• Newsroom Home
  • Astronomy
  • Biomedical Optics & Medical Imaging
  • Defense & Security
  • Electronic Imaging & Signal Processing
  • Illumination & Displays
  • Lasers & Sources
  • Micro/Nano Lithography
  • Nanotechnology
  • Optical Design & Engineering
  • Optoelectronics & Communications
  • Remote Sensing
  • Sensing & Measurement
  • Solar & Alternative Energy
  • Sign up for Newsroom E-Alerts
  • Information for:
    Advertisers

All Technical Articles - Defense & Security

All Newsroom Technical Articles, starting with the most recently posted:

Advances in material purity and laser light absorption offer new possibilities for vibration-free cryogenic cooling.
13 March 2015
A novel artificial optical material combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals.
9 January 2015
A handheld mid-IR laser imaging platform detects trace materials quickly and with high sensitivity for explosives detection and medical diagnosis.
20 May 2014
A novel sensor system simultaneously analyzes several biochemical signals to produce a rapid YES/NO output, with particular applications for field medical care and homeland security.
26 March 2014
Transportable ground stations that receive high data volumes from aircraft offer a solution for monitoring unforeseen events.
17 October 2013
Incorporating superconducting and semiconducting elements into electromagnetic metamaterials can achieve active control of terahertz radiation.
18 March 2013
A new, low-cost uncooled detector for the mid-wave IR range uses optical signals and is perfectly suited to gas detection.
27 December 2012
The pyradi toolkit is designed to simplify many common, repetitive calculations researchers must perform while modeling electro-optical systems.
12 December 2012
The processing of mid-wave mercury cadmium telluride IR detector arrays grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy was adapted to achieve high performance at high operating temperatures.
10 December 2012
Optically pumped rare gas lasers that use chemically inert reagents combine the best characteristics of solid-state and gas-phase systems with fewer of the complications of other hybrid techniques.
29 November 2012
Modifications to atmospheric imaging techniques can improve the resolution of images taken under water.
19 November 2012
Arbitrary 3D polarization orientation is used to excite surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods, creating highly secure encryption 'keys.'
19 November 2012
A unique semiconductor growth technique produces highly sensitive detector arrays with broad spectral range.
15 November 2012
A novel software method enhances camera images blurred by the atmosphere.
16 October 2012
A new compact, robust, and eye-safe scanning system detects and tracks respirable aerosols at mid- to long-range distances.
16 October 2012
Recent experimental results from two research groups show an increase in iris recognition error rate with increased time since enrollment, indicating a need for a re-enrollment scheme or new algorithms.
4 October 2012
Persistent surveillance in urban environments requires efficient sensing operations that can image sparse scenes for quick turnaround and reliable situational awareness.
27 September 2012
Craig BarrettThe former chairman of Intel weighs in on the Optics and Photonics report from the National Academies.
10 September 2012
Novel radiation detection concepts are generated by doping both conventional and nanoporous scintillators with triplet-harvesting molecules.
18 September 2012
Noise radar offers immunity from detection, unintended interference, and hostile jamming, as well as excellent resolution in range and Doppler all thanks to its thumbtack ambiguity function.
11 September 2012
A new technique to optimize volumetric representation and advances in graphics processing have enabled efficient construction of 3D models from 2D imagery, while fully capturing the uncertainty in the data.
27 August 2012
A real-time mapping technique enables full-color rendering of multi-spectral nighttime images, making them as clear and colorful as daylight ones.
23 August 2012
Combining a distributed aperture with optical up-conversion generates a video-rate, passive millimeter-wave imaging system that provides situational awareness in degraded visual environments.
13 August 2012
Carbon-nanotube-based transistors made using a new deposition technique interact selectively with different gases and thus provide an "electronic fingerprint" for gas detection.
26 July 2012
The high quality spectra from novel push-broom thermal hyperspectral imagers makes them useful for characterizing materials in numerous defense, field, and industrial situations.
19 July 2012
High-performance, multi-channel systems can be deployed cost-effectively on small, unmanned aircraft for marine mammal surveys, search and rescue, border patrol, and littoral reconnaissance operations.
12 July 2012
Electrical and magnetic properties of soils show a correlation with performance of sensors used for landmine clearance operations.
2 July 2012
Three-dimensional models of the face or ear lead to improved performance in personal identification and verification.
20 June 2012
Liquid inks made of quantum dots show promise for a number of uses, including biological fluorescent markers, precursor inks for roll-to-roll solar cells, and now IR detection.
15 May 2012
Computers provide continuous biometric authentication in a completely unobtrusive way by analyzing movement patterns of humans during every-day activities.
7 May 2012
A technique based on shortwave IR enhances military capabilities for human recognition in harsh environmental conditions characterized by poor lighting and pronounced shadows.
19 April 2012
The natural randomness of microscopic paper texture is used to extract a unique signature for a region of paper.
16 April 2012
An electro-optical sensor system that includes automatic image processing enables detection of threats to naval platforms.
9 April 2012
Harnessing LightStakeholders hope that the forthcoming study provides a shot in the arm for awareness and funding.
14 March 2012
A nanoscale platinum thermal detector with a simple design has promising properties for sensing near- to mid-infrared radiation.
5 March 2012
A new standoff system enables detection of various trace explosives by backscattering IR laser spectroscopy.
28 February 2012
A new laser concept provides 1.2kW of stabilized UV power for flat-panel display production and high-power lidar stations.
14 February 2012
The Advanced Navy Aerosol Model provides a quick and simple method to estimate aerosol properties in the maritime atmosphere using standard meteorological parameters.
10 February 2012
A special class of semiconductor material can now detect two wavebands of light with energies less than a tenth of an electron volt in high resolution using the same IR camera.
10 February 2012
A novel method of constructing graphs of agent-based simulation data enables social scientists to better understand complex systems.
10 June 2011
A camera that operates at video frame rate offers a solution to stand-off imaging for search and rescue in fire disasters and label-free biomaterial detection.
8 June 2011
The Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff spoke at SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing 2011 about the implications of the volume of data now available from deployed sensors.
24 May 2011
Early identification of non-obvious issues is critical for defining requirements that affect cost, scheduling, performance, and risk in intelligence-gathering systems.
20 May 2011
A scheme for identifying altered features of cityscapes that compares existing building models with new lidar data points and aerial images improves the accuracy of 3D spatial information.
19 May 2011
Innovative direct-diode lasers have both industrial and defense applications.
16 May 2011
We define a framework that demonstrates how video scrambling techniques can effectively foil facial recognition.
10 May 2011
Self-assembled nanostructures offer rapid, reversible tuning over the entire visible spectrum using external magnetic fields.
5 May 2011
Smaller, faster, cheaper optical biosensors offer the capacity to provide effective and actionable information.
28 April 2011
Advances in the detection of explosives and other threats significantly improve the ability to determine various threats, from explosives to nuclear.
22 April 2011
Future designs require high-resolution sensors and brighter displays to allow for the integration of night vision.
20 April 2011
An integrated ocean observation system for tracking oil, implemented immediately after the well exploded, aided federal and state agencies in mitigation attempts.
19 April 2011
By using nano- and micro-fabrication techniques, four different sensing principles are combined to increase the sensitivity and reliability of a handheld explosives sensor.
18 April 2011
An analytical assay detects Category A and B bioterrorism agents.
18 April 2011
Explosives, bacteria, and chemicals can be identified from their 2D resonance-Raman spectra, even when several substances are mixed together.
14 April 2011
Better design of barriers in antimonide-based superlattice photodetectors extends their wavelength and temperature range.
7 April 2011
Modeled after the nanoscale morphology of butterfly wings, a new chemical sensor may deliver laboratory-level sensitivity and selectivity in a low-cost, portable package.
5 April 2011
A terahertz external-cavity surface-emitting-laser source delivering milliwatt powers at any targeted frequency across the tHz gap could address a broad range of applications.
15 March 2011
A new barcode fabrication method provides a means of authentication aimed at thwarting product piracy and document forgery.
14 March 2011
Insect-inspired optical sensors provide effective stabilization, compassing, and navigation.
8 March 2011

