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The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Translational Research Presentations

Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics
(ordered by start date and time)


Intranasal µOCT imaging catheter and console for the clinical study of cystic fibrosis
Paper 10470-1

Author(s):  Hui Min, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 1: Cilia, Airway, and Alveolar Structure and Function
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 8:00 AM

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A clinical grade micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) system and an OD = 2.4 mm intranasal imaging catheter were developed to perform airway imaging in human subjects. The µOCT imaging technology was used to obtain high resolution (1-2 µm) cross-sectional images (300 µm depth-of-focus) at 40 frames per second from the inferior turbinate regions of 20 volunteers (n=10 CF, n=10 normal). Image registration and image analysis were applied to measure airway surface liquid thickness, periciliary layer thickness, ciliary beat frequency, mucociliary transport rate, and epithelium thickness. This imaging technology may be useful for determining therapeutic efficacies of novel CF agents designed to improve airway function and achieve personalized medicine.


Design and validation of the ball lens-based intravascular catheter for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of atherosclerosis
Paper 10471-1

Author(s):  Xi, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 1: FLIM
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 8:00 AM

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We report the design and validation of a novel ball lens-based imaging catheter based on dual-clad fiber for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of atherosclerosis. The endoscope has two configurations with different resolution and SNR depending on different illumination methods. Experiments conducted using a resolution target, a fluorescein phantom, and a segment of ex vivo human coronary artery demonstrate the system performance for fluorescence lifetime imaging including a lateral resolution of 80 μm at 1mm lens-to-sample distance and pullback velocities in excess of 10mm/s.


Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of intratumoral antibody delivery in pancreatic cancer patients
Paper 10475-3

Author(s):  Guolan, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 1: Pharmacokinetic Tomography: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME)
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 8:40 AM

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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly lethal malignancy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the dense desmoplastic stroma creates a pathophysiological barrier for drug delivery and thus limits the therapeutic efficacy. Yet, the influence of the stroma on the intratumoral delivery of antibody in human patients remains to be elucidated. We leveraged near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging in a first-in-human clinical trial to directly assess the intratumoral antibody delivery and identify the stromal elements associated with the drug delivery in PDAC patients, and demonstrated the feasibility of using NIR fluorescence to localize and quantify the intratumoral antibody delivery in patient tissue.


A photochemical priming approach to overcome physiological barriers for drug delivery
Paper 10475-4

Author(s):  Huang-Chiao, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 1: Pharmacokinetic Tomography: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME)
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:00 AM

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Optimizing fluorescently-tethered Hsp90 inhibitor dose for maximal specific uptake by breast tumors
Paper 10478-3

Author(s):  Brian, Duke Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 1: Advanced Detection Methods I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:15 AM

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Despite improvements in surgical technique, 20-40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery (BCS) will require at least one additional re-excision. Leveraging differential heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in breast cancer provides an exciting opportunity to identify residual disease during surgery. Towards this goal, we developed a completely non-destructive strategy using HS-27, a fluorescently-tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, to assay Hsp90 expression on intact tissue specimens setting the stage for immediately using Hsp90 to improve outcomes for breast cancer patients without affecting traditional care pathways for the patient or the tissues obtained from her breast.


Clinical translation of µOCT imaging for cystic fibrosis studies: an intranasal imaging approach
Paper 10469-7

Author(s):  Hui Min, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 1: Airway Imaging and Vocal Fold Dynamics I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:40 AM

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Motivated by the need to further investigate underlying mechanisms of cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogenesis and advance towards precision medicine, a unique high-resolution form of OCT imaging modality, termed µOCT, is clinically translated to acquire images of the upper airways of unsedated human subjects. A clinical-grade intranasal µOCT imaging catheter and console were developed and a first-in-human study was successfully carried out. During operation, cross-sectional images from the turbinate and floor regions of the nasal inferior meatus were acquired at 40 frames per second. 20 volunteers (n=10 normal; n=10 CF) were imaged without any adverse complications. Subsequent quantitative image analysis was performed to characterize the airway functional microanatomy of the imaged subjects.


Optical coherence tomography angiography for imaging skin blood perfusion under healthy and diseased conditions
Paper 10467-7

Author(s):  Yuandong, Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 2: Optical Coherence Tomography II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:10 AM

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An advanced OCTA method enables directly visualizations of skin vascular and structural features at capillary-level resolution, which has the potential to provide new insights into skin pathophysiology and guide in vivo diagnoses and non-invasive disease monitoring.


Deep tissue imaging of target engagement in live animals
Paper 10475-10

Author(s):  Margarida, Albany Medical College (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 2: Pharmacodynamics Tomography: Drug Response and Therapeutic Effects
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:20 AM

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Targeted drug delivery in cancer treatment has been a major area of development in the past decades. However, there is a great need in preclinical studies to not only assess the drug distribution but also monitor and quantify target engagement in vivo to ensure maximal drug delivery efficacy. Macroscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (MFLI-FRET) is a unique deep imaging methodology to monitor in vivo receptor-target interactions in pre-clinical studies. Overall, we demonstrated that MFLI-FRET enables real time in vivo information on receptor ligand engagement in deep tissues, conversely to current commercial systems.


Toward high-efficiency, high-speed dual-modality intravascular OCT molecular imaging
Paper 10471-11

Author(s):  Zhonglie, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 3: Multimodality Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:20 PM

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Label-free optical characterization of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer
Paper 10472-8

Author(s):  Sixian, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session 3: Breast Cancer
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:00 PM

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Over the previous decades, nonlinear optical microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for stain-free histology. We demonstrated a fiber-based nonlinear optical microscope that achieves fast and simultaneous visualization of a variety of intrinsic molecular contrast within live tissue, including auto-fluorescence excited by two/three-photon processes and specially structured molecules by second/third harmonic generation. Further application of this technique relies on its capability to identify and quantify important biomarkers in diseases. Preliminary results from human subjects with breast cancer show that vesicles with significantly higher concentration of NADH may serve as a macroenvironmental biomarker for breast cancer.


Quantitative intravascular OCT near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging
Paper 10471-15

Author(s):  Zhonglie, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 3: Multimodality Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:40 PM

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Handheld dual-modality wide-field fluorescent imaging guided dual-axis confocal microscope for fluorescence molecular guidance of precise tumor resection in head and neck surgery
Paper 10478-15

Author(s):  Zhen, Institute of Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 3: Imaging Systems
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:45 PM

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Wide-field fluorescent imaging for fluorescence molecular guidance has become a promising technique for use in imaging guided surgical navigation, but quick and intuitive microscopic inspection of fluorescent hot spots is still needed to confirm local disease states of tissues. To address this unmet need, we have developed a clinically translatable dual-modality handheld (5.5 mm dia.) surgical microscope that incorporates both, wide-field (mesoscopic) fluorescence imaging and high-resolution (microscopic) horizontal optical-sectioning. The instrument will become increasingly important for precise tumor resection in oncology as more optical molecular markers become approved for human use.


Intraoperative identification of underlying major venous and arterial vessels using freehand diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (freeDOSi) for guiding minimally invasive surgery: an in vivo demonstration in a pig model
Paper 10468-9

Author(s):  Daqing, Oklahoma State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10468: Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Urology 2018
Session 3: Optical Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:30 PM

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We demonstrate a simple method of freehand diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (freeDOSi) for the potential of intra-operative identification of significant vasculature underlying the plane of dissection in minimally-invasive surgery. An applicator-probe adaptable to an 8mm tissue-dissecting instrument for laparoscopic or robotic-assisted DOS procedures has been developed. The 10mm source-detector separation renders diffuse sampling of tissue heterogeneities a few millimeters deep. Consecutively acquired DOS spectra during freehand movement of the probe on the tissue surface are displayed as a time-spectral image. Identifications of major venous and arterial vessels underlying fat of up to 4mm were demonstrated in pig models in vivo.


Phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for visualization and quantification of drug distribution of a topical minocycline gel in human facial skin
Paper 10475-17

Author(s):  Sinyoung, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 4: Advanced Methods in Drug Detection and Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:50 PM

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A topical minocycline gel was developed to treat inflammatory acne vulgaris as a transepidermal drug product. To evaluate the effectiveness of topical minocycline delivery in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, we propose a visualization and quantification method of the drug within human skin tissue utilizing a phasor approach to time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence lifetime microscopy (TCSPC-FLIM). Using phasor analysis of FLIM, we could differentiate the unique signature of minocycline from endogenous fluorescence of human facial skin. Furthermore, by tracking the signature of minocycline in FLIM images, the distribution of minocycline within the facial skin was successfully visualized and quantified.


Intra-articular laser treatment plus platelet rich plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment
Paper 10477-23

Author(s):  Chadwick, Illinois Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Ctrs. (United States), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 4: Mechanisms of PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 4:00 PM

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Summary: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections are an effective treatment to reduce pain in most patients with arthritis in our experience, but some do not respond. These non-responding patients must often be treated with joint replacement surgery. We treated 29 patients who had had no response to initial PRP injection in the knee and other joints by the senior author (CP), with repeat PRP injection but this time augmented with simultaneous intra-articular laser treatment. Over 40% of these previously non-responding patients, who served as their own historical controls, had a good response to PRP-laser treatment. All have avoided surgery.


