As nanotechnological developments reach the realm of practical applications, the demand for accurate nanofabrication techniques increases. The latter involve accurate control of device sizes, shapes, and locations. For example, integrating nanophotonic devices into silicon microelectronic chips requires device reduction to micrometer scales, with a sidewall roughness in the nanometer range, to minimize optical losses. In addition, for chip-scale integration of photonic crystals (PCs), accurate control of their critical dimensions and exact locations is extremely important to achieve predetermined performance goals. To meet these challenges, we have developed a number of top-down processing approaches by incorporating electron-beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching, and atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) techniques to obtain well-controlled and cleanly located features.
Our techniques involve fabricating a silicon microring resonator with smooth sidewalls.1 (Sidewall roughness is normally induced by the transfer of both mask-edge and etched-surface roughness. The latter results from chemical reactions and ion bombardment on the silicon sidewall during etching, which may be controlled by selecting proper processing gases.) We investigated the transfer of mask-edge roughness very carefully using EBL and ICP etching based on three different mask materials deposited on top of silicon-on-insulator wafers, including chromium (Cr) and negative electron-beam resist (specifically, MaN-2403 and hydrogen silsesquioxane: HSQ).
We patterned the Cr mask through a lift-off process, but to completely remove all Cr around the waveguide patterns was very difficult because of molecular forces. This results in severe edge roughness (see Figure 1), which is subsequently transferred to the etched-silicon sidewall during ICP etching. The final roughness is approximately 40nm, resulting from the combined roughness of the Cr mask and ICP etching (see Figure 2).
Figure 1. Roughness at the edge of the chromium (Cr) mask.
Figure 2. Silicon-sidewall roughness.
The mask-edge roughness of both MaN-2403 and HSQ is relatively small, usually several nanometers, and determined by the resist properties. Obtaining the MaN-2403 and HSQ masks is simpler because it does not involve lift-off. Since the silicon-etch selectivity to HSQ is much higher than to MaN-2403 for chlorine (Cl2) plasma, thinner HSQ masks are needed to etch the same amount of silicon. The thinner mask will further improve the EBL resolution and reduce the mask-edge roughness. Cl2 and perfluorocyclobutane (C4F8) are used for silicon ICP etching of the MaN-2403 and Cr masks. This takes advantage of polymer protection from C4F8 for the etched-silicon sidewalls. For silicon etching with the HSQ mask, we only apply Cl2, since C4F8corrupts HSQ, the silicon oxide-based polymer.
We compared process complexity and latitude, as well as sidewall roughness in Table 1 (see Figure 3). This demonstrates that using HSQ masks, optimized ICP etching, and without any post-etch process, the sidewall roughness of silicon waveguides is less than 10nm,1 which is 2–3 times better than previously reported.
Comparison of fabrication processes.
| ||Process complexity||Process complexity||Sidewall roughness|
Figure 3. Fabrication of silicon microring resonators using different masking processes: (a) Cr, (b) MaN-2403, and (c) HSQ-mask etching.
We developed a second processing technique for photonic crystal (PC) fabrication by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) with sacrificial etching.2 In many applications, PC devices are needed with a full band gap for all polarizations. Therefore, we propose a novel type of 2D, polarization-insensitive PCs, ‘annular photonic crystals’ (APCs):3 see Figure 4. These are composed of dielectric rods and circular air holes in a triangular lattice such that the rods are centered in the holes. This is the most difficult aspect of the fabrication process: since the air gap is generally less than 50nm, very precise alignment is required for positioning the dielectric rods.
Figure 4. Schematic of the annular photonic crystal. The slab thickness is 290nm, the photonic-crystal lattice period 450nm, and the diameters of the air holes and aluminum nitride (AlN) dielectric rods are 250 and 170nm, respectively. Si: Silicon. SiO2: Silicon dioxide.
We established a self-alignment procedure using ALD and sacrificial etching. Since the alignment precision of this two-step process is determined by ALD, it can be controlled to within 1–2Â, i.e., the thickness of one atomic layer. A carefully controlled etching using a combination of diluted and standard buffered oxide etch (a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride), results in the final APC structure (see Figure 5). This demonstrates, for the first time, a fabrication protocol to form an APC structure that may be used for polarization-insensitive applications. Avoiding the challenging EBL alignment, this novel method can achieve alignment accuracy down to the atomic level.
Figure 5. Final annular photonic-crystal structure accomplished by a combination of diluted and normal buffered oxide etch, which optimizes the undercut effect of wet etching.
In conclusion, we demonstrated two top-down processing approaches for nanophotonic-device fabrication on a silicon platform. By combining EBL, ICP etching, and ALD, we achieved less than 10nm sidewall smoothness and atomic-level alignment accuracy without the need for other post-etch processes. Our next step will be to fabricate novel, functional photonic devices on a silicon platform using these methods.
Zhiping Zhou is a professor of optoelectronics. His research focuses on silicon photonics, semiconductor sensors, photonic devices, ultrafast optical communications, integrated optoelectronics, and nanotechnology. He has been a SPIE member since 1995. His major SPIE activities include co-chairing a subcommittee of the International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging (ISPDI) 2009, acting as lead co-chair of the general technical committee of the SPIE Asia-Pacific Optical Communications (APOC) conference 2007, and as co-chair of SPIE conference 6352 (part of APOC 2006).
2. J. Feng, Y. Chen, J. Blair, H. Kurt, R. Hao, D. S. Citrin, C. J. Summers, Z. Zhou, Fabrication of annular photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition and sacrificial etching, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, no. 2, pp. 568-572, 2009. doi:10.1116/1.3079662
3. H. Kurt, R. Hao, Y. Chen, J. Feng, J. Blair, D. P. Gaillot, C. Summers, D. S. Citrin, Z. Zhou, Design of annular photonic crystal slabs, Opt. Lett. 33, no. 14, pp. 1614-1616, 2008. doi:10.1364/OL.33.001614