Based in Jena, the birthplace of optical technology in Germany, JENOPTIK's Michael Mertin has a unique perspective on the industry's past and future.

28 February 2011
Gas lasers, as well as various types of solid-state, fiber, and free-electron lasers, enable successful development of a high-power ‘space-age’ weapon.
17 February 2011
Real-time analysis of IR emission from eye and nose areas provides a nonintrusive method for evaluating statements.
15 February 2011
Fabricated with semiconductor-manufacturing tools, room-temperature terahertz-range detector arrays would enable faster, lower-cost, and less intrusive security screening.
14 February 2011
A sensitized microring resonator provides selective detection of trinitrotoluene down to 5.29 parts per billion or less in a low-cost, reusable, chip-scale design.
11 February 2011
By studying the time evolution of substances' responses to terahertz radiation, materials of interest can be differentiated in a way not permitted by frequency domain analysis alone.
9 February 2011
Nematic liquid crystals, the basic material of most flat-panel displays, enable detection of chemical and biological agents.
1 February 2011
Recent progress in semiconductor-laser technology opens up new opportunities for products that protect airliners against heat-seeking missiles and travelers against attacks with toxic chemicals or explosives.
13 January 2011
A micro air vehicle with onboard intelligence can maneuver in hard-to-reach parts of disaster areas and provide video images for search-and-rescue operations.
13 January 2011
IR-sensor performance can be improved by integrating a carbon-nanotube structure with a photonic crystal.
5 January 2011
An algorithm based on the generalized Gaussian-mixture model offers robustness to noise and flexibility in modeling a wide range of facial appearances.
13 December 2010
Mid-wave IR photodetectors can be optimized by incorporating an ‘nBn’-layered design.
6 December 2010
New light-emitting plastic-waveguide designs advance the prospect of on-chip organic photonic systems for applications ranging from chemical sensing to data communications.
22 November 2010
Recent progress in advanced semiconductor light sources, together with their brightness and narrow linewidth, should help overcome resistance to their widespread application.
17 November 2010
Incorporating a reconfigurable mask in an IR system can simplify the optics and give better than a fourfold improvement in imaging resolution.
10 November 2010
A new lens offers a possible solution to the formation of broadband light images in today's demanding multispectral applications.
10 November 2010

Now engaged in a series of shots that will lead up to conducting full-scale ignition experiments as part of the National Ignition Campaign, the NIF is nearing its objective, says its director.

29 October 2010
A novel surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrate shows superior performance over its conventional planar counterpart thanks to a unique nanoporous nanostructure.
27 October 2010
The father of the FEL talks about current research and potential applications of the technology, from genetics to defense and security.
19 October 2010
Using a single, continuously tunable laser provides better molecular discrimination and enables simultaneous detection of several molecules.
18 October 2010
A microscale, solid-state system can be fabricated to produce a radiation detector that promises to achieve an efficiency of 50%.
12 October 2010
A new class of speech-recognition applications achieves success rates that are several orders of magnitude higher than typical.
6 October 2010

Progress is being made in recognizing and identifying humans at a distance, but challenges remain in all areas of biometrics.

30 September 2010
Winners of the 2009 NASA Power Beaming Competition, innovators at LaserMotive are plotting the development course of laser propulsion.
23 September 2010
The president of Polaris Sensor Technologies discusses 3D imaging as it applies to defense, robotics, and other applications.
22 September 2010
Patterned metal-dielectric interfaces allow active guiding of mid-IR laser beams through subwavelength apertures in metal films.
20 September 2010
Rare-earth fluorescent nanophosphors upconvert from near-IR to visible wavelengths to provide bright, low-noise images.
17 September 2010
A fiber-based, polarization-encoding quantum-key distribution system enables classical communication and key distribution on the same link.
7 September 2010
A quantum-noise-randomized cipher has the potential to provide secure high-speed data-center service.
1 September 2010
Photonic-bandgap fibers allow a unique, simple production method without compromising sensitivity or the ease of microfluidic integration.
17 August 2010
High-speed optical detectors that are sensitive in the near-IR wavelength region have application in global 3D mapping, atmospheric gas measurements, and laser communications.
11 August 2010
A new instrumentation platform allows for battery-powered sensors in a wide-area network that can accurately monitor trace gases.
2 August 2010
A network of small, optical imaging sensors may help prevent future clashes between satellites and space debris.
19 July 2010
A new sensing technique takes away the need for computers in adaptive optics.
19 July 2010
Demonstrations of photonic quantum-information science, including an integrated circuit that can factorize the number 15, promise applications on a feasible scale.
12 July 2010
Automated analysis and identification of suspect behaviors and functions of buildings, people, and vehicles are needed for real-time, actionable intelligence.
8 July 2010

Expertise in building and leading organizations has led to a string of successes and Irvin's status as an accomplished photonics entrepreneur.