Effect of capsule on surface diffuse refelectance spectroscopy of capsular solid organs
Paper 10468-11

Author(s):  Daqing, Oklahoma State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10468: Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Urology 2018
Session 3: Optical Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 4:10 PM

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We and others have observed a small, but consistent difference of the spectral profiles between capsule and without capsule when diffuse refletance spectroscopy (DRS) was performed superficially on solid capsular organs like liver and kidney. Identification of the cause of the capsular effect on superficial DRS is important to the isolation of the capsular artifacts in superficial DRS of capsular solid organs for quantitating the chromophore contributions from the subcapsular parenchyma. We demonstrate a diffusion-based analytical approach, implementing a simple master-slave dual-source configuration model that could potentially account for the effect of the thin capsular layer from surface DRS measurements.


Development of novel molecular probes for NIR-II fluorescence imaging
Paper 10478-18

Author(s):  Zhen, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 4: Contrast Agents
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 4:15 PM

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Recently fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1,000-1,700 nm) has attracted significant attentions because of its unique advantages over the traditional NIR-I window (650 - 950 nm) such as relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, deep tissue penetration, largely reduced photon scattering, and negligible tissue autofluorescence. Therefore NIR-II imaging opens up many opportunities in preclinical and clinical applications including microvascular imaging, hemodynamic measurement and image-guided tumor surgery. In this talk, we will present our recent research efforts and results on developing a variety of small molecule based novel NIR-II molecule probes with high clinical translation ability.


A novel multimodal optical imaging user interface for in vivo diagnosis and biopsy guidance of oral neoplasia
Paper 10469-22

Author(s):  Eric, Rice Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 4: Optically Guided Cancer Surgery II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 4:50 PM

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Limitations contributing to the late diagnosis of oral cancer include the inability to diagnose neoplasia without biopsy or to select an optimal biopsy location. We propose to address these limitations by using widefield autofluorescence imaging to identify high-risk regions within a lesion with high sensitivity followed by high-resolution microendoscopy of nuclear morphology at those regions to improve specificity (“multimodal imaging”). We developed a streamlined user interface that walks the clinician through this procedure and reports the recommendations of image analysis algorithms. Initial results demonstrate that multimodal imaging can detect neoplasia that otherwise would not have been identified by experienced clinicians.


Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities
Paper 10470-21

Author(s):  David, College of Optical Sciences, The Univ. of Arizona (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 5: Optical Imaging Probe Designs
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 8:30 AM

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While Optical Coherence and Multiphoton Microscopy are powerful endoscopic imaging techniques to characterize carcinomas, each imaging technique has limitations. Their combination achieves high sensitivity and specificity, but such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure. Performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. Full models of a multimodality micro-endoscope are presented. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The models evaluate the illumination and light collection capabilities, and ensure the expected functionality for the intended imaging techniques.


Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for visualization of targeted drug delivery and local distribution in skin of a single daily dose of topical minocycline gel: an update on translational research from preclinical to clinical
Paper 10467-15

Author(s):  Sinyoung, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 5: Microscopy
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:00 AM

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A commercial topical minocycline for acne vulgaris remains elusive because of the challenges in stabilizing the API in a liquid/semisolid while ensuring sufficient uptake into targeted lesions. Recently, an investigative topical minocycline gel (BPX-01) has been developed. In preclinical development, we demonstrated a novel approach to identifying minocycline fluorescence using FLIM with phasor analysis for a low, single daily dose. Minocycline was consistently noted in the epidermis and hair follicle, with some incidence in the sebaceous gland for both 1% and 2% BPX-01. These observations corroborated with the recent success of 2% BPX-01 in a Phase 2b dose-finding study.


Electrical and optical co-stimulation in the deaf white cat
Paper 10469-30

Author(s):  Z., Northwestern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 5: Hearing and Diseases of the Ear
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:10 AM

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In previous studies we have determined basic parameters for infrared neural stimulation (INS) and fabricated multichannel optrodes that were implanted for months into cats. Despite INS is possible at 1,000 pps, the maximum rate of the laser, continuous delivery of optical pulses was only safe at rates less than 250 pulses per second (pps). The challenge for INS is to remove the heat, which is delivered during each of the laser pulses. A hybrid approach, combining electrical and optical stimulation could combine benefits of electrical stimulation and INS: broad stimulation for loud stimuli, selective stimulation through INS, and lowering the threshold for INS by sub-threshold electrical stimulation. In deaf white cats we studied the interaction between optical and electrical pulses delivered to the cochlea. The responses depended on the timing of the two modes of stimulation. If the optical stimulus was delivered before the electrical, the laser pulses could enhance the response to electrical stimuli. In case that the electrical stimulus was delivered before the optical pulses, the biphasic electrical pulses could enhance the responses to optical stimuli. Further experiments are required to quantify the electrical and optical interactions during neural stimulation. Supported with Federal funds from the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Grant R01 DC011855.


Deep learning classifier with optical coherence tomography images for early dental caries detection
Paper 10473-3

Author(s):  Nima, Univ. of Connecticut (United States), et al.
Conference 10473: Lasers in Dentistry XXIV
Session 1: Caries Lesion Detection
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:10 AM

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Dental caries is a microbial disease that results in localized dissolution of the mineral content of dental tissue. Therefore, dentists need a reliable diagnostic modality with high sensitivity and specificity to detect and quantify the extent of caries in early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with great potential to diagnose early dental caries. In this study, features extracted from OCT images of tissues with various densities were input to Deep Neural Networks (DNN) classifier (with 10-hidden-layers and 10-neurons in each layer) to determine variations in tissue densities resembling the demineralization process.


integrated intra-cardiac catheter for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation
Paper 10471-24

Author(s):  Xiaowei, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 5: Myocardial Imaging
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:40 AM

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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly used to cure arrhythmias, but is currently guided by indirect feedback which results in incomplete lesion formation and complications. Previously, we proved that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) integrated ablation catheter tip can confirm catheter tissue apposition and monitor lesion formation more directly. However, the integrated catheter tip can only enable in vitro experiments. Therefore, we constructed a fully integrated catheter for living animal experiments, which also reduces non-uniform rotation distortion and PSOCT probe tip longitudinal movement due to winding back. Further validation by simulating RFA procedures in living swine through percutaneous access is ongoing.


A fluorescent humanized anti-CEA antibody specifically labels metastatic pancreatic cancer in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model
Paper 10478-25

Author(s):  Thinzar, Moores Cancer Ctr., Univ. of California, San Diego (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 5: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:45 AM

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Specific tumor targeting can result in selective labeling of cancer in vivo. In the present study, we show that the use of an anti-CEA antibody conjugated to an 800nm NIR fluorescent dye can selectively target and label pancreatic cancer in patient derived xenograft mouse models (PDOX). Fluorescent humanized anti-CEA-IR800 antibody specifically targeted and labeled pancreatic cancer in PDOX mouse models. Images obtained after fluorescent antibody injection showed that anti-CEA-IR800 specifically targeted and labeled PDOX tumors with an adequate tumor to background contrast at 24 hours. The dye allowed clear identification of the tumor and additional satellite lesions over the abdominal viscera, spleen and abdominal wall tissue that were difficult to visualize with only bright light. The 800 nm wavelength allowed deeper tissue penetration, particularly in areas of tumor covered by normal pancreatic parenchyma. Humanized anti-CEA antibodies conjugated to a radio-labeling agent and LI-COR IRDye800CW are already individually in Phase I/II trials. Humanized anti-CEA conjugated to an IR-dye 800 is a promising agent for future clinical fluorescence-guided surgery applications.


Optical biopsy of head and neck cancer using hyperspectral imaging and convolutional neural networks
Paper 10469-33

Author(s):  Martin, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 6: NBI and Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 10:30 AM

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Successful outcomes of surgical cancer resection necessitate negative, cancer-free surgical margins. Using CNNs as a tissue classifier, we developed a method to use hyperspectral imaging to perform an optical biopsy of ex-vivo surgical specimens, collected from 21 patients undergoing surgical cancer resection. Training and testing on samples from different patients, the CNN can distinguish squamous cell carcinoma from normal oral tissues with 90% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 87% accuracy. The CNN differentiates between thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid with 78% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and 84% accuracy. More analysis and patient data are needed to fully investigate the proposed technique.


Development of a registry for patients treated with photodynamic therapy
Paper 10476-21

Author(s):  Sandra, Roswell Park Cancer Institute (United States), et al.
Conference 10476: Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXVII
Session 6: Photodynamic Therapy VI
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Over the past several decades hundreds of cancer patients have been treated with PDT in both clinical trials and off label. PDT has been used for a wide variety of malignancies, including lung, esophageal, head and neck and pancreatic cancer, as well as mesothelioma. The knowledge gained from these studies has helped PDT to move into acceptance within some areas of the medical community, but the progress has been slow. This is due in part to the lack of a central database that eases the analysis of multiple clinical trials. The knowledge gained from these studies has helped PDT to move into acceptance within some areas of the medical community, but the progress has been slow. We will describe and demonstrate the Registry in this talk by demonstrating how clinicians and researchers can access the Registry for research purposes.


Impact of fluorescence imaging in thyroid surgery
Paper 10478-27

Author(s):  Eren, Cleveland Clinic (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 6: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Total thyroidectomy (TT) is responsible for transient postoperative hypocalcemia (PH) in 20-30% of patients. This complication results from surgery-induced parathyroid damage, vascular impairment or unintentional parathyroid resection of these small glands, which can be difficult to identify visually. Using the Fluoptics Near-infrared (NIR) Fluorescence imaging device able to visualize auto-fluorescence of parathyroid gland during thyroid surgery, we observed in a before-after trial, that auto-fluorescence-based visualization of the parathyroid glands using NIR light during total thyroidectomy could significantly reduce postoperative hypocalcemia rates and improve identification and preservation of parathyroid glands.


