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The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, United States
28 January - 2 February 2017
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Translational Research Presentations

Clinical Technologies and Systems
(ordered by start date and time)


Motorized photoacoustic tomography probe for label-free improvement in image quality
Paper 10486-3

Author(s):  Gurneet, Purdue Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session 1: Phantom-Based Testing in Photoacoustics
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:20 AM

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One of the major challenges in in vivo lipid-based photoacoustic (PA) tomography includes improving penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio past subcutaneous fat absorbers. Therefore, it is important to create light manipulation techniques to maximize the amount of light that is delivered to the region of interest. Here, we present a motorized PA probe that is capable of tuning the depth in which light is focused and preventing probe-skin artifacts that have been previously resolved using image processing techniques. Using this PA probe we can focus light within the tissue to improve image quality and remove cumbersome artifacts at their source.


Identifying viscoelastic parameters of tissue specimens using Hertz contact mechanics
Paper 10486-5

Author(s):  Nikan, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session 2: Phantoms and Test Methods
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 10:30 AM

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Vibroacoustography (VA) is a non-invasive, high resolution imaging modality that has the ability to detect sub-millimeter differences in tissue characteristics based on object exposure to an acoustic radiation force. Given the mechanical properties unique to human and animal tissues, there is far reaching clinical application of VA. In order to improve image analysis of target objects, the mechanical properties of homogenous tissue mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and fresh ex vivo specimens were characterized.


Diffuse and nonlinear imaging for in vivo multiscale preclinical monitoring of mammary tumors
Paper 10487-7

Author(s):  Kavon, Boston Univ (United States), et al.
Conference 10487: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII
Session 2: Multimodality/Multiscale Imaging
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 10:50 AM

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We have developed a multiscale imaging technique called Diffuse and Nonlinear Imaging (DNI) that uses Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) for wide-field mapping of tumor optical properties and hemodynamics, and Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM) to image tumor micro-vessel and collagen architecture, and endogenous metabolic molecules with cellular resolution. DNI was used to monitor a syngeneic murine mammary tumor model (Py230) through a mammary imaging window in 10 untreated C57BL/6 female mice. This presentation will report on multiscale relationships among tumor hemodynamic, microenvironment, and metabolic metrics, and on Monte Carlo modeling and phantom studies comparing depth penetration between the two imaging regimes.


Multi-modality photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound, and light sheet microscopy for volumetric tumor margin detection
Paper 10487-12

Author(s):  Gurneet, Purdue Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10487: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:50 PM

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Current methods for breast tumor margin (BTM) are destructive, time consuming, and result in a reoperative rate of up to 27%. This marks a clinical need to develop novel tools to intraoperatively delineate tumor margins. Here, we utilize photoacoustic tomography (PAT), ultrasound (US), and inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (iSPIM) to assess BTM (n=8). Our results show that PAT/US can be used to identify lipid, blood vessels, and other internal structures, and iSPIM can provide histology-like information on cellular and stromal features. Together, a multimodality approach has potential to improve BTM detection with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.


Quantitative polyp size measurements with photometric stereo endoscopy enhanced by deep learning
Paper 10487-15

Author(s):  Faisal, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10487: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:50 PM

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Photometric stereo endoscopy (PSE) has recently been introduced as a tool to qualitatively reconstruct colon topography. In this work, we use deep learning to estimate depth from a monocular endoscope. We developed a photometric stereo endoscopy simulator and collected data with ground true depths from a texture-free colon-shaped virtual phantom. These data were used to train a deep convolutional neural field network that can estimate the depth for similar test data with an accuracy of 84%. Applying this technique to in-vivo human colonoscopy videos, we show a reduction in polyp size measurement variation from 15.5% to 3.4%.


Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for use in the near infrared biological window
Paper 10488-20

Author(s):  Vincent, Univ. of Notre Dame (United States), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 5: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools IV
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 5:00 PM

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We present a near-infrared tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser based upon a unique electrothermally tunable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) topside mirror suitable for tissue imaging and sensing. At room temperature, the laser is tunable from 767-781nm with single mode CW output and a peak output power of 0.9mW. We show that the tunable VCSEL is suitable for use in frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy by measuring the optical properties of a tissue-simulating phantom over the tunable range. These results indicate that tunable VCSELs may be an attractive choice to enable high resolution optical spectroscopy in a wearable sensor format.


Paired-agent fluorescent imaging to detect micrometastases in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy: experiment design and protocol development
Paper 10484-1

Author(s):  Chengyue, Illinois Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 1: Diagnostic Technologies for Cancer Detection
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:10 AM

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Sentinel lymph node status is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer treatment and is essential to guide future adjuvant treatment. The possibility of missed micrometastases by using conventional methods created a demand for the development of more accurate approach to guide pathology. This study presents a quantitative molecular imaging strategy to improve detection of micrometastases through paired-agent fluorescence imaging. The results demonstrate this approach’s potential to enhance the sensitivity of lymph node pathology by detecting as fewer than 1000 cell in a whole human lymph node.


Enhanced differentiation of invasive breast ductal carcinoma via polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy
Paper 10484-4

Author(s):  Jianfeng, Univ. of Illinois (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 2: Advanced Photonic Technologies for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 10:40 AM

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Complete surgical resection of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast is imperative for improving the survival rate of patients. We have pioneered the clinical implementation of OCT and demonstrated polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) for human breast tissue differentiation. We have further demonstrated the efficiency of polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (PS-ISAM) for enhanced differentiation of IDC by deriving optical attenuation parameters and form birefringence from PS-ISAM, and performing blinded reader studies to evaluate the statistical performance of the PS-ISAM imaging system in the differentiation of IDC against fibrous tissue of the breast.


Intra-operative guidance using combined photoacoustic and pulsed fluorescence imaging for robotic-assisted surgery: preliminary in vivo experiment using murine prostate model
Paper 10484-8

Author(s):  Jeeun, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 3: Robotics and Light Biopsies for Surgical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:30 PM

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Multi-modal interface in medicine has been of interest as it extends clinical vision and diagnostic to a higher dimension. We propose an imaging system combining fluorescence and photoacoustic techniques to demonstrate the ability to distinguish critical target factors in prostatectomy. A preliminary in vivo test on murine model is conducted and a quantification mapping is recorded. The proposed multi-modal approach shows feasibility in surgical guidance in laparoscopic prostatectomy.


A low cost mobile phone dark-field microscope for nanoparticle-based quantitative studies
Paper 10486-31

Author(s):  Dali, Arizona State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session 9: Smart Phone Imaging Technologies II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 3:50 PM

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Dark-field microscope (DFM) analysis of nanoparticle binding signal is highly useful for a variety of research and biomedical applications, but current applications for nanoparticle quantification rely on expensive DFM systems. The cost, size, limited robustness of these DFMs limits their utility for non-laboratory settings. Most nanoparticle analyses use high-magnification DFM images, which are labor intensive to acquire and subject to operator bias. Low-magnification DFM image capture is faster, but is subject to background from surface artifacts and debris, although image processing can partially compensate for background signal. We thus mated an LED light source, a dark-field condenser and a 20× objective lens with a mobile phone camera to create an inexpensive, portable and robust DFM system suitable for use in non-laboratory conditions. This proof-of-concept mobile DFM device weighs less than 400g and costs less than $2000, but analysis of images captured with this device reveal similar nanoparticle quantitation results to those acquired with a much larger and more expensive desktop DFMM system. Our results suggest that similar devices may be useful for quantification of stable, nanoparticle-based activity and quantitation assays in resource-limited areas where conventional assay approaches are not practical.


Assessment of post-implantation integration of engineered tissues using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy
Paper 10484-14

Author(s):  Sakib, Univ. of Michigan (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