5 July 2010
Driving sensors that are based on mass loading of resonators into large-amplitude nonlinear oscillations has potential for applications such as detecting toxic and explosive substances.
17 June 2010
After more than 30 years at Bell Labs, Patel founded a company dedicated to trace-gas measurement technologies for industrial, environmental, and security applications.
11 June 2010
Configuring an IR focal-plane array in a 1cc cold chamber pierced by a small pinhole enables a tiny thermal imager without optics.
27 May 2010
Self-powered, integrated systems-on-a-chip are key to developing extremely low-power devices for applications in commercial, defense, space, harsh-environment, and medical settings.
26 May 2010
Entropyology applies bioinformatics and data modeling to digital virus and malware recognition.
19 May 2010
Passive fiber-optic networks for gas detection offer unparalleled benefits in interrogation range, multispecies selectivity, high sensitivity, long-term reliability and stability, and intrinsic safety.
7 May 2010
A suite of gadgets that will soon fit inside a mobile device can localize personnel inside buildings without relying on global-positioning systems.
13 April 2010

The mature technology of the QCL is now finding commercial applications.

8 April 2010
Carefully positioned potential barriers suppress photocarrier capture by quantum dots.
29 March 2010
Measurements of thin films in a parallel-plate waveguide provide high-resolution identification of < .10GHz-wide vibrational lines.
26 March 2010
A newly developed detector for toxic industrial chemicals is highly sensitive, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it works by visualizing odors.
3 March 2010
Model-based ‘opinions’ of data and their aggregates replace the probabilistic weights in a neural algorithm to improve accuracy and response times.
3 March 2010
A quantum-dot-based thin-film approach enables development of light, powerful, and flexible photovoltaic cells.
2 March 2010
A new approach to facial identification makes automated surveillance easier.
22 February 2010
Novel solid-state emitters and detectors exploit electronic-charge vibrations to improve the operating frequency of devices intended for safety and security applications.
15 February 2010
The constructive interference of coherent light inside microsphere cavities enables robust, ultrasensitive biosensors as observed from resonance-frequency shifts.
4 February 2010
Novel optical systems show excellent properties for laser-induced fluorescence detection of dangerous aerosols, hydrosols, chemicals, and explosives.
2 February 2010
Simulations suggest that computer-vision techniques offer important advantages over conventional sensors in satellite-based tracking missions.
27 January 2010
Many of the pioneering giant lasers at Lawrence Livermore were built during John Emmett's leadership.
21 January 2010
Leon Esterowitz completed his PhD in the early 60s in the early days of the laser. After a career in defense, he moved to NSF, and now reviews funding proposals in biophotonics.
13 January 2010
Interconnecting microelectromechanical systems directly to printed circuit boards can improve reliability and reduce costs of medium-caliber fuzes.
6 January 2010
Proactively placing laser-engraved tooling marks in weapons could provide invaluable data for effective counterinsurgency operations.
4 January 2010
A combination of structured light illumination and a suitable algorithm offers a solution to problems of precision associated with conventional print capture.
31 December 2009
Sustained efforts in designing techniques for information protection are essential to streamline the proliferation of convenient and efficient biometric systems.
3 December 2009
Taking into account uncertainties in classification results in an improved alternative to conventional means of detecting moving objects.
13 November 2009
The combination of microfluidics and plastic electronics could bring laboratory-quality analysis to the practitioner in the field.
16 October 2009
Very thin absorbing layers that can absorb 99% of the incident light facilitate construction of more efficient single-photon detectors.
14 October 2009
Estimating the percentage of blood oxygen can reliably prevent spoof attacks on a range of biometric sensors.
16 September 2009
Innovative algorithms and software tools developed within a game-theoretic framework aid automatic decision making and enhance the effectiveness and robustness of space surveillance.
10 September 2009

From fabric that can process images to laser communication to brain surgery, Yoel Fink of MIT describes some of the uses of multimaterial fibers.

9 September 2009
A randomized stream cipher provides ultra-high-speed data encryption over long-distance channels.
8 September 2009
Understanding influences such as humidity, standoff distance, and sample roughness is crucial for real-world implementation of terahertz spectroscopy.
2 September 2009
Operation and predictive modeling of GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor diodes record fundamental-mode frequencies of ~100GHz.
27 August 2009
New flexible electronics technologies are becoming more viable and durable, with some ready for market as early as next year.
21 August 2009
A novel intrusion detector offers several advantages compared with traditional methods, including a simpler design and improved levels of discrimination.
20 August 2009
Modified chemomechanical polishing can reduce five-fold the surface roughness of large-diameter indium antimonide substrates used in advanced imaging systems and devices.
20 August 2009
Doughnut-shaped laser beams hold promise for touch-free, selective catching, holding, and transporting of absorbing particles in the air.
19 August 2009
A new family of coating systems provides self-decontamination against dust and biological pathogens for future space exploration.
18 August 2009
A new method rapidly acquires depth scans at extended distances, paving the way for resolving low-signature targets at power levels safe for human eyes.
29 July 2009
Sandwich structures make IR cameras that provide high-quality IR images, detecting even minuscule temperature differences within a tenth of a millisecond.
28 July 2009
Using a dielectric cylinder surrounded by a negative refractive-index shell, electromagnetic-wave scattering by objects outside the cylinder/shell region can be suppressed effectively.
24 July 2009
Key research leaders from government and industry discuss the challenges of creating revolutionary developments
15 July 2009
Key research leaders from government and industry discuss future revolutions in military developments
15 July 2009
Key research leaders from government and industry discuss the challenges and opportunities of working in defense and security
15 July 2009
Ultra-secure quantum cryptography is realized through the wave function collapse of coherent photons.
15 July 2009
Real-time IR motion sensing poses significant challenges that can be met robustly using two novel approaches.
14 July 2009
Growing indium nitride film in a different orientation paves the way for noninvasive analysis of chemical composition.
1 July 2009
A free-space optical beam can reliably transfer more than one bit of data per photon received, even in the presence of background light.
18 June 2009
Apparent superiority of sophisticated detection algorithms in test conditions does not necessarily imply the same in real-world hyperspectral imaging applications.
17 June 2009
An automatic system for matching and retrieving tattoo images will help advance the investigative capabilities of law enforcement and forensics agencies.
15 June 2009
From explosions to obscurity, Tom Elliott discusses the history of this important technology.
9 June 2009
Top SPIE Newsroom articles from the previous month, and papers from SPIE Journals and Conference Proceedings.
9 June 2009
The proliferation of touchscreen-enabled devices represents an emerging and promising environment for automatic biometric validation systems.
27 May 2009
Frameworks with adjustable nanoporosity, high surface area, and many known structures may pave the way for portable, low-cost chemical sensors.
19 May 2009
Krohn discusses the near-term and future applications of fiber optics sensors, photonics sensors, and laser technologies in the transportation industry.
15 May 2009
NASA is investigating the challenges involved in meeting the sophisticated visual demands of tomorrow's airspace system.
14 May 2009
Innovations in photonics and microfluidics have enabled the development of a novel, rapid, sensitive, low-cost, and portable micro-gas analyzer.
4 May 2009
New eye-recognition research could result in more user-friendly and accurate technology.
4 May 2009