Wide-field superficial blood flow imaging using a portable handheld laser speckle imaging device
Paper 10467-20

Author(s):  Ben, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 6: Wound Healing
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:10 AM

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Laser Speckle Imaging (LSI) is normally performed in a mounted configuration to decrease motion artifact. However, we propose the use of a portable handheld LSI system for clinical applications to provide ease of transport for bedside measurements. We incorporated a fiducial marker (FM) to quantify motion artifact and coregister images. We performed in-vitro validation using a silicone phantom with a flow tube infused with intralipid solution. The speckle contrast of the flow region in mounted and handheld configurations differed by <5%. Our results suggest that handheld LSI with a FM may be a viable alternative to mounted LSI.


Small SECM endoscopic capsule for imaging human esophagus in vivo
Paper 10470-29

Author(s):  DongKyun, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 6: Spectral Encoding and CLE
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:40 AM

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In this paper, we present a new, smaller version of the SECM endoscopic capsule that significantly improves the device fabrication process and imaging performance. The new SECM capsule uses a dual-clad fiber and reduces the speckle noise by 4-fold. A GRIN lens-based miniature condenser is used to reduce the capsule length. The effective NA of the objective lens is increased from 0.29 to 0.55, improving the resolution. The capsule has a length of 20 mm and an axial resolution of 13.8 µm. Images obtained from the human esophagus in vivo demonstrated clear visualization of eosinophils, squamous cell membranes and squamous cell nuclei.


Sensitivity and specificity of panitumumab-IRDye800 as an optical agent for image guided surgery in patients with head and neck cancer
Paper 10478-29

Author(s):  Tarn, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 6: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:45 AM

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Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) of radiation-induced re-oxygenation in sensitive and resistant head and neck tumor xenografts
Paper 10469-38

Author(s):  Sina, Univ. of Arkansas (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 7: NBI and Optical Biopsy II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:40 PM

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We have used Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to assess short and long-term re-oxygenation kinetics of two human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer xenografts in response to radiation therapy. We injected a radiation-sensitive UM-SCC-22B cell line into the flank of 50 mice to grow xenografts. The mice were distributed into radiation and control groups where members of radiation group underwent 8 Gy of radiation. Optical measurements were collected from the tumors for 14 days and the spectra were converted to optical properties using a lookup table-base inverse model. We found statistically significant differences in tumor optical properties between the two groups.


Imaging of pediatric pathology in the intensive care nursery using a custom handheld, ultra-compact, swept-source OCT probe
Paper 10474-41

Author(s):  Christian, Duke Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session 8: Ophthalmic Diagnostics and Imaging: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:45 PM

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We describe the use of a high speed, light weight, handheld OCT probe for longitudinal bedside imaging of pre-term infants in the intensive care nursery across a range of pathologies. The portability and imaging speed of this probe facilitates repeat volumetric bedside imaging. To date we have imaged over 43 pre-term and full-term infants with up to 15 repeat imaging sessions per patient. Volumetric imaging shows the 3D development of both normal retinal structures and pathology. We believe that OCT imaging of these infants will reveal retinal abnormalities and allow for better management and prediction of future visual outcomes.


Molecular imaging of PARP in oral cancer
Paper 10469-41

Author(s):  Thomas, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 7: NBI and Optical Biopsy II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:30 PM

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The poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose)polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes is an important factor in the cellular DNA damage response and has gained much attention for its role in many diseases, particularly cancer. Targeted molecular imaging of PARP using fluorescent tags has followed on the success of therapeutic inhibitors and gained momentum over the past few years. This presentation will covers PARP imaging from the very first imaging agents up to the current state of the technology, with a focus on the clinical applications made possible by these agents.


Micro-optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens
Paper 10470-36

Author(s):  Nicolae, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 7: Gastrointestinal Endoscopic OCT
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 3:10 PM

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Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by high numbers of eosinophils within the esophagus. EoE is currently diagnosed via endoscopic biopsy and histopathologic analysis. Micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) is a novel imaging technology capable of obtaining high-coverage, cellular-resolution, depth-resolved microscopic images of the esophageal mucosa without exogeneous contrast administration. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of µOCT for EoE. We have imaged 27 biopsy samples from 12 patients. Results showed good correlation between µOCT and histology eosinophil counts (R = 0.71, P < 0.01). These findings merit the further development of µOCT.


Novel platform for optically guided head and neck robotic surgery
Paper 10469-44

Author(s):  Brett, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 8: Novel Therapeutics, PDT, and Robotics
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 3:50 PM

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The goal of oncologic resection is to eradicate all malignant cells, while minimizing loss of surrounding normal tissue (or so-called “negative margins”). We propose to combine functional measurement of molecular tissue constituents with lifetime molecular imaging of metabolism. This will couple traditional stereo laparoscopic images with Single Snapshot of Optical Properties (SSOP)/ Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging FLI NIR, and Phasor computational lifetime imaging technology (PHASOR) simultaneously into a dual channel robotic endoscope and tested via optical phantoms having realistic tissue properties. This platform will use a variety of techniques including to image endogenous molecular constituents, namely oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, NADH, and NADPH providing a quantitative measurement of physiological parameters. Such information can be used to identify healthy and diseased tissue intraoperatively, providing a unique opportunity to delineate surgical margins in real-time.


Transoral robotic surgery with augmented fluorescence lifetime imaging for oral cancer evaluation
Paper 10469-45

Author(s):  Jennifer, Univ. of California, Davis (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 8: Novel Therapeutics, PDT, and Robotics
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 4:10 PM

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Head and neck cancers account for approximately 4% of all cancers in the United States, but disproportionately affect men. Transoral robotic surgery is implemented in head and neck cancer operations to allow surgeons better access to the small confines of the human oral cavity. We have integrated fiber-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) with a DaVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) for exploration of in vivo tumor margins. N=25 patients have enrolled in the study. We believe that this method has the potential to become a valuable tool for real-time intraoperative diagnosis and guidance during transoral robot assisted cancer surgery interventions.


wide-field and long-ranging-depth optical coherence tomography microangiography of human oral mucosa
Paper 10473-16

Author(s):  Wei, Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10473: Lasers in Dentistry XXIV
Session 4: Bone Ablation, Soft Tissue Treatment and Microangiography
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 4:30 PM

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Oral examination requires comprehensive visual assessment of microcirculatory tissue bed as guidance for acquiring biopsy samples. We propose a novel use of long ranging swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with unprecedented imaging field of view of 1600 mm2 for anatomic and microvascular imaging of human oral mucosa tissue in vivo. This system is further applied to identify and analyze oral mucosa lesions in situ without a need for invasive biopsy. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure/vasculature characteristics (i.e. collagen fibrosis, volume of salivary glands, tissue scattering, capillary loop density and vessel morphological orientations) provide invaluable information for oral lesion recovery.


Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer.
Paper 10472-29

Author(s):  Lisa, Univ. of Arkansas (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Wide-field long-range optical coherence tomography structural and angiography imaging for assessment of oral tissue and bio-materials
Paper 10473-31

Author(s):  Shaozhen, Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10473: Lasers in Dentistry XXIV
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Handheld OCT angiography
Paper 10474-64

Author(s):  Gangjun, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon health & Science Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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We developed a handheld optical coherence tomography and angiography system using a 100 kHz swept source laser (Axsun technologies, Billerica, MA, USA), with a lateral resolution of ~15 um and axial resolution of 5 um. We developed separate OCTA scanning protocols ranging from for 1 to 4 seconds and using both non-contact and contact lens based approaches. The non-contact probe can realize a field of view of more more than 120 degree.


Laser Induced, spatially resolved, alterations of refractive power in rabbit eyes ex vivo
Paper 10474-89

Author(s):  Chao, Columbia Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Spatially resolved alteration of corneal structure is achieved by selective micro-modification of a corneal tissue via irradiation with a femtosecond oscillator in absence of photosensitizers. Spatially resolved nature of the procedure is such that said micro-modification can be tailored to adjust the refractive power of the eye, which in turn may allow for treatment of myopia, hyperopia, as well as astigmatism and irregular astigmatism. We have previously demonstrated that the refractive power of porcine eyes ex vivo can be noninvasively adjusted by ultrafast laser irradiation, if the treatment is kept below the optical breakdown threshold. In this study, response of different corneal zones to the laser irradiation and its effects to the overall adjustment of the corneal curvature is investigated by treating rabbit eyes ex vivo.


Staphyloxanthin photobleaching sensitizes methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus to reactive oxygen species attack
Paper 10477-33

Author(s):  Pu-Ting, Boston Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Optical imaging of radiotracers
Paper 10478-35

Author(s):  Jan, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 8: Joint Session with Conferences 10476 and 10478: Isotope Optical Imaging and Cancer
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 8:30 AM

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Cerenkov luminescence is the low level of blue-light produced by particles traveling faster than the speed of a light through a dielectric medium such as tissue. While this phenomenon has been described originally in the early 20th century and rewarded with the Nobel Price for Physics in 1958 it was only 2009 that this phenomenon was recognized as utilizable tool for optical in vivo imaging of radio tracers. It is currently bei g explored both as a clinical tool for optical imaging of radio tracers and to create novel and quite unique imaging or therapeutic agents.


