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Vergence


Excerpt from Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics

Vergence is a concept in ophthalmic optics in which distances are converted to a dioptric power. Vergence is defined as

Vergence Equation


where d is the absolute distance between an object and a plane of interest, and n is the refractive index of the space. By convention, converging light has a positive vergence and diverging light has a negative vergence. Zero vergence occurs when the object is at infinity. Vergence is in units of diopters for d in meters.

Vergence

Based on vergence, the lens formula is

Lens Formula


where U is the object vergence, φ is power of the lens, and V is image vergence. For a thin lens, the plane of interest for both vergences is at the lens. For thick lenses, the planes of interest are the front and rear principal planes. The magnification is U / V.

Object Vergence (D)Distance
–0.254 m
–0.502 m
–1.001 m
–2.0050 cm
–3.0033 cm
–4.0025 cm
–5.0020 cm
–6.0016.6 cm
–7.0014.2 cm
–8.0012.5 cm
–9.0011.1 cm
–10.0010 cm
Citation:

J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (2004).



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