The Qinetiq researcher talks about progress in passive millimter-wave imaging, and transitioning technology from the laboratory to the real world.

1 May 2009
Norman AugustineThe pace of change of modern technology requires that the engineering profession reinvent itself. Norman Augustine addressed this topic at the SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing symposium. (Video interview and podcast of speech)
29 April 2009
Project director Ed Moses talks about the challenges and the possibilities as the National Ignition Facility gets ready for experiments.
21 April 2009
Innovations in photon-detection technology facilitate quantum-key distribution to multi-user networks and one-time pad encryption.
16 April 2009
Progress in the fabrication, assembly, and manipulation of nanotubes and graphene-based materials promises many technological advances.
8 April 2009
Studying binary motion patterns may enable simple, real-time, autonomous detection of abnormal events in surveillance video.
2 April 2009
A novel color-transformation method converts daytime scenes into night-vision goggle images suitable for realistic nighttime training.
27 March 2009
A novel biometrics system employing finger-knuckle-surface measurements has achieved promising, highly accurate results.
20 March 2009
Advances in hardware and in chemistry and nanotechnology are continually increasing the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the defense and security sector.
17 March 2009
A carefully patterned metal surface may strongly localize microwaves, thus enabling novel microwave-technology developments.
12 March 2009
Decomposing an image sequence into slices that generate twisted patterns sufficiently characterizes human gait and a particular class of activities.
10 March 2009
Telltale spectra can identify illicit drugs hidden in packages.
24 February 2009
A novel scanning-image volume-holographic correlator enables high-speed optical-pattern matching and tracking.
24 February 2009
Transferring quantum communication to space poses interesting challenges in both cryptography and fundamental physics.
13 February 2009
Incorporating daylight and infrared optics offers improved rates of target acquisition.
9 February 2009
A novel technique for optimizing compression outperforms wavelets for data subject to quantization or thresholding.
3 February 2009
Employing a top nanolayer characterized by a high refractive index increases the electromagnetic field at the sample interface and, correspondingly, sensor responsiveness.
21 January 2009
A new heterogeneous integration technique enables the integration of acoustic microsensors and radio frequency (RF) circuitry.
20 January 2009
Application of independent-component analysis boosts the performance of current surveillance and defense systems.
13 January 2009
Current research in materials and manufacture envisages significant improvements with implications for process control, tool technologies, helmet-mounted sensors, and in situ sensing.
9 January 2009
Single-frequency, low-phase-noise planar semiconductor lasers enable low-cost, reliable, and compact optical-sensor fabrication for oil and gas, civil-structure engineering, and security markets.
6 January 2009
Challenges introduced by new transmission standards and the ability to store programs for later viewing are addressed with audio watermarking and fingerprinting.
30 December 2008
Ferroelectric nanotubes that produce intense, high-frequency emissions may lead to new medical, military, and security devices.
28 December 2008
By incorporating information from hundreds of contiguous spectral bands, hyperspectral imaging provides a fuller picture of an unknown target than previously possible.
24 December 2008
A newly developed electric-field sensing technology with unprecedented sensitivity and noise immunity can passively acquire physiological signals in an electrically noisy environment.
17 December 2008
Distributed sensing and data processing may enable in-flight monitoring of aerospace vehicles, revealing damage quickly and accurately.
15 December 2008
A near-IR-based portable device can identify and localize suspected brain bleeding in trauma patients.
15 December 2008
Automated techniques improve the ability of airborne surveillance video to detect, track, and extract shapes of ground vehicles in motion.
15 December 2008
An innovative routing protocol and security algorithm improve the performance of mobile ad hoc networks for military applications.
15 December 2008
A joint coding and embedding strategy can enhance the security of electronic media against illegal copying and redistribution.
15 December 2008
The light-absorption properties of this accidentally discovered material promise sweeping advances from cameras to solar cells.
8 December 2008
Recent advances in the design and fabrication of mid-IR lasers pave the way for important applications such as countermeasures and remote sensing.
8 December 2008
Tools from differential geometry enable a biometric technology that efficiently and accurately distinguishes between people, even as similar as a pair of identical twins.
1 December 2008
Biometric authentication methods are becoming more widespread in security, industrial, and even ergonomic applications.
1 December 2008
A reflection grating written on a novel, all-solid, silica-based fiber with a 2D core offers advantages over previous devices.
1 December 2008
Electrically driving a flowable laser gain medium is key to high output beam quality.
18 November 2008
Parallelized calculations on a configurable system can vastly improve speed of recognition and template matching.
6 November 2008
Advanced correlation filters, combined with the kernel method for pattern analysis, improve classification performance.
6 November 2008
Using the theory of transformation optics, practical cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be devised to conceal objects from detection at a targeted wavelength.
5 November 2008
Compact processors installed on small unmanned aerial vehicles could bring the advantages of increased video quality to the battlefield.
31 October 2008
The Army seeks to develop fundamental technologies that will enable ensembles of palm-sized unmanned systems to support personnel operating in a variety of dangerous environments.
29 October 2008

Presentations at the SPIE Europe Security + Defence symposium highlight the synergy of detection and data-processing software to identify potential threats.