Cherenkov imaging for Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET)
Paper 10478-43

Author(s):  Yunhe, The Univ. of Pennsylvania Health System (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 9: Joint Session with Conferences 10476 and 10478: Radiation Therapy Optical Imaging and Sensing
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 11:30 AM

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Cherenkov imaging were performed on total skin electron therapy (TSET) patients to evaluate the dose uniformity in-vivo. Dosimetry comparison between Cherenkov imaging and in-vivo dosimetry (IVD) were made.


Antimicrobial blue light: a drug-free approach for inactivating pathogenic microbes
Paper 10479-18

Author(s):  Ying, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 5: Antimicrobial Blue Light I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 8:00 AM

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As an innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light in the spectrum of 400-470 nm has demonstrated its intrinsic antimicrobial properties resulting from the presence of endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in pathogenic microbes and, subsequently, its promise as a counteracter of antibiotic resistance. Since we published our last review of antimicrobial blue light in 2012, there have been a substantial number of new studies reported in this area. Here we provide an updated overview of the findings from the new studies, including the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light inactivation of different microbes, its mechanism of action, synergism of antimicrobial blue light with other antimicrobials, its effect on host cells and tissues, the potential development of resistance to antimicrobial blue light by microbes, and a novel interstitial delivery approach of antimicrobial blue light. The potential new applications of antimicrobial blue light are also discussed.


Drug-free annihilation of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus via staphyloxanthin photobleaching
Paper 10479-26

Author(s):  Pu-Ting, Boston Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 6: Antimicrobial Blue Light II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 11:30 AM

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Decacationic [70]fullerenyl-light harvesting chromophore conjugates for efficient photokilling of infectious bacteria
Paper 10479-33

Author(s):  Min, Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell (United States), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 8: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation/Therapy II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 4:00 PM

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It is of our particularly interested in mediating broad-spectrum killing of pathogenic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria targets. Owing to subtle differences in physiology, cell wall, and cytoplasmic membrane structures between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, significant revision on the functional addends of each fullerene cage becomes necessary by taking the functional differentiation in the cell walls into account to maximize the potential surface interaction forces that could be beneficial for the target selectivity and drug-delivery. The approach led to our systematic evaluation a structure–function relationship of fullerene derivatives on the influence of their biological activity, aiming to achieve the optimized photodynamic activation and enhancement of the aPDI efficiency. Accordingly, we found a rational design of effective fullerene-based nano-C60/70-based photosensitizers by chemical modification of the C60/70> carbon cage with two cell-targeting moieties each with a well-defined high number of cationic charges and a red/NIR absorptive chromophores that allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of these compounds as nano-aPDI agents toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species.


Progress toward development of photodynamic vaccination against infectious/malignant diseases and photodynamic mosquitocides
Paper 10479-37

Author(s):  Kwang Poo, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science (United States), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 9: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation/Therapy III
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 8:30 AM

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Photosensitizers (PS) are light-activable to generate ROS in the presence of atmospheric oxygen for cytotoxic photodynamic therapy (PDT). Its potential applications include the use of PS as sunlight-activated photodynamic insecticides (PDI) to control harmful pests and Photodynamic vaccination (PDV) that is to use PDT-inactivated Leishmania as whole-cell vaccines against leishmaniasis, and as a universal carrier to deliver add-on vaccines against other infectious and malignant diseases (Chang KP, et al. Parasit Vectors. 2016; 9:396). We have screened novel PS for differential PDT activities against Leishmania, insect and mammalian cells. Novel phthalocyanines were identified for effective PDI and PDV.


4D optical coherence tomography for imaging aortic valve dynamics ex vivo
Paper 10471-7

Author(s):  Christian, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, TU Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 2: OCT
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 10:30 AM

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High resolutional imaging techniques like optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide detailed insights into tissue behaviour and dynamics for the investigation of pathophysiological tissue transformations of the aortic valve. In this study a custom-made pump and an ex vivo mouse model in combination with a 4D OCT scanning algorithm were used for the visualization of artificially stimulated aortic valves in healthy and deseased mice ex vivo. OCT is a promising tool for the investigation of dynamic behavior and the measurement of clinically relevant parameters like maximum opening area and slope time of the valve movement in calcific aortic valve stenosis models.


In vivo multiphoton imaging of hepatobiliary metabolism in normal and diseased mouse liver
Paper 10475-9

Author(s):  Chih-Ju, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 2: Pharmacodynamics Tomography: Drug Response and Therapeutic Effects
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Since liver is a major organ responsible for drug metabolism. Understanding how hepatobiliary metabolism is changed in pathological liver may be useful in developing drug delivery strategies. In this study, we applied in vivo multiphoton microscopy to image and quantify hepatobiliary metabolism in different hepatic pathologies. Specifically, we will show how metabolic activities of the probe molecule 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate is changed in diseases such as fatty liver, liver fibrosis, and hepatoma.


Spot fat reduction by red and near infrared LED phototherapy
Paper 10477-10

Author(s):  Sungkyoo, Dankook Univ. (Korea, Republic of), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 2: PBM therapy for Cosmetics and Esthetics
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Low level light therapy (LLLT) using light from red and near infrared LEDs or Lasers have been reported effective as noninvasive methods for reducing spot fat. A total of 56 subjects were randomly divided into 26 test groups and 26 control groups for abdominal fat reduction clinical trial using red and near infrared LED phototherapy devices. Red and near infrared light with irradiance of 10 mW/cm2 were irradiated over the abdominal area to the test group for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Control group used sham devices for 30 minutes and followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise. It was found that red and near infrared LED phototherapy combined with aerobic exercise would be effective and safe for abdominal fat reduction without any side effects.


Label-free optical spectroscopy techniques for targeted, real time and informed in situ cancer diagnosis
Paper 10478-7

Author(s):  Frédéric, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 2: Advanced Detection Methods II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Objective evaluation of choroidal melanin contents with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography
Paper 10474-10

Author(s):  Masahiro, Ibaraki Medical Ctr., Tokyo Medical Univ. (Japan), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session 2: Ophthalmic Imaging: Polarization
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:15 AM

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We non-invasively evaluated choroidal melanin contents in human eyes with PS-OCT. We calculated the percentage area of low DOPU in the choroidal interstitial stroma for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease with sunset glow fundus, without sunset glow fundus, control group and tessellated fundus with high myopia. The mean percentage area of low DOPU in the sunset group was significantly lower than the other groups. PS-OCT provides an in vivo objective evaluation of choroidal melanin loss in vivo human eyes.


Translational research in the prevention of myocardial reperfusion injury by PBM: a review of molecular mechanisms and current research results
Paper 10477-14

Author(s):  Ann, Australasian Research Institute (Australia), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications for PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:15 PM

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Myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury can result from the influx of oxygenated blood after heart attack or cardiac surgery and causes increased heart muscle damage. Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been shown to be effective in treatment of wounds and muscle damage, so it has potential as an intervention to prevent or limit cardiac damage. There is increasing evidence from animal and tissue models that PBM delivered either directly through the chest wall or to other distant body locations, can reduce cardiac damage and other complications of cardiac surgery, including delayed wound healing. Preliminary results of clinical trials will also be discussed.


Dual-modality intravascular imaging system based on time-gated near-infrared fluorescence detection and optical coherence tomography
Paper 10471-12

Author(s):  Yuankang, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session 3: Multimodality Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:40 PM

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We developed a new dual-modality intravascular imaging system based on fast time-gated fluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography for the purpose of interventional detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. A double-clad fiber(DCF)-based side-firing catheter was designed and fabricated. The use of DCF allows to collect fluorescent photons more efficiently without compromising the quality of OCT images. A novel time-gated fluorescence detection technique was also exploited in our system to achieve a higher sensitivity. Experiments were carried out in turbid media with indocyanine green inclusion to compare our time-gated technique and the conventional continuous detection technique. The gating technique increased twofold depth sensitivity, and tenfold SNR at large distances.


In-vitro investigation on fragmentation/dusting and fluorescence during Ho:YAG-Laser induced lithotripsy
Paper 10468-7

Author(s):  Ronald, Laser-Forschungslabor (Germany), et al.
Conference 10468: Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Urology 2018
Session 2: Laser Lithotripsy I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:10 PM

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This study focussed on the investigation of different laser parameters in relation to phantom stone destruction efficiency. Dusting can be reached most efficient by using low energy/pulse and high repetition rates. Higher energy/pulse showed strong propulsion. Urinary stones show broad band fluorescence emission. The impact of fluorescence assistance during endoscopic laser lithotripsy are investigated and discussed.


5-ALA photopreparation using pulsed NIR enhances skin fluorescence via temperature-independent cell signaling pathways
Paper 10477-21

Author(s):  Daniel, McGill Univ. (Canada), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 4: Mechanisms of PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:00 PM

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The effect of near infrared light (940 nm) on the conversion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to PpIX, a compound involved in photodynamic therapy (PDT), was examined. The back skin of two test subjects was irradiated with continuous wavelength and pulsed infrared light at 940 nm. These irradiations took place 50-53, 24-29, and 8-14 hours prior to the application of the 5-ALA. After a three hour incubation period with 5-ALA, a FluoDerm™device was used to measure the fluorescence of the skin (emitting wavelength: 400-420 nm; measuring excitation wavelength: 610-720 nm), a direct indication of the activity of 5-ALA. 5-ALA must penetrate the skin and then be converted to PpIX before any fluorescence increase can be observed. Results: Several pulsed and some CW conditions at 940 nm, up to 53 hours pre-irradiation, showed a statistically significant increase in fluorescence (p = 0.05) (Fluoderm™ readings), compared to the no-irradiation 5-ALA only control. Conclusion: This preconditioning method uses a temperature-independent mechanism of action via cell signaling pathways as in photobiomodulation. In this study, pulsing was superior to CW mode.


