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Micro/Nano Lithography

193 Immersion Lithography

A six-part series of articles on 193nm Immersion Lithography, including anti-reflection coatings, defects, photo-resists, and topcoats.  
3 February 2008, SPIE Newsroom. DOI:

This series of articles is intended as a comprehensive guide to the process of 193nm immersion lithography (193i), focusing on the materials and processes rather than the optics involved. 193nm immersion has been widely accepted by chip manufacturers as a viable lithography solution down to the 45nm half-pitch node, and as research and development of second-generation 193i progresses, material selections continue to be of utmost importance. Topics covered include anti-reflection coatings, defects, photo-resists, and topcoats.

The complete series of articles on 193nm Immersion Lithography by Yayi Wei (parts 1 - 3 coauthored by David Back):

Part 1: 193nm immersion lithography: Status and challenges

Part 2: Mastering the resist-leaching and aqueous-contact-angle challenges

Part 3: Immersion lithography: topcoat and resist processes

Part 4: Bubble and antibubble defects in 193i lithography

Part 5: Non-lensing defects and defect reduction for 193i

Part 6: Extendability of 193nm immersion lithography