21 October 2008
An airborne infrared imaging spectrometer overcomes vibration to detect harmful compounds up to 5km away.
6 October 2008
The quest for higher efficiency in solar cells and LED lighting, and reducing glare from display screens, have led to a dramatic increase in antireflective coating patents. 
25 September 2008
Immersive telepresence and driver-assist behaviors increase the maximum effective speed of semiautonomous mobile robots.
24 September 2008
Novel coatings composed of carbon nanotubes embedded in cadmium arachidate matrices improve the robustness and performance of fiber-optic chemical sensors.
21 September 2008
A reflective light-coupling scheme improves advanced photodetector performance and resolution while making the camera more affordable.
16 September 2008
A simple polarization tracking method enables free-space quantum cryptography between mobile terminals, such as satellites and ground stations.
15 September 2008
Cantilever bending monitoring via the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenonSurface plasmon resonance techniques can improve the sensitivity of sensors based on cantilever probes.
8 September 2008
Raman spectroscopy could help to track down liquid explosives before they are made.
4 September 2008
Recent developments in neurology, computer science, and robotics shed light on how the human cortex computes and represents knowledge.
4 September 2008
Flat panel lightweight sensors can detect hidden weapons and threats to aircraft.
27 August 2008
An improved classical vector-quantization algorithm enables robust computer-based object discovery in IR imagery.
18 August 2008
Using a series of elemental 2D images can lead to a low-cost alternative to laser radar imaging for short-range object recognition.
18 August 2008
A novel near-infrared imaging technique could catch threats using portable equipment.
14 August 2008
A novel method takes advantage of corrosion to reveal prints even after perspiration residue is no longer present.
5 August 2008
Algorithms applied to low-resolution images can help develop non-intrusive remote-sensing instrumentation for indoor tracking.
4 August 2008
Datacasting and related technologies that stream data to remote environments can be engineered to improve decision-making.
30 July 2008
A system for use with unmanned vehicles facilitates rapid operator interpretation of radio frequency threats while conserving bandwidth.
24 July 2008
The psychology of remote-operator environmental awareness is an important area of inquiry in which recent advances enable improved deployment of robotic vehicles.
17 July 2008
A novel device for light-intensity modulation with enhanced spurious-free dynamic range is shown to be suitable for application in most radar systems.
14 July 2008
Nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes hold significant promise for use in high-frequency and extreme-environment applications
14 July 2008
Robots monitoring hazards cooperatively form dynamic groups to surround and contain threats.
11 July 2008
By deploying information theory models, robust watermarking can protect streaming video against piracy
8 July 2008
A new approach to automatically identify individuals offers a high level of security while reducing the noise.
17 June 2008
Identifying trace levels of explosives at ranges of tens of meters may be possible using a UV laser to create relatively strong and clutter-free fluorescence.
11 June 2008
A quality measurement system based on threat image projection can be integrated with explosion detection systems currently in use at most large airports.
31 May 2008
A novel microbolometer technology could replace the infrared sensors in industrial and home security systems, providing longer detection range, intelligent electronic readout, and an imaging capability.
11 May 2008
Software-based liveness detection algorithms using characteristics of fingerprint images can be retrofitted and tailored to fingerprint systems with minimal cost and effort to enhance security.
11 May 2008
The rapid development of multimedia technologies has spurred the growth of information forensics, an emerging interdisciplinary field that investigates compromised digital proprietary data.
8 May 2008
A new technique based on x-ray diffraction imaging fingerprints liquid explosives and may eliminate the procedures currently required for verifying liquids at air-passenger checkpoints.
30 April 2008
DARPA's planned ubiquitous imaging system is designed to cover a 60-degree field of view at high resolution and at video rates greater than 12Hz.
9 April 2008
High-intensity irradiance effects have been evaluated as a countermeasure against detection and tracking with infrared camera systems.
9 April 2008
The artificial atomlike properties of self-assembling quantum dots enable high-operating-temperature long-wavelength IR focal plane arrays.
3 April 2008
A framework that combines correlation arrays over time using probabilistic models can improve automatic target detection and tracking.
1 April 2008
Keeping money secure from counterfeiting requires constantly developing new techniques to stay ahead of the criminals.
14 March 2008
A novel approach shows the value of polarimetric Envisat data for a range of important security and environmental applications.
9 March 2008
New sensor systems are being developed to scan banknote security features such as holographic patterns, ink fluorescence, watermarks, microprinting, and intaglio patterns.
3 March 2008

As the CEO of Edmund Optics, Robert Edmund has a unique perspective on the industry. He talks about growing up in optics, how the company has changed, globalization, and his outlook for the industry.

27 February 2008

A low-noise silicon hard x-ray imaging device promises improvement over conventional technologies for future astronomical missions and medical applications.

26 February 2008
Optical approaches provide robust and relatively non-invasive methods for excitation and detection of the motion of micro- and nanomechanical structures.
25 February 2008
Exploiting regularities in object shape for feature-level image fusion leads to improved object segmentation.
25 February 2008
The photosensitivity of Er-Yb-codoped and undoped phosphate glasses opens possibilities for the fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector lasers and tunable dual-wavelength fiber lasers.
4 February 2008
Exploiting the unique properties of mass-producible photonic crystals could lead to more efficient and accurate biological assays.
27 January 2008
Arranging carbon nanotubes in arrays of bundles creates high-performance electron-field-emission sources that enable smaller instruments for space and defense applications.
27 January 2008
Parallel optical processing allows a new instrument to capture both images and spectra without scanning.
11 December 2007
An instrument that uses an eye-safe laser source can detect trace levels of improvised explosive devices reliably and without damaging the surfaces being scanned.
6 December 2007
A new method for recording holograms in electrically switchable liquid-crystal/polymer composites can reduce incoherent scattering while simultaneously boosting diffraction efficiency.
27 November 2007
At the DARPA Urban Challenge, autonomous vehicles proved they have a future. This SPIE Newsroom video shows some of the action and talks about the technology.
14 November 2007
Recently developed fully integrated all-fiber supercontinuum sources allow 5mW/nm spectral power density in the blue/uv, while cw pumped 50mW/nm is obtained in the near IR.
14 November 2007
The receiver operating characteristic curve is widely used to evaluate recognition systems, but it has too many limitations to serve as a sole criterion.
13 November 2007
Thermal imaging camera systems can be merged with existing surveillance technologies and new image-processing algorithms to protect critical infrastructures more efficiently.
6 November 2007
Autonomous vehicle technology took a big step closer to reality as six robotic cars completed a 60-mile course on city streets.
5 November 2007
A new type of inner cladding allows the fabrication of large-mode-area laser fibers with low numerical aperture and near-diffraction-limited beam quality.
28 October 2007
The infrared and Raman spectral signatures of chemical threat agents can be used to develop remote sensing chemical-warfare detection systems.
25 October 2007
Optical imaging systems based on the biological superposition eye are being developed for hard x-ray optics and video surveillance with telescopic resolution.
25 October 2007
A sensing device that ‘sees’ magnetic fields moves forensic testing a step forward.
17 October 2007
Graphics processors found in commercial graphics cards can substantially increase speed and reduce hardware costs for processing raw radar data into images.
15 October 2007
Coherent optical detection is essential to providing with superior range, resolution and sensitivity.
7 October 2007
Polarization information can help classify materials and identify objects of interest for remote sensing and military applications.
30 September 2007
When the requirement is absolutely secure data exchange, how do you choose between wire and laser light via optical fiber?
24 September 2007
Congestion can be reduced and performance improved for a mobile ad-hoc network with fast-moving or peer-aware nodes.
11 September 2007
Using a new tracking algorithm, mobile vehicles can distribute video in real time.
10 September 2007
During the FIFA soccer World Cup, scanning imaging infrared remote sensing systems identified and located various gases in the air over public areas.
4 September 2007