Skin cancer margin analysis with morphologic and metabolic micro-tomography
Paper 10467-10

Author(s):  Eugénie, LLTech SAS (France), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 4: Skin Cancer I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:30 PM

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There is a current need for a fast intra-operative skin cancer margin assessment during skin cancer treatment. Micro-tomography techniques are new optical non-destructive methods with ultrahigh resolution approaching traditional histological sections. They provide complementary morphologic and metabolic digital information that can be further exploited with deep learning algorithms. Combined together, they show good promise as a valuable fast intra-operative margin assessment tool. They can potentially reduce recurrence rates, surgery time, and optimize clinical workflow.


In vivo imaging of the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography
Paper 10469-18

Author(s):  Julia, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 4: Optically Guided Cancer Surgery II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:30 PM

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The early non-invasive diagnosis of epithelial tissue alterations in daily clinical routine is still challenging. Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows the potential to differentiate between benign and malignant tissue of primal endothelium, OCT could be beneficial for the early diagnosis of (pre )malignancies in routine health checks. In this pilot study, a handheld endoscopic device is designed for OCT of the human oral mucosa in vivo. First imaging of healthy mucosa in the anterior and posterior oral cavity was performed by means of two volunteers, which convinces with good imaging quality and accessibility to most of the oral sections.


Design and reliability analysis of a novel laser acupuncture device
Paper 10477-24

Author(s):  Boan, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 4: Mechanisms of PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 4:15 PM

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Laser acupuncture (LA) is a non-invasive and painless way to achieve some therapeutic effects. And compared to traditional acupuncture, LA is free from infection.We innovatively developed a portable laser acupuncture device with therapy part and detection part together. Therapy part sends out laser at the wavelength of 650 nm onto special acupoints of patients. And detection part includes integrated light-emitting diode (LED, 735/805/850 nm) and photodiode (OPT101). The detection part is used for the data collection for calculation of hemodynamic parameters based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).


Evaluation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography regarding its applicability for imaging the human tympanic membrane
Paper 10469-26

Author(s):  Lars, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 5: Hearing and Diseases of the Ear
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 8:00 AM

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An endoscopic optical coherence tomography system is presented, which is utilized for the examination of the human tympanic membrane. The endoscope allows three-dimensional imaging with a field of view of 8 mm. In addition, the oscillation of the tympanic membrane was measured spatially resolved in a frequency range from 500 Hz to 5 kHz. The applicability under in vivo conditions was evaluated regarding the tympanic membrane accessibility and the occurrence of motion artifacts.


In vivo polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for imaging oral hard and soft tissues
Paper 10473-6

Author(s):  Julia, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10473: Lasers in Dentistry XXIV
Session 2: Imaging of Hard, Soft Tissue and Microbial Plaque
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 10:40 AM

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In this study, polarization sensitive OCT (PS OCT) is used for imaging dental and mucosal tissues in the human oral cavity in vivo. There, an enhanced polarization contrast is reached by analyzing the signals of the co- and cross-polarized channels of the self-built swept source PS OCT system quantitatively. For the proof-of-principle, imaging of composite restorations and mineralization defects at premolars as well as gingival, lingual and labial oral mucosa under in vivo conditions was performed. To evaluate the enhanced polarization contrast, the results of the polarization sensitive dental and mucosal imaging are compared with the conventional intensity based OCT-scans.


Optical evaluation of wound healing using infrared imaging
Paper 10467-22

Author(s):  Babak, The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 6: Wound Healing
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:50 AM

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Diagnostic imaging of pediatric retinoblastoma patients with a new 1050nm handheld optical coherence tomography system: a clinical study
Paper 10474-40

Author(s):  Oleg, Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session 8: Ophthalmic Diagnostics and Imaging: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:30 PM

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We discuss a clinical study with our novel handheld 1050nm OCT imaging system specifically developed and validated for retinoblastoma tumors in pediatric patients. We will present the design and performance of the patient interface, where sensitivity to three-dimensional morphological changes is higher than that of the clinically established optical modalities. Specifically, visualizing the precise localization and geometry of tumors and non-malignant disorders facilitates the optimal choice of treatment, as well as differential diagnosis in-vivo and in real time. The findings of the ongoing clinical study will be discussed, including the images of early, active, and treated retinoblastoma tumors.


Near-infrared autofluorescence image-guided parathyroid gland mapping in thyroidectomy
Paper 10469-42

Author(s):  Kang-Dae, Kosin Univ. Gospel Hospital (Korea, Republic of), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 7: NBI and Optical Biopsy II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:45 PM

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Although several intraoperative methods to localize parathyroid gland(PG) were introduced, their clinical application has been limited. We investigated the feasibility of PG mapping (navigation) with NIR autofluorescence imaging to localize unexposed PGs. Seventy PGs from 38 thyroidectomy patients were enrolled. Of 69 PGs identified, 64 (92.8%) were detected even though they are still covered by adipose tissue. Five PGs were identified by further paratracheal dissection. The average parathyroid/background ratio was 4.78. These results suggest the concept of parathyroid navigation is feasible. We believe surgeons can get benefits of preserving parathyroid gland with the use of our NIR imaging method.


Multimodal imaging for monitoring delivery of therapeutics into the extravascular spaces of the choroid
Paper 10474-50

Author(s):  Ygal, The Chaim Sheba Medical Ctr., Tel Hashomer (Israel), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session 10: Ophthalmic Multimodal Imaging
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 4:30 PM

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Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), infra-red and multicolor fundus imaging were used to monitor efficacy and safety of therapeutics delivery into the extravascular spaces of the choroid (EVSC) of New Zealand White rabbits. Vital dyes, iron oxide nanoparticles or human bone marrow stromal cells were injected into the EVSC using a novel minimally-invasive adjustable-depth blunt injector. Imaging analysis demonstrated that injected therapeutics covered over 80% of the posterior eye surface with no retinal detachment, hemorrhages, inflammation up to 10 week following injection. Multimodal imaging enables longitudinal monitoring of safety and efficacy of therapeutics delivery into the EVSC.


Catheter design optimization for practical intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) of vulnerable plaques
Paper 10471-36

Author(s):  Sophinese, Erasmus MC (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10471: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Intravascular photoacoustic/ultasound imaging (IVPA/US) has recently emerged as a promising tool to identify and visualize lipid-rich plaques in atherosclerotic vessels. The imaging catheter is a critical component of the imaging system, which has to satisfy a range of criteria for optimal image quality and usability. We present a catheter design oriented to plaque imaging in a practical setting, which requires minimal optical power, manageable flush parameters, flexibility and robustness. We also present an electro-optical rotary joint that provides low-loss coupling. We validate the imaging capability of this catheter by volumetric imaging of a human coronary artery sample in different conditions.


Developing an ultrafast multispectral fundus imaging system
Paper 10474-63

Author(s):  Changhui, Peking Univ. (China), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Multispectral fundus imaging enables improved visual discrimination of fundus and vascular structures because of the different spectral responses and penetration depths. Traditional multispectral fundus imaging has a slow speed, which requires repeating several imaging procedures to finish the multiple data acquisition. In this study, an ultrafast multispectral fundus imaging method is proposed based on innovative fiber light delivery and electrical-switching multi-color LEDs as the light source. Current system can finish 6-spectrum fundus imaging within 200 ms. Experiments on rabbit and human eye have demonstrate the system is capable of acquiring registration-free multispectral images at high resolution and contrast, thus showing great promise in both clinic diagnosis and research of fundus.


Multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography, blue autofluorescence and multicolor fundus imaging for assessment of disease progression in retinal degeneration
Paper 10474-87

Author(s):  Ygal, The Chaim Sheba Medical Ctr., Tel Hashomer (Israel), et al.
Conference 10474: Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Multimodal imaging including spectral domain optical coherence tomography, blue laser fundus autofluorescence (BL-FAF) and multicolor fundus imaging was used for the first time for assessment of retinal degeneration progression in the widely used RCS rat model of retinal dystrophy. Changes in BL-FAF correlated with photoreceptor degeneration and accumulation of autofluorescent debris in the subretinal debris zone. These changes were also identified by multicolor fundus imaging using the green and blue laser reflectance analysis but were undetectable by near infrared imaging. Multimodal imaging represents a new tool for monitoring of the progression of retinal degeneration in RCS rats in vivo.


Elastic light scattering for clinical pathogens identification: application to early screening of Staphylococcus aureus on specific medium.
Paper 10479-8

Author(s):  Emmanuelle, Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 2: Photonic Diagnosis II
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 11:30 AM

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By enabling rapid diagnosis of pathogens directly on culture plates, Elastic Light Scattering is a new approach that can fight antimicrobial resistances. This study focuses on S.aureus (SA) early screening, where a positive/negative result is given at only 6h of growth. The method combines optical instrumentation and statistical learning. 38 strains of SA and non-SA are considered for the reference library (5459 images). The optimization of pre-processing tools and classifiers is discussed. The best correct classification rate is 91.4%. The robustness of the model will be assessed using a clinical validation set comprising 20 patients which is currently under construction.


