV
Session 10: Medical Devices
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 4:20 PM

A breast tumor-on-a-chip was developed to study the impact of tumor size in the efficacy of cancer treatment. The chip comprises a central chamber and two lateral channels. The central chamber contains MCF-7 cells encapsulated in a 3D hydrogel matrix and the lateral channels function as blood vessels where cytotoxic drugs are delivered to the cancer cells. Diffusive transport of molecules was ensured by posts that connect the central chamber to the lateral channels. Effect of cytotoxic drugs was assessed by monitoring the drug concentration profile inside the chips. Theoretical drug diffusion in the microfluidic device was simulated using COMSOL.


Compact system with handheld microfabricated optoelectronic probe for needle-based tissue sensing applications
Paper 10054-33

Author(s):  Seung Yup Lee, Univ. of Michigan (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 8: New Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 4:40 PM

We present the design, development, and bench-top verification of an innovative compact clinical system including a miniaturized handheld optoelectronic sensor. The integrated sensor was microfabricated with die-level light-emitting diodes and photodiodes and fits into a 19G hollow needle (internal diameter: 0.75 mm) for optical sensing applications in solid tissues. Bench-top studies on tissue-simulating phantoms have verified system performance relative to a fiber-optic based tissue spectroscopy system. With dramatically reduced system size and cost, the technology affords spatially configurable designs for optoelectronic light sources and detectors, thereby enabling customized sensing configurations that would be impossible to achieve with needle-based fiber-optic probes.


Collagen birefringence assessment in heart chordae tendineae through PS-OCT
Paper 10053-111

Author(s):  Eusebio Real Pena, Univ de Cantabria (Spain), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session PMon: Posters II: Functional and Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

Degenerative mitral valve is a serious and frequent medical condition affecting the human heart. Malfunctioning of this valve brings the heart through a significant overload. Evolution of this valve incompetence requires surgical repair or valve replacement. Mitral degenerative disease affects the valve leaflets and the chordae tendineae. In this work, PS-OCT is applied for the first time to evaluate human ex-vivo mitral chordae tendineae. The core of these chords presents strong birefringence due to the arrangement of the dense collagen bundles. Collagen with different density provides different birefringence, representing a tool to identify the dense collagen tissue core structure.


Utilizing optical coherence tomography to assess oral cancer in a low resource settings
Paper 10053-122

Author(s):  Andrew E. Heidari, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session PMon: Posters II: Functional and Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

A mobile Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging platform and scanning probe was developed and deployed to image oral cancer and pre-cancer subjects in Bangalore, India. Subject’s oral mucosal health was diagnosed by analyzing OCT images via clinical observer(s) diagnosis and an image-processing algorithm. Through our initial clinical trails of 38 subjects we have shown higher sensitivity and specificity of the developed algorithm over clinical observer diagnosis when compared to histopathological findings. This work suggests that our image processing algorithm and mobile imaging system could potentially aid medical relief workers diagnostic accuracy of oral cancer in areas where advanced medical care is not available.


Assessment of using ultrasound images as prior for diffuse optical tomography regularization matrix
Paper 10059-72

Author(s):  Murad Althobaiti, Univ. of Connecticut (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session PMon: Posters-Monday
Date and Time: Monday, January 30, 2017, 5:30 PM

Imaging of tissue with Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a rising imaging technique to map hemoglobin concentrations within tissue for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. The accurate recovery of images requires an effective image reconstruction method. We illustrate a method in which ultrasound images are encoded as prior for regularization of the inversion matrix. Results were evaluated using phantom experiments and patients’ data. This method improves differentiation between malignant and benign cases by increasing malignant to benign absorption ratio. The results show also improvements in lesion shape as well as the spatial resolution of the DOT reconstructed images.


Accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing skin lesions in vivo in real-time at the bedside: understanding challenges and potential pitfalls
Paper 10060-1

Author(s):  Manu Jain, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 1: Optical Biopsy: Pathway to Clinical Translation I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:10 AM

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) non-invasively images skin lesions in vivo at cellular resolution and can guide management of patient care. We prospectively assessed the potential of RCM for diagnosis in real-time at the bedside. In 127 dermoscopically equivocal (most of the lesions) skin lesions (basal cell carcinomas in non-melanocytic lesions and melanomas in new/growing melanocytic lesions), the diagnostic accuracy was 80.28%, with high sensitivity and specificity of 80.68% and 80.8%, respectively, for differentiating benign from malignant lesions. However, some pitfalls must be addressed to improve diagnostic accuracy and thus reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsy.