Harold Szu discusses wellness engineering and how technology developed for the military can help monitor diseases such as diabetes.

16 August 2007

Upendra Singh talks about the NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program, the 2-micron laser, and changes in remote sensing.

15 August 2007
Transmission enhancement is possible through a broad range by tailoring to desired resonances.
15 August 2007
Quantum key distribution systems based on entangled photons are robust against recently published methods of attack.
12 August 2007
Mixed metal oxide thin-film sensors can provide cost-effective real-time monitoring of radiation and toxic gases.
12 August 2007
A fast-response integrated opto-chemical sensor system can detect ultra-low concentrations of ammonia with high reproducibility.
8 August 2007

Reza Ghodssi discusses the MEMS Sensors and Actuator Lab at the University of Maryland, microfabrication technologies, and chitosan.

7 August 2007
Michael DeWeert discusses harbor security and how sensor fusion and unmanned vehicles can help.
7 August 2007
High-level data fusion based on Markov game models can refine predictive models and capture features relevant to cyber network awareness.
30 July 2007
Piezoelectric-based sources have the potential to supplement or replace onboard batteries in in many types of devices in which ambient shock, impact, vibration, or oscillatory motions are present.
24 July 2007
A data-fusion-based real-time detection system offers automated damage control on board US Navy vessels.
9 July 2007
Intelligent video research focuses on automatic camera calibration and person detection, tracking, and reacquisition.
27 June 2007
Coverage and feature saliency can be employed to determine optimal orientation of a camera surveillance system.
27 June 2007
By detecting whether or not an iris is part of a living person, its features can be used much more confidently in biometrics.
25 June 2007
The first flashlight ever designed for seeing at night preserves the dark adaptation and peripheral vision of the eyes.
24 June 2007
A working environment offers a common scene overview, integrated detail views, and access to additional information.
19 June 2007
Revealing a product's chemical structure makes it easy to differentiate real pharmaceuticals from pretenders.
17 June 2007
For the detection of shock waves and high-speed phenomena in explosive materials, fiber-based systems are safer and cheaper than electronics.
12 June 2007
A monolithic prism interferometer achieves odor sensing with high sensitivity at high speed and low cost.
30 May 2007
A doped polymer fiber doped with a star cross-section can be used in chemical and biochemical sensing.
20 May 2007
An experimental satellite has demonstrated accurate inter-satellite and satellite-to-ground optical communications using a near-infrared laser.
16 May 2007
Novel approaches to 3D human facial recognition achieve improved results using the complex-wavelet structural similarity metric index.
13 May 2007
Theodore Maiman, who died in May 2007, is known for creating the first working laser out of a discredited material -- ruby -- in May 1960.
9 May 2007
The latest featured patent review by analysts from Nerac examines devices that help to see in the dark.
3 May 2007
A new target-detection method uses digital processing together with a projection algorithm to spot the cross-center rapidly and precisely.
4 April 2007
Techniques to identify rotated faces and irises result in high overall detection rates and real-time processing.
3 April 2007
Birefringence and transparency of selected liquid crystals at terahertz (THz) frequencies promise added functionalities for liquid-crystal-based THz photonic elements such as phase shifters and filters.
20 March 2007
Human factors and costs challenge biometrics' commercial viability.
9 March 2007
Wave detectors and sources distributed around a volume of space could render it and its contents impossible to detect.
8 March 2007
A resonance-based radar target recognition scheme shows potential for differentiating between small physical differences in similar targets.
5 March 2007
A miniature optical storage disc drive features highly secure encrypted data recording and employs biometrics to control access.
4 March 2007
A new approach implements optical position encoders based on a mass-replicable micro-optical technology.
20 February 2007
A novel pyroelectric sensor system uses biometrics to extract human walking features and to provide high-identification capability for intelligent machines and secure systems.
20 February 2007
Autocorrelation analysis of speckle noise in optical coherence tomography images can be used to expose fingerprint fraud in automatic recognition systems.
15 February 2007
Nanocrystalline ZnO is a desirable material for a biosensing platform that may enable real-time detection of surface binding events.
14 February 2007
Diagnostic techniques for Sarin, a highly toxic nerve agent, have been translated to a real-time, low-cost microfluidics device.
12 February 2007
In this video of his Photonics West presentation, David Krohn shares expert advice and perspective on the market potential, technology, opportunities and barriers in biophotonics.
5 February 2007
Interferometric imaging provides both spatial and spectral information about screened objects with a limited number of expensive detectors.
1 February 2007
Infrared spectroscopy combined with statistical analysis can identify and discriminate among vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, and background interferents.
29 January 2007
A compact 10Hz, 6TW laser system is mounted in a portable laboratory that facilitates experiments on kilometer-long ranges.
14 January 2007
The Houston Ship Channel is a major seaport with unique and complex vulnerability issues that can be analyzed to design general models of integrated safety solutions.
8 January 2007
The high circulating intensities in ultrahigh-Q optical microresonator sensors improve their sensitivity enough to detect a part per million of heavy water in water.
8 January 2007
Technology developments have enabled the deployment of hyperspectral sensors to new application areas.
4 January 2007
In the near future, photonic sensor technology is expected to evolve to multifunctional capabilities that include biochemical detection by exploiting wireless and distributed fiber solutions.
28 December 2006
Developments in hand-held assay device technology improve the detection and quantification of chemical and biological warfare agents in real time.
26 December 2006
Standoff sensing performed in real time by exploiting the spectral properties of bioaerosols facilitates classification of detected materials.
21 December 2006