Label-free multiphoton imaging and identification of common pathogens found in corneal infections
Paper 10479-9

Author(s):  Shu-Han, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 2: Photonic Diagnosis II
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 12:00 PM

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Corneal infection is caused by a number of pathogens including virus, bacteria, fungi, and amoeba. With the popularity of contact lens usage, infectious keratitis has become a major health issue, and developing label-free technology to image and identify these pathogens may be of value in clinical diagnosis of infectious keratitis. In this study, we use multiphoton microscopy to image pathogens visible under optical resolution. Specifically, bacteria, fungi, and acanthamoeba species commonly found to be responsible for infectious keratitis will be planted in porcine cornea and imaged.


Label-free multiphoton imaging and identification of common pathogens found in corneal infections
Paper 10479-9

Author(s):  Shu-Han, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 2: Photonic Diagnosis II
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 12:00 PM

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Corneal infection is caused by a number of pathogens including virus, bacteria, fungi, and amoeba. With the popularity of contact lens usage, infectious keratitis has become a major health issue, and developing label-free technology to image and identify these pathogens may be of value in clinical diagnosis of infectious keratitis. In this study, we use multiphoton microscopy to image pathogens visible under optical resolution. Specifically, bacteria, fungi, and acanthamoeba species commonly found to be responsible for infectious keratitis will be planted in porcine cornea and imaged.


Usage of light for enhanced sensing and treating of inflammations and infections
Paper 10479-10

Author(s):  Eitan, Bar-Ilan Univ. (Israel), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 3: Photonic Diagnosis III
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 1:40 PM

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In this presentation we demonstrate how light can be useful both for sensing as well as for treating different types of inflammations and infections. In respect to sensing we show how a laser and a camera based system can be used in order to “hear” from a distance the “sounds” of e.g. the lungs while realizing a non-contact stethoscope which can be useful for detection of inflammable lungs diseases such as asthma. In respect to treating inflammations and infections with light, we will show how special light sources can be used in order to destroy candida nail infection or how combination of laser light together with gentamicin antibiotic can significantly enhancement the susceptibility of a bacteria such as P. aeruginosa.


Noninvasive monitoring local variations of fever and edema on human: potential for point-of-care inflammation assessment
Paper 10479-12

Author(s):  Zebin, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 3: Photonic Diagnosis III
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 2:30 PM

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Tissue inflammation is often accompanied by fever and edema, which probably trigger disability, lymphangitis, cosmetic deformity and cellulitis. Here we developed a device, which can measure concentration and temperature variations of water in local human body by extended near infrared spectroscopy in 900~1000 nm wavelength range. An experiment of four steps incremental cycling exercise was designed to change tissue water concentration and temperature of subjects. The results were supported by analysis and simultaneous skin-ear temperature data comparisons.This study demonstrated the potential of optical touch-sensing for inflammation severity monitoring by measuring water concentration and temperature variations in local lesions.


Engineered bioluminescent influenza viruses shed light on defense against influenza virus infection
Paper 10479-13

Author(s):  Ling, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 3: Photonic Diagnosis III
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 2:50 PM

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Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and frequent pandemics such as avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9 that resulted in significant morbidity and fatality in humans. We engineered influenza A viruses to carry a gene encoding Gaussia luciferase (IAV-luci) while remaining replication competent. Infection of animals with IAV-luci enabled real time visualization of infection status or assessment of drug treatment in living animals. Cultured cells infected with as little as one bioluminescent influenza virus could be detected for its bioluminescent signals. Examples will be elucidated for its application in serological monitoring of infection, epidemicological study, and antiviral drug discovery.


Mechanism of Propionibacterium acne necrosis by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by porphyrin absorption
Paper 10479-24

Author(s):  Caerwyn, Univ. of Wales Trinity Saint David (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 6: Antimicrobial Blue Light II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 10:40 AM

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This study provides scientific evidence to support the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy for acne clearance using 414 nm LEDs and filtered Intense Pulsed Light. This study had two objectives; to show the dose response for various wavelengths and energy, and morphologically show microscopic changes in the bacteria due to the effect of wavelengths of light. This study showed the mechanism of Propionibacterium at a cellular level. Illumination of the endogenous coproporphyrin with blue light (400-420 nm) plays a major role in Propionibacterium photo-inactivation. Visualising the destructive mechanism of free radical generation by porphyrin absorption using a scanning electron microscope.


Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for depth-resolved imaging of the human oral cavity in vivo
Paper 10470-18

Author(s):  Julia, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 4: Endoscopic OCT
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:50 PM

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In this research, a new handheld device for endoscopic optical coherence tomography was designed for the oral cavity with the advantage of an expanded application field: the posterior oral cavity including occlusal and buccal surfaces of molars, as well as depth structures of the soft palate. Besides the good image quality with high lateral and axial resolution, the development convinces with the accessibility to most of the oral sections. The feasibility of in vivo studies within the anterior and posterior oral cavity was validly presented by three-dimensional telecentric imaging of hard and soft tissue in vivo.


Advances in laser therapy for human bone repair
Paper 10477-32

Author(s):  Mohammad Nazrul, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Hospital (Bangladesh), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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ADVANCES IN LASER THERAPY FOR 'HUMAN BONE REPAIR' Author: Dr. Mohammad. Nazrul islam, MBBS, M.Sc. (BME). Head -Biomedical And Medical Biotechnology Department, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka-BD. Bangladesh. Keywords: Low Level Laser, Laser Therapy, Human Bone Regeneration. Background Data: Tissue healing is a complex process that involves both local and systemic responses, and the healing process of bone is much slower than that of soft tissues which is a great challenge of medical science. The use of Laser Therapy (LLLT) for wound /bone healing has been shown to be effective by modulating both local and systemic effects. Objective: Laser (Semiconductor diode, Ga-Al-As, 830nm) is effective in human bone regeneration, i.e. it enhances bone fracture healing. Results: Early significant bone regeneration /callus formation achieved by early application of Low Level laser therapy (Ga-Al-As, 830 nm) on human fractured long (appendicular) bone. Conclusions: Laser biostimulative effects on bone could be a new dimension for bone regeneration which significantly reduce healing period, lessen cost of treatment, and enhance patient compliance in medical science.


The use of 3D scanners for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study
Paper 10467-23

Author(s):  Rudolf M. , Vrije Univ. Medical Ctr. (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 3: Structured Light Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:40 PM

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Allergy testing is to date performed by exposing the skin to allergens and visually checked of the 'bump' by the dermatologist. In this study, high resolution 3D scanners were used to quantify the bumps using analysis software validated with phantom 'bumps'. In a small clinical study, the 3D scanner could differentiate between reaction grades however without significance due to the small number of reactions. 3D scanners show the allergic reactions clearly but practical analysis tools are needed for objective grading. 3D scanners have a great potential for quantitative imaging in dermatology and aesthetic surgery.


Near infrared hyperspectral imaging to evaluate tongue tumor resection margins intraoperatively
Paper 10469-16

Author(s):  Susan G. , The Netherlands Cancer Institute (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 3: Optically Guided Cancer Surgery I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:20 PM

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With the aim to develop a technique that can assess tumor resection margins intraoperatively, we conducted an ex vivo study to evaluate the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for distinguishing tumor from healthy tongue tissue. Fresh surgical specimens from patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma were measured. Preliminary results showed that the diffuse light reflection at 1060-1130 nm and 1150-1190 nm contains sufficient spectral information to distinguish tongue tumor from healthy tongue tissue with an accuracy of 89%. Further analyses have been done to assess whether using the whole spectrum can improve the classification results.


Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate tumor from healthy tongue tissue
Paper 10469-24

Author(s):  Susan G. , The Netherlands Cancer Institute (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 4: Optically Guided Cancer Surgery II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Molecular fluorescence guided surgery, pathology and endoscopy: new avenues for drug exploration and treatment monitoring
Paper 10478-32

Author(s):  Gooitzen M. , Univ. Medical Ctr. Groningen (Netherlands), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 7: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications III
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:00 PM

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The main focus of the talk will be an overview of translational optical molecular imaging in various solid tumors: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal and pancreatic cancer. In particular based on the initial clinical study using a folate-receptor alpha targeted imaging approach in ovarian cancer, more recent developments using therapeutic antibodies, nanobodies, small peptides and smart-activatable probes for intraoperative imaging and drug development will be presented for each tumor type in patients. Newly developed Standard Operating Procedures from the operating theatre into the pathology department will be showcased in order to validate and cross-correlate data from multicenter studies and per tumor type. Besides tumor detection, new developments for treatment monitoring of (microscopic) residual disease will be presented as based on molecular fluorescence endoscopy and also in particular the aspect of fluorescence imaging into the workflow of the pathologist will be outlined and showcased with clinical studies.


Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer
Paper 10470-41

Author(s):  Catherine R. M. , Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 8: New Endoscopic Technologies and Advances I
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 9:40 AM

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Cancer in the esophagus is often missed with white light endoscopy, but if caught early can be curatively resected. Improvements in imaging that enable early treatment could reduce mortality from oesophageal cancer, for which the 5-year survival rate is currently just 15%. Refractive index differences between healthy and dysplastic tissue can provide endogenous contrast. We created a wide-field phase imaging system compatible with both standard endoscopes and the constrained architecture of a capsule endoscope. Phase images based on amplitude measurements with low-cost sensors will be presented, alongside simulation results which show good agreement.