Change in tumor hemoglobin concentration during neoadjuvant chemotherapy may predict pathological response in ER-negative breast cancer, but not in ER-positive breast cancer
Paper 10059-22

Author(s):  Shigeto Ueda, Saitama Medical Univ. (Japan), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 5: Breast Imaging I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:50 AM

Response monitoring with DOSI during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer seems feasible, but is dependent on the breast cancer subtype. DOSI may predict response in ER-negative tumors, but seems less accurate in ER-positive tumors.


Confocal imaging-guided laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas: initial in vivo results
Paper 10060-3

Author(s):  Heidy Sierra, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 1: Optical Biopsy: Pathway to Clinical Translation I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 8:55 AM

Laser ablation can be less invasive, less expensive and faster than surgery for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCCs). However, the lack of histopathology post-ablation has limited its routine implementation in the clinic. Based on previous ex vivo and in vivo testing studies, a reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging-guided laser ablation methodology, to provide histopathology-like feedback in post-ablated wounds is being developed. Forty BCCs have been treated with image-guided laser ablation and being followed-up with additional imaging. Post-treatment follow-up imaging is being performed at 3, 6 and 18 months for detection of any recurrent tumor, wound healing and evaluation of cosmetic outcome. Imaging showed clearance of BCCs in all lesions for which 15 lesions have been imaged at 3 months, 16 at 3 and 6 months and 14 at 3, 6 and18 months. Further optimization to image over the entire wound (without missing any areas) and to enhance tumor-to-dermis contrast for clinically acceptable sensitivity and specificity is needed.


Stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopic optical coherence tomography
Paper 10053-32

Author(s):  Francisco E. Robles, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 5: New OCT Technolgy I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:15 AM

We integrate spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) to enable simultaneously multiplexed spatial and spectral imaging with sensitivity to many endogenous biochemical species that play an important role in biology and medicine. The method, termed SRS-SOCT, has the potential to achieve fast, volumetric, and highly sensitive label-free molecular imaging, which would be valuable for many applications. We demonstrate the approach by imaging excised human adipose tissue and detecting the lipids’ Raman signatures in the high-wavenumber region.


3D wide field-of-view Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy advancing real-time in-vivo imaging and metrology
Paper 10053-34

Author(s):  Cristina Canavesi, LighTopTech Corp. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 5: New OCT Technolgy I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:45 AM

Real-time volumetric high-definition wide-field-of-view in-vivo cellular imaging requires micron-scale resolution in 3D. Compactness of the handheld device and distortion-free imaging are also critical for clinical applications. By integrating a custom liquid lens-based microscope and a compact dual-axis MEMS scanner, Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) breaks the cellular lateral resolution limit of optical coherence tomography, producing distortion-free images and enabling advances in biotechnology. Approaching the holy grail of medical imaging – noninvasive real-time imaging with histologic resolution – GD-OCM demonstrated invariant resolution of 2 µm throughout a volume of 1x1x 0.6 mm^3, acquired and visualized in less than 2 minutes.


Neural-network based classification for predicting pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with dynamic diffuse optical tomography
Paper 10059-25

Author(s):  Mirella Lorrainy Altoe, Columbia Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 5: Breast Imaging I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:50 AM

We employed a two-layer feed-forward neural network with 4 inputs (changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration, total hemoglobin concentration, water fraction, and ER status), 10 hidden neurons and 1 output to predict complete pathological response in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Using data from 42 patients who underwent to the same NACT treatment, we were able to achieve sensitivities and specificities of >0.95.


Taking label-free optical spectroscopy techniques into the operating theatre: biopsy needles and surgical guidance probes
Paper 10060-9

Author(s):  Frédéric Leblond, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 3: Optical Biopsy: Pathway to Clinical Translation III
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 1:20 PM


High sensitivity contrast enhanced optical coherence tomography for functional in vivo imaging
Paper 10053-48

Author(s):  Orly Liba, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 7: Functional OCT I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 3:15 PM

In this study, we developed and applied highly-scattering large gold nanorods (LGNRs) and custom spectral detection algorithms for high sensitivity contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We were able to detect LGNRs at concentration as low as 50 pM in blood. We used this approach for noninvasive 3D imaging of blood vessels deep in solid tumors in living mice. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed imaging of spectrally-distinct LGNRs that enabled observations of functional drainage in lymphatic networks. This method, which we call MOZART, provides a platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution.