The quantum cascade laser's unique properties -- especially its power, tuning range and ability to work pulsed at room temperature -- make it ideal for a variety of gas sensing applications.
17 December 2006
While thermal-emitter technology seems to have reached a plateau, infrared light-emitting diodes are poised for potential rebirth.
14 December 2006
Advanced applications are possible by combining multiple sensors, including new electro-optic/infrared devices.
14 December 2006
Ground-based solid-state laser weapons could be capable tools in the warfighter's response to asymmetric threats in urban warfare.
13 December 2006
Maps indicating threat levels based on key feature proximity, and incorporating event location uncertainty, are useful for planning countermeasures in the global war on terror.
11 December 2006
A single sensor can be used to extract 3D information from a scene by computing the orientation angles of the emitting surface normal vector.
17 November 2006
Simulations reveal that the dispersive properties of photonic-crystal structures can create chip-scale optical sensors to detect chemical, biological, and gaseous agents.
15 November 2006
Algorithms based on multichannel filtering techniques substantially improve wavefront reconstruction in adaptive optics applications.
3 November 2006
By adapting techniques used for gravitational-wave detection, a new fiber-based sensing methodology enables unprecedented remote broadband strain detection at acoustic frequencies.
1 November 2006
By adjusting the composition of thin films, particularly the elements used for doping, these materials can detect gases with high sensitivity.
1 November 2006
A novel winding method promises smaller but still accurate fiber-optic rotation sensors made from less expensive components.
1 November 2006
Fractal information boosts the performance of a neural network approach to detecting targets and target features in heavy clutter.
31 November 2006
Without the use of new hardware or additional channels, a new technique offers increased efficiency and strength against attacks.
31 November 2006
A hierarchical detection algorithm quickly finds and isolates critical regions in low-quality imagery.
31 November 2006
Scrambling a laser beam with a ground-glass diffuser creates an improved light source for dynamic light-scattering experiments.
22 October 2006
Target-simulating infrared scene projections equivalent to a blackbody at 1050K can be provided by IR interband-cascade type-II-superlattice LEDs.
11 October 2006
An optics-based quantum measurement system generates random bits for cryptographic applications, with security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics.
5 October 2006
New optical and analytical technologies are being developed to detect dangerous materials from various distances and against background interferences.
3 October 2006
Understanding the relationships between statistical variables allows them to be used more effectively.
26 September 2006
A high-resolution sensor with 360-degree coverage automatically detects and tracks warm moving objects and is designed to act as an intelligent node in a sensor network.
25 September 2006
An open-platform framework improves Internet web mapping by combining the richness of traditional desktop applications with the reach of browser-based systems.
5 September 2006
A 3D optical imaging system may provide a fast and non-destructive technique to visualize and identify living specimens.
5 September 2006
A predictive technique using data from recent image frames improves a camera's dynamic range.
31 September 2006
By managing distortion and pixel coverage with the Panomorph lens, target detection and recognition improve significantly.
18 August 2006
A new strategy reduces computational costs and improves the applicability of automatic aerial target detection.
11 August 2006
Advances in surveillance software that maps sensor pixels to ground coordinates allow the study of diverse scenarios for the detection of hostile events and the tracking of their perpetrators.
7 August 2006
antennaBy controlling the beam phase of desired signals, destructive interference and multipath fading can be avoided.
7 August 2006
A handheld monocular display eliminates night-time illumination and daylight readability issues.
6 August 2006
Region-based video scrambling technology enables sensitive visual information to be concealed while retaining scene meaning.
3 August 2006
Objects of a large-scale scene from an airborne camera can be automatically detected, measured, and visualized as multiple panoramic images.
1 August 2006
A rugged, miniature, uncooled IR camera provides radiometric images while attached to an active rocket booster.
28 July 2006
Because of their many advantages, fiber lasers are used in some rugged environments, demanding exceptional reliability.
17 July 2006
Analyzing the dynamic interactions in a social network can yield a deeper and more accurate understanding than the traditional, static view.
14 July 2006

Compact stereoscopic systems used for passive target ranging show promise in covert target distance estimation in a realistic field environment.

12 July 2006
Developing computationally efficient processing techniques for massive volumes of hyperspectral data is critical for space-based Earth science and planetary exploration.
7 July 2006
Wireless tracking technology integrated with facial biometrics can improve security in health care facilities.
6 July 2006
The results of an investigation into the excitation, propagation, and detection of surface plasmon polariton modes, at scales less than 100nm, have been applied to a biochemical sensor.
22 June 2006
A highly sensitive ZnO nanowire field-effect sensor has electrically controlled sensitivity, refreshability, and distinguishability.
8 June 2006
Microstructured and multicore fibers have been used to build compact, high power lasers, including one with of nearly 5W output from a 3.5cm active length.
7 June 2006
Emergency first responders can detect and identify chemicals with passive insruments mounted on an aircraft sent to monitor the scene.
7 June 2006
New software will analyze moving targets in sequences of images: abilities include target tracking, multi-sensor triangulation, and model-based pose estimation.
24 May 2006
Compact, inexpensive, temperature-tunable thin-film filters take advantage of thermal properties of amorphous semiconductors.
23 May 2006
Acoustical and physical measurements—like temperature, pressure, etc.—are combined with image-processing inspection methods in a new approach for print-flaw detection in printing machines.
22 May 2006
 Interviews from SPIE Defense and Security Symposium spotlight the future of critical technologies
19 May 2006

Correlation filter technology developed in the 1990s for automatic target recognition is being used to recognize people based on their biometric images.

17 May 2006
Rechargers efficient enough to build into flashlights, radios, etc. will cut more than half of soldiers' backup battery weight.
15 May 2006
A new method has been developed for selecting and qualifying commercially available optical communications components for use on spacecraft.
5 May 2006
Laser radar makes it possible to detect and track intruders approaching the perimeter of sensitive facilities.
1 May 2006
A face verification scheme based on wavelet-transformed face images and fused with voice and handwritten signatures has potential for use on constrained platforms, such as mobile phones and PDAs.
28 April 2006
An optically pumped cesium-vapor laser with a slope efficiency of 81% has been demonstrated that can be scaled to high power for use in missile defense and technological applications.
27 April 2006
Recent developments in source and sensor technology are leading to new scientific and commercial applications for terahertz radiation.
27 April 2006
Novel computer vision techniques using multiple commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors can be used on mobile platforms to efficiently detect and track objects over large areas.
24 April 2006
Electrically conducting plastics and nanoparticles aid simultaneous measurement of the activity of many genes.
19 April 2006
A new family of marking materials allows unambiguous ID of emergency service vehicles by surveillance aircraft.
17 April 2006
The first long-wave infrared camera based on self-assembled nanoscale quantum dots has been used to image objects at room temperature.
10 April 2006
A new platform of photoluminescent sensors excited by an array of OLED pixels is being developed for a broad range of medical, environmental, and industrial applications.
2 April 2006
Imaging at terahertz frequencies offers non-ionizing penetration and spectroscopic capabilities that make it appealing for homeland security, medical, and industrial inspection applications.
31 April 2006
SPIE Professional April 2006
31 March 2006
A coded-aperture spectrometer provides higher-throughput measurement of an extended source than a slit-based instrument.
31 March 2006
Despite the belief of some researchers, issues exist that mean quantum-optical cryptography may not meet all the demands of secure communication.
30 March 2006
A new algorithm allows optical distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence to be suppressed in long-range video.
28 March 2006
Successful entrepreneur Gregory Olsen sees his trip to space as another opportunity -- to raise the profile of science education.
27 March 2006
A technique that allows soft x-rays to be focused using reflective elements that mimic a lobster's eye is extended to hard x-rays.
21 March 2006
A new laser radar technology, which exploits several spectral bands to discriminate the position, angle-of-arrival, and velocity of ballistic threats, provides increased protection of military vehicles.
15 March 2006
MEMS systems technologies make possible portable IR micro-spectrometers that are small, insensitive to vibrations, and potentially low cost.
13 March 2006
High resolution (milli-radian) laser pointing/acquisition systems, useful for free-space communication systems alignment, laser weapons, and lidar applications, can be achieved by using a perspective imaging system as a sensor.
6 March 2006
Detection of the presence of micron-size particles and bacterial cells in drinking water using light scattering or fluorescence measurements can be made more sensitive using an enrichment procedure.
3 March 2006
The fast face recognition optical correlator, applied to a temporal sequence of moving images, has an improved recognition rate and shows promise for applications requiring very high throughput.
1 March 2006

Spectral-hole-burning media can be used for broadband radiofrequency spectrum analysis, promising increased bandwitdth and lower processing times.

7 February 2006
Recent advances have provided new ways to set off ordnance with greater precision and at lower cost.  There may also be civilian applications.
7 February 2006
This article discusses recent technological improvements that have led to high-power room-temperature diode lasers in in the mid-infrared (from 3µm to 8µm) wavelength range, which are useful for a number of industrial and military applications.
7 February 2006
19bigSecure local storage and network transmission of images have emerged as important research areas, underscoring the need to strike a balance between image compression and security in bandwidth-constrained wireless environments.
7 February 2006
Highly localized solid state molecular sensors can be tuned to detect the signatures of specific chemical and biological agents in real time and can be integrated with existing silicon devices in miniature systems.
7 February 2006
The Miniature Integrated Speckle imaging Telescope (MIST) is meeting the challenges of long-distance, high-resolution imagery by compensating for atmospheric turbulence blurring.
1 February 2006
From oemagazine September 2005
31 September 2005
From oemagazine September 2005
31 September 2005
From oemagazine September 2005
31 September 2005
From oemagazine June/July 2005
31 May 2005
From oemagazine April 2005
31 April 2005
From oemagazine April 2005
31 April 2005
From oemagazine April 2005
31 April 2005
From oemagazine January 2005
1 January 2005
From oemagazine November/December 2005.
31 January 2005
From oemagazine November/December 2004
30 October 2004
From oemagazine September 2004
31 September 2004
From oemagazine August 2004
31 August 2004
From oemagazine August 2004
31 August 2004
From oemagazine May 2004
30 May 2004
From oemagazine April 2004
31 April 2004
From oemagazine April 2004
31 April 2004
From oemagazine April 2004
31 April 2004
from oemagazine April 2004
31 March 2004
From oemagazine April 2004
31 April 2004
From oemagazine March 2004
29 March 2004
From oemagazine February 2004
31 February 2004
From oemagazine October 2003
30 October 2003
From oemagazine September 2003
31 September 2003
From oemagazine August 2003
31 August 2003
From oemagazine June 2003
31 June 2003
From oemagazine April 2003
31 April 2003
From oemagazine April 2003
31 April 2003
From oemagazine April 2003
31 April 2003
From oemagazine April 2003
31 April 2003
From oemagazine April 2003
31 April 2003
From oemagazine March 2003
28 March 2003
From oemagazine December 2002
30 December 2002
From oemagazine December 2002
30 December 2002
From oemagazine July 2002
30 July 2002
From oemagazine June 2002
31 June 2002
From oemagazine April 2002
31 April 2002
From oemagazine April 2002
31 April 2002
From oemagazine April 2002
31 April 2002
From oemagazine April 2002
31 April 2002
From oemagazine February 2002
31 February 2002
From oemagazine December 2001
30 December 2001
From oemagazine September 2001
31 September 2001
From oemagazine June 2001
31 June 2001
From oemagazine June 2001
31 June 2001
From OE Reports Number 199 - July 2000
30 July 2000
From OE Reports Number 196 - April 2000
31 April 2000
From OE Reports Number 196 - April 2000
31 April 2000
From OE Reports Number 195 - March 2000
29 March 2000
From OE Reports Number 195 - March 2000
29 March 2000
From OE Reports Number 192 - December 1999
30 December 1999
From OE Reports Number 186 - June 1999
31 June 1999
From OE Reports Number 183 - March 1999
28 March 1999
From OE Reports Number 159 - March 1997
28 March 1997