Slide-free molecular pathology with in vivo dual-axis confocal and ex vivo light-sheet microscopy
Paper 10478-1

Author(s):  Jonathan T. C. , Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 1: Advanced Detection Methods I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 8:15 AM

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The gold standard for the detection and diagnosis of diseases is based on the microscopic evaluation of thin tissue sections mounted on glass slides, a time-consuming and labor-intensive process that suffers from sampling errors and artifacts. In order to improve the precision and accuracy of clinical pathology, we are developing both miniature handheld optical-sectioning devices to guide biopsy and surgical treatments, as well as light-sheet microscopes for nondestructive 3D molecular pathology of excised specimens. These technologies have the potential to enable the early detection of diseases, improved diagnosis and grading of tumors, and surgical guidance while reducing healthcare costs.


Optical coherence tomography as a minimally invasive androgenic alopecia diagnostic platform
Paper 10467-2

Author(s):  Emon E. , Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 1: Optical Coherence Tomography I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:00 AM

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Androgenic alopecia(AA), commonly known as pattern baldness, initially manifests as a receding or thinning hairline in men and women respectively. The current gold standard for AA diagnosis is trichoscopy and the more invasive punch biopsy. Since the information provided by trichoscopy is superficial and punch biopsies are invasive, physicians cannot properly assess multiple areas of the scalp to provide a proper diagnosis of androgenic alopecia. Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT), a non-invasive, non-ionizing tomographic imaging technique can rapidly provide near histopathological cross sectional 3D images and has been identified as a plausible candidate for in-vivo assessment of hair loss.


Shortwave infrared fluorescence imaging with the clinically approved near-infrared dye indocyanine green
Paper 10475-6

Author(s):  Oliver T. , Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 1: Pharmacokinetic Tomography: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME)
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:40 AM

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Fluorescence imaging is a method of real-time molecular tracking in vivo that has enabled many clinical technologies. Imaging in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR, 1-2 µm) promises higher contrast, sensitivity, and penetration depths compared to conventional visible and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging. However, adoption of SWIR imaging in clinical settings has been limited, due in part to the absence of FDA-approved fluorophores with peak emission in the SWIR. Here, we show that commercially available NIR dyes, including the FDA-approved contrast agent indocyanine green (ICG), exhibit optical properties suitable for in vivo SWIR fluorescence imaging. Despite the fact that their emission reaches a maximum in the NIR, these dyes outperform commercial SWIR fluorophores, and can be imaged non-invasively in vivo in the SWIR spectral region, even beyond 1500 nm. We demonstrate real-time fluorescence angiography at wavelengths beyond 1300 nm using ICG at clinically relevant doses. Furthermore, we show tumor-targeted SWIR imaging with trastuzumab labeled with IRDye 800CW, a NIR dye currently being tested in multiple phase II clinical trials. Our findings suggest that high-contrast SWIR fluorescence imaging can be implemented alongside existing imaging modalities by switching the detection of conventional NIR fluorescence systems from silicon-based NIR cameras to emerging indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) SWIR cameras. Using ICG in particular opens the possibility of translating SWIR fluorescence imaging to human clinical applications. Indeed, our findings suggest that any new SWIR-fluorescent in vivo contrast agent should be benchmarked against the SWIR emission of ICG in blood.


In vivo mapping of the cervical epithelium using multiplexed low-coherence interferometry
Paper 10472-3

Author(s):  Kengyeh K. , Duke Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session 1: Gynocology
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 10:10 AM

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We constructed an optical probe and platform that provides 36 multiplexed low-coherence interferometry (m/LCI) channels to measure epithelial thickness on the human cervix. These measurements allow the discrimination of ectocervix and endocervix, and the identification of the intermediate transformation zone, the location to which screening would be most effectively targeted due to its elevated risk of dysplasia. We report results from initial clinical studies at Duke University (n=5) and New York City Health + Hospitals/Jacobi (n=20, target n=50) that demonstrate the feasibility of m/LCI as a means of identifying the transformation zone.


Linking airway microstructure and mucus content to lung function changes in mild asthma using OCT
Paper 10470-7

Author(s):  David C. , Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 2: Clinical Applications in Pulmonary Medicine
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 10:30 AM

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Airway remodeling is known to occur in individuals with severe asthma, however, it is unclear to what extent airway wall remodeling is present in milder forms of the disease and if this remodeling directly influences lung function. We imaged individuals with mild allergic asthma and allergic controls using OCT before and after segmental allergen challenge. Using OCT we were able to quantify microstructural features of the airway wall, and provide automated assessment of mucus content in vivo. We demonstrated significant airway remodeling was present in the asthmatic subjects and found that remodeling correlated with pulmonary function assessed with spirometry.


Real-time assessment of breast cancer surgical specimens using multiphoton microscopy
Paper 10472-4

Author(s):  Michael G. , Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session 2: Margin Assessment and Prostate
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Studies of discarded breast tissue specimens imaged with fluorescence microscopy suggest that techniques such as multiphoton and confocal microscopy can achieve comparable sensitivity and specificity to standard H&E histology for the detection of invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ, but with only seconds to minutes of sample preparation. However, most studies have been performed on carefully dissected small tissue specimens imaged hours after excision rather than on true surgical specimens. We present imaging studies performed on large, intact surgical specimens performed in the clinic and discuss challenges encountered with translation of intraoperative multiphoton microscopy from laboratory to clinical imaging.


Assessing airway smooth muscle contractility with fully resolved optic axis data in PS-OCT
Paper 10470-10

Author(s):  David C. , Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10470: Endoscopic Microscopy XIII
Session 2: Clinical Applications in Pulmonary Medicine
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:30 AM

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The ability to observe airway smooth muscle (ASM) is fundamental to forming a complete understanding of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. In this presentation we build upon previous preliminary results using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) to assess ASM contraction in vivo by implementing a novel approach for obtaining fully resolved optic axis (OA) data in our sample. This approach, compatible with endoscopic imaging, allows us to obtain more robust information about the tension of the ASM band that may not be restricted to relative measurements and may greatly enhance the range of applications to which this technology is suited.


Quantifying prostate cancer morphology in 3D using light sheet microscopy and persistent homology
Paper 10472-6

Author(s):  Peter J. , Tulane Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session 2: Margin Assessment and Prostate
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:50 AM

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The primary prognostic indicator for prostate cancer is the Gleason score, a subjective assessment of the pattern of tumor growth in 2D that fails to capture potentially prognostic information contained in 3D glandular growth patterns. Using light sheet microscopy 3D reconstructions of prostate histology were produced. Persistent homology was previously demonstrated to be effective in capturing representations of the size and distribution of glands as loops in 2D images, facilitating the generation of unique quantitative morphological descriptors for histology slides. Persistent homology will be extended to 3D voids (glands) to produce a quantitative, reproducible descriptor for 3D prostate cancer morphology.


Prolonging shelf life of platelets by near infrared low-level laser
Paper 10477-13

Author(s):  Mei X. , Harvard Medical School (United States), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications for PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:00 PM

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A Monte Carlo simulation of the dosimetry of extraorally delivered photobiomodulation therapy
Paper 10477-18

Author(s):  Anna N. , Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell (United States), et al.
Conference 10477: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications for PBM Therapy
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:15 PM

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Omics profiling of CDK4/6 inhibitors reveals functionally important secondary targets of abemaciclib
Paper 10475-14

Author(s):  Caitlin E. , Harvard Medical School (United States), et al.
Conference 10475: Visualizing and Quantifying Drug Distribution in Tissue II
Session 3: Imaging Screening Tools in Drug Development
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:20 PM

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Intravital imaging of tumor bioenergetics in metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer
Paper 10472-11

Author(s):  Raisa B. , Univ. of Arkansas (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session 3: Breast Cancer
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:00 PM

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Identifying primary tumors at risk of metastasis is key to improving cancer treatment. We observed that metastatic breast tumors exhibited decreased glycolysis, but increased oxidative phosphorylation and vascular oxygenation. These findings match similar in vitro studies suggesting that metastatic cells tend to prefer oxidative metabolism, and indicate the potential of optical redox ratio as a marker for metastasis.


Clinical and preclinical studies of tumor microenvironment in PDT: expectations and observations
Paper 10476-13

Author(s):  Theresa M. , Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States), et al.
Conference 10476: Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXVII
Session 4: Photodynamic Therapy IV
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:30 PM

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In recent years, Phase I/II clinical trials of photodynamic therapy performed at our institute have assessed the safety and potential efficacy of PDT for several indications. Furthermore, these trials have provided a wealth of data on the biology of PDT in clinical application. Clinical findings have confirmed some expectations that stem from preclinical data, but they have also raised new questions based on observations not previously made in animal models. We describe the iterative process used to develop new preclinical models and systems for the purpose of substantiating and then researching novel observations rising from clinical application of PDT.


Blood flow quantification of biopsied skin lesions using a laser speckle imaging dermatoscope
Paper 10467-11

Author(s):  Cody E. , Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 4: Skin Cancer I
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:50 PM

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Dermatoscopes are commonly utilized for the qualitative visual inspection of skin lesions. We have developed a compact, handheld dermatoscope that enables real-time blood flow measurements of skin using laser speckle imaging (LSI). A second color camera helps with the simultaneous real-time observation of the skin lesions and allows the user to acquire and save color images. We demonstrated in human subjects that the dermatoscope can quantify blood flow in skin lesions and that there was significantly increased blood flow relative to the surrounding skin in cherry angiomas compared to solar lentigos. Furthermore, we compared blood flow maps of potentially cancerous lesions to histological findings to determine whether blood flow information can aid in proper diagnosis.


Light fluence dosimetry in lung-simulating cavities
Paper 10476-14

Author(s):  Timothy C. , The Univ. of Pennsylvania Health System (United States), et al.
Conference 10476: Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXVII
Session 4: Photodynamic Therapy IV
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:50 PM

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An empirical formula was found to predict the scatter light fluence rate in a lung-shaped cavities surrounded by turbid medium. This is verified by measurement and is Monte-Calro simulation. It is expected to be applicable for arbitrary cavity geometries.


Topical application of nerve-specific fluorophores for image-guided nerve sparing surgical procedures
Paper 10478-20

Author(s):  Connor W. , Oregon Health & Science Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 4: Contrast Agents
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 5:05 PM

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Nerve damage plagues surgical outcomes, significantly affecting post-surgical quality of life. Fluorescence image-guided surgery offers a potential means of enhanced nerve identification intraoperatively. To facilitate translation of fluorescence image guided surgery to the nerve sparing prostatectomy, a direct administration methodology was developed. Novel formulation strategies were explored to enhance our ability to identify buried nerves. Several biomolecular targets of Oxazine 4 have been identified, helping to understand the mechanism of nerve-specificity. Fluorophore development and testing has provided information on the structure-activity relationship for nerve specificity and moved the field closer to a near infrared nerve specific probe.


Visualizing cellular markers of sensorineural hearing loss in the murine cochlea using micro-optical coherence tomography
Paper 10469-27

Author(s):  Janani S. , Harvard Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10469: Optical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology 2018
Session 5: Hearing and Diseases of the Ear
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 8:20 AM

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Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common sensory deficit in the world, yet little is known about the relationship between intracochlear pathology and hearing ability in humans because we do not possess an imaging technique capable of detecting such pathology. Here we demonstrate the ability of micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT), a low-coherence interferometric imaging technique that requires no contrast agent, to detect cellular-level differences between noise-damaged and healthy organ of Corti tissue, and specifically “flat epithelium” morphology, in mice. Our findings motivate further investigation into µOCT’s potential utility as a diagnostic tool for SNHL.


Fluorescent imaging of Mohs surgical margins using multiphoton microscopy
Paper 10467-16

Author(s):  Michael G. , Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 5: Microscopy
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:20 AM

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Fluorescent imaging combined with H&E-rendering algorithms can provide histological imaging of Mohs surgical margins more rapidly than frozen sections. We have developed a labeling protocol and high speed imaging system that enables high quality reproduction of histological features in discarded Mohs specimens. We present a comparison of histology images generated with multiphoton microscopy from thick tissue sections with co-registered conventional frozen sections. The sensitivity and specificity of fluorescent imaging is compared to frozen sections for various subtypes of non-melanoma skin cancer.


Panitumumab-IRDye800 for fluorescence-guidance based metastatic lymph node identification in patients with head and neck cancer
Paper 10478-30

Author(s):  Nynke S. , Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 6: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 12:00 PM

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Presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis is considered the most important prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. We propose the near-infrared fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody panitumumab-IRDye800 for intraoperative metastatic LN identification. Preliminary results from our ongoing phase I clinical study (n=9 of 27 included) suggest panitumumab-IRDye800 can identify metastatic LNs; sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, and a positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 100%, respectively. Upon trial progression, if findings remain constant, it can open a whole new era for intraoperative metastatic LN identification.


The next steps in surgical imaging
Paper 10478-31

Author(s):  Eben L. , Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 7: Clinical Translation and Clinical Applications III
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:30 PM

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This talk will review the current clinical trial results using antibody-based optical imaging to guide surgical resections in head and neck, brain, skin and pancreas tumors. Each tumor type presents unique challenges that dramatically alters how the optical imaging data can provide clinical utility to the surgical team and pathologists. Specific cases and synthesized data will be presented and regulatory hurdles discussed.


Label free assessment of ultra-violet radiation induced damages in skin cells
Paper 10467-27

Author(s):  Surya P. , Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10467: Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018
Session 8: Skin Cancer II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:20 PM

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Label-free profiling of skin-fibroblasts exposed to sub-lethal doses of ultra-violet radiation has been performed with quantitative phase imaging and Raman-spectroscopy. Spectral changes are indicative of differences in the protein and nucleic-acid composition and utilized for principal-component-analysis based classification. Distinct and dose-dependent changes in the cellular morphology and biophysical parameters such as dry mass and matter density were observed with phase-imaging. Combination of these two techniques, one suited for detection of subtle morphological/biophysical alterations while the other appropriate for capturing molecular perturbations, could pave the way to address issues of label-free monitoring of cellular-responses in response to an external stimulus.


Redox imaging of fixed tissue slides to identify biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis/prognosis: feasibility study
Paper 10472-28

Author(s):  He N. , The Univ. of Pennsylvania Health System (United States), et al.
Conference 10472: Diseases in the Breast and Reproductive System IV
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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We previously showed optical redox imaging (ORI) fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins of snap-frozen tissues has a potential value for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of ORI of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained tissue slides of breast tumors and its comparableness to ORI of snap-frozen tumor tissues. If validated, this technique will enhance the versatility of ORI as a novel diagnostic/prognostic assay as FFPE breast cancer samples are readily available. Here we report the promising preliminary results on ORI of fixed slides of breast tumor xenografts and clinical breast tissues and discuss some technical issues.


Fluorescent labeling of circulating tumor cells for diffuse in-vivo flow cytometry
Paper 10478-44

Author(s):  Roshani A. , Northeastern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Cerenkov luminescence imaging under ambient lighting conditions for intraoperative applications
Paper 10478-37

Author(s):  Justin S. , Univ. of California, Davis (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 8: Joint Session with Conferences 10476 and 10478: Isotope Optical Imaging and Cancer
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 9:30 AM

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Cerenkov luminescence (CL), optical radiation induced by PET radiotracers, has shown promise as a means to visualize tumor margins during surgery. However, detecting this faint optical signal under ambient lighting conditions represents a major challenge. We have developed an ambient light CL imaging system that uses a sensitive imaging detector, custom electronic control board, and an LED illumination array. By gating both LED illumination and imaging detector, we have demonstrated that <24 kBq of 18F is unambiguously detectable under dimly-lit conditions and 240 kBq under illumination of 37 µW/cm2, equivalent to typical indoor lighting conditions.


Single photon detection imaging of Cherenkov light emitted during radiation therapy
Paper 10478-39

Author(s):  Phillip M. , Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 9: Joint Session with Conferences 10476 and 10478: Radiation Therapy Optical Imaging and Sensing
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 10:30 AM

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Cherenkov light emission during radiation therapy for cancer treatment can be imaged in real time with time-gated intensified cameras. However the light signal is exceptionally small, and reaches the single photon level for individual pixels of the cameras used. An analysis of the signal to noise versus camera geometry, lens choice, distance and photocathode was completed, and the performance expectations and limitations for real time imaging are demonstrated. The impact of this work is that is describes the key trade offs between signal, noise, frame rate and positioning of the camera in the radiation therapy treatment room.


Progress toward noninvasive detection of tumor oxygenation utilizing Cherenkov excited luminescence scanned imaging
Paper 10478-40

Author(s):  Jennifer R. , Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Ctr. (United States), et al.
Conference 10478: Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV
Session 9: Joint Session with Conferences 10476 and 10478: Radiation Therapy Optical Imaging and Sensing
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 10:45 AM

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Cherenkov emission generated from radiotherapy can be harnessed for optical imaging. Cherenkov excited luminescence scanned imaging (CELSI) provides a way to noninvasively visualize tumor oxygenation, which is an indicator of the outcome of radiation therapy. We utilized Cherenkov emission to excite phosphorescent reagents whose luminescence intensity and lifetimes are sensitive to oxygen. A series of phosphorescent oxygen sensors was evaluated using CELSI to identify those that elicited the optimum signal in response to changes in oxygenation. These selected sensors were then injected into mice to explore the potential to noninvasively image tumor oxygenation in conjunction with radiotherapy.


Impact of rose bengal and riboflavin photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PDAT) on virulence factors of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular species
Paper 10479-32

Author(s):  Heather A. , Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (United States), et al.
Conference 10479: Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases
Session 7: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation/Therapy I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 3:10 PM

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has increased in the past decade and poses a significant challenge to healthcare providers. One alternative treatment, PDAT, has been shown to inhibit MRSA; however, the effect on virulence factors is unknown. This study investigates the effect of rose bengal and riboflavin PDAT on the virulence factors of MRSA using whole genome sequencing. In six different MRSA species, rose bengal PDAT completely inhibited the growth of isolates, while the other groups had minimal inhibition. Full genome sequencing revealed that the virulence factors had varying responses to the PDAT, depending on the MRSA species, photosensitizer used, and light exposure.


Important Dates

Abstracts Due
17 July 2017

Author Notification
25 September 2017

Manuscripts Due
See Individual Conferences


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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Journal of Biomedical OpticsPublishes peer-reviewed papers that utilize modern optical technology for improved health care and biomedical research.