Intra-operative mapping of glioma infiltration in vivo in patients using OCT
Paper 10053-50

Author(s):  Carmen Kut, The Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 8: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 4:15 PM

Brain cancer is aggressive and difficult to treat. There is a critical need to provide intra-operative guidance in brain cancer detection. Our previous work demonstrated a novel, real-time optical property mapping method to detect cancer margins ex vivo in 32 patients and in vivo in mice. Here, we present a pilot study to achieve optical mapping in vivo in 8 patients (50 tissue samples). OCT images were quantitatively analyzed and color-coded optical maps were generated within seconds to provide direct visualization of cancer versus non-cancer. This study demonstrated the OCT’s translational potential for safe, extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers.


Hyperspectral imaging based on compressive sensing to determine cancer margins in human pancreatic tissue ex vivo
Paper 10060-18

Author(s):  Joseph A. Peller, The Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 4: Optical Biopsy: Pathway to Clinical Translation IV
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 4:55 PM

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure. However, accurately identifying tumor margins in real-time is difficult. We are developing a spectral imaging system to detect tumor margins and improve removal of diseased tissue during surgery. Our system uses fluorescent emission from proteins and the characteristics of light reflect from tissue to distinguish between healthy and diseased regions. In this study, we imaged 10 human pancreatic tissue samples ex vivo. Margins determined via imaging were in good agreement with margins identified by histology.


Study of anti cancer effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients using fluorescence spectroscopy
Paper 10060-20

Author(s):  Ganesan Singaravelu, Anna Univ., Chennai (India), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 4: Optical Biopsy: Pathway to Clinical Translation IV
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 5:35 PM

The analysis of the variations in the spectroscopic patterns of the key bio molecules using Native fluorescence spectroscopy, without exogenous labels has emerged as an intrinsic parameter in the characterization of the Physiological State and the Discrimination of Pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues as the relative concentration of these bio-molecules serves as a marker in evaluating the presence of cancer in some organ or tissue of the body. The aim of this unique study was to use these features of Optical spectroscopy in monitoring the behavior of cells to treatment and thus to evaluate the treatment response to Chemotherapeutic agents and Radiation in Breast Cancer Patients. The results are promising, enhancing the scope of Native fluorescence Spectroscopy emerging as a promising tool in the Evaluation of Therapeutic Response in Cancer Patients.


Novel diffuse optics system for continuous tissue viability monitoring: extended recovery in vivo testing in a porcine flap model
Paper 10054-42

Author(s):  Seung Yup Lee, Univ. of Michigan (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 9: Applications of Other Imaging Methods I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:10 PM

In reconstructive surgery, tissue perfusion is critical to the success of flaps created via free tissue transfer. Implementing early detection of flap failure would increase the chances of flap salvage. We have developed a compact, clinically-compatible monitoring system to enable automated, minimally-invasive, continuous, and quantitative assessment of flap viability. We tested the system’s continuous monitoring capability during extended recovery using an in vivo porcine flap model. Initial results indicated that the system could assess flap viability in a quantitative and continuous manner. With proven performance, the compact form constructed with cost-effective components would make this system suitable for clinical translation.


Design and evaluation of a miniature laser speckle imaging device to assess gingival health
Paper 10054-43

Author(s):  Caitlin Regan, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States), et al.
Conference 10054: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV
Session 9: Applications of Other Imaging Methods I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 31, 2017, 9:30 PM

Current methods used to assess gingivitis are qualitative and subjective. We hypothesized that gingival perfusion measurements could provide a quantitative metric of disease severity. We constructed a compact laser speckle imaging (LSI) system that could be mounted in custom-made oral molds. Rigid fixation of the LSI system in the oral cavity enabled measurement of blood flow in the gingiva. Compact LSI system measurements were collected from the gingiva of n=9 subjects and compared to a clinical assessment of gingival bleeding on probing. A statistically significant correlation was found between these variables, indicating that quantitative gingival perfusion measurements performed using our system may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal disease.


Multi-wavelength photomagnetic imaging for breast cancer
Paper 10059-40

Author(s):  Farouk Nouizi, John Tu & Thomas Yuen Ctr. for Functional Onco-Imaging (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 9: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 8:00 AM

Photo-magnetic Imaging (PMI) uses laser light to heat the medium under investigation but employ MRI to obtain temperature map of the tissue with high resolution. The MR temperature are then converted into the optical absorption maps using proper modeling of light propagation and heat transfer in tissue. Utilizing multiple wavelengths, photo-magnetic imaging can provide the same functional information as conventional optical imaging but with higher resolution due to utilization of MRI. We will present the application of PMI for breast imaging including the multi-wavelength PMI instrumentation and the phantom study results.


Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for tumor detection in colorectal surgery: an ex vivo study
Paper 10059-41

Author(s):  Elisabeth J. M. Baltussen, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 9: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 8:30 AM

Positive resection margins after colorectal surgery have a high negative prognostic value and are mainly caused by poor detection of tumor tissue embedded in pericolonic or mesorectal fat. We used fiberoptic diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to distinguish tumorous tissue from surrounding healthy tissues in an ex vivo study using tissue samples of 30 patients. Our results show that it is possible to distinguish fat from tumorous tissue with a sensitivity and specificity both higher than 0.95. This makes DRS a valuable technique for real time assessment of the resection area that eventually prevents positive resection margins.


An interactive visual interface for the determination of similarity patterns in the Fourier spatial frequency spectrum of laser speckle
Paper 10060-23

Author(s):  Stewart Russell, The City College of New York (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 5: Raman and Light Scattering Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 8:40 AM

Laser speckle from particles that are smaller than the wavelength of light resemble a random Gaussian field, but can be shown to contain a characteristic spectrum in frequency space. Speckle is caused by the instantaneous microstructure of nanoparticles in suspension and will fluctuates as they reorganize. Here we demonstrate interactive tool that can be used to define similarities between seemingly random scattering fields. Optimization of the Fourier spatial frequency spectrum gives a representative pattern that can be directly correlated to the transport properties of the particles.


Scattering angle resolved optical coherence tomography for in vivo murine retinal imaging
Paper 10053-59

Author(s):  Michael R. Gardner, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 9: New OCT Technolgy II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 9:00 AM

The eye has been called the 'window into the brain.’ Thus, optical retinal imaging techniques are sensitive to morphological changes associated with central nervous system diseases. Though studies have shown the utility of scattering angle resolved (SAR) OCT for particle sizing and detecting disease states ex-vivo, a compact SAR-OCT system for rodent retinal imaging has not been reported. This work reports an SAR-OCT system using a partial glass window, a dual axis MEMS mirror, a high NA objective and fast scan rates for improved investigative capabilities of murine models. Longitudinal mouse studies demonstrate the system’s diagnostic potential.


Continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy
Paper 10060-24

Author(s):  David R. Busch, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 5: Raman and Light Scattering Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 9:00 AM

Extra corporal membrane oxygenation is the ultimate, temporary treatment modality for life-threatening cardiopulmonary disorders. However, there are currently no bedside tools to provide clinicians with real time feedback to titrate flow rates to an individual's current needs. This is of particular concern for the brain: current clinical tools utilize slowly-varying systemic parameters as a proxy for brain health. We utilize diffuse optics to continuously and non-invasively probe cerebral hemodynamics throughout modulation of this therapy. These tools have the potential to provide real time feedback for continuously adjusted individualized therapy.


Automated optical biopsy with the circularly polarized light
Paper 10060-28

Author(s):  Alexander Bykov, Univ. of Oulu (Finland), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 6: Polarization Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 10:55 AM

We present an automated diagnostic system for non-invasive screening of cancerous tissues with the circularly polarized light. To perform the automated scanning tissue samples a software for 2D stage control, simultaneous measurement of Stokes vector components and mapping them on the Poincaré sphere with the subsequent analysis of the obtained results has been developed. The developed automated system was tested on the tissue samples of human lung metastasis of basal squamous cell carcinoma embedded in paraffin wax. The samples have a variety of tissue structures, including both healthy and cancerous regions classified by the pathologist.


Validation of diffuse optical spectroscopic measurement of cerebral oxygen metabolism in a piglet model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA)
Paper 10059-51

Author(s):  Tiffany S. Ko, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States), et al.
Conference 10059: Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue XII
Session 11: Brain, Neuro, and Functional Imaging II
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 1:50 PM

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is an important pediatric surgical adjunct technique wherein the patient is cooled below 20˚C in order to introduce a neuroprotective reduction of cerebral metabolism prior to circulatory arrest. Despite widespread use, uncertainty remains per the optimal management of cooling and rewarming with DHCA protocols for preventing hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. Herein, continuous, non-invasive frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow are validated using invasive measurements of intracranial oxygen content (Integra Licox) and perfusion (Perimed AB) in a piglet model of DHCA.


Optical measurement of cerebral blood flow during orthostatic manipulation in healthy and diseased populations
Paper 10060-53

Author(s):  David R. Busch, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 7: Advanced Imaging Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 2:55 PM

Posture impacts cerebral blood flow (CBF) and this effect is regularly utilized therapeutically. However, there are limited tools to assess CBF continuously throughout postural manipulations. We utilize diffuse correlation spectroscopy to measure CBF and present a pooled analysis of 126 healthy and diseased subjects. We identify a subpopulation for whom CBF is lower in the supine, compared to seated, position and demonstrate a hysteresis effect in supine blood flow, in which the post-manipulation supine CBF is higher than pre-manipulation.


Overcoming sampling depth variations in the analysis of broadband hyperspectral images of breast tissue
Paper 10060-36

Author(s):  Esther Kho, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 8: Spectroscopy and Spectral Imaging Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 3:45 PM

Worldwide, up to 40% of the breast conserving surgeries result in additional operations due to positive resection margins. We propose to reduce this percentage by using hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during surgery. Spectral hypercubes were collected on freshly excised breast specimen with a pushbroom camera (900-1700nm, 256 bands). Computer simulations of the penetration depth in breast tissue suggest a strong variation in sampling depth over this wavelength range. Consequently, tissue classification based on spectral analysis over the whole wavelength range becomes complicated. We developed a method that allows us to perform an accurate analysis at predefined sampling depths.


Design of a modified endoscope illuminator source for spectral imaging of colorectal tissues
Paper 10060-38

Author(s):  Craig Browning, Univ. of South Alabama (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 8: Spectroscopy and Spectral Imaging Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 4:25 PM

Gold standard and modified procedures for locating colorectal polyps have an increasing miss rate the smaller the polyp. A potential solution is integrating spectral imaging into a colonoscopy procedure to increase sensitivity and specificity. The prototype spectral light source uses 16 narrow band LEDs with a flat spectral output for imaging. The beta-version required high powered LEDs to increase the spectral output from 0.5 mW to greater than 1 mW. New LEDs required a new mounting apparatus and intensity testing. The optimized results will allow imaging of tissue pairs ex vivo (precancerous/normal and cancerous/normal).


Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT
Paper 10053-81

Author(s):  Christine P. Hendon, Columbia Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10053: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXI
Session 12: Image and Signal Processing
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 5:00 PM

We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system to produce OCT volumes on ex vivo human breast cancer sample. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be delineated in the UHR OCT images. Features derived from the intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model. Tissue classification results indicated that features derived from UHR OCT images can lead to a better performance on differentiating fat and non-fat regions in the breast tissue, and can be used to effectively differentiate tissue with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from normal stroma tissue.


Chemometric endogenous fluorescence for tissue diagnosis
Paper 10060-40

Author(s):  Min Xu, Fairfield Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10060: Optical Biopsy XV: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 8: Spectroscopy and Spectral Imaging Methods
Date and Time: Wednesday, February 1, 2017, 5:05 PM

Endogenous fluorescence is a powerful technique for probing both structure and function of tissue. We show that enabling wide-field fluorescence microscopy with chemometrics can significantly enhance the performance of tissue diagnosis with endogenous fluorescence. The spatial distribution and absolute concentration of fluorophores is uncovered with non-negative factorization aided by the spatial diversity from microscopic autofluorescence color images. Fluorescence quantification in terms of its absolute concentration map also avoids issues dependent on specific measurement approach or systems, yields much more meaningful data, and simplifies the assessment of competing methods relating to tissue fluorescence.


Important Dates

Abstracts Due
17 July 2017

Author Notification
25 September 2017

Manuscripts Due
See Individual Conferences


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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Journal of Biomedical OpticsPublishes peer-reviewed papers that utilize modern optical technology for improved health care and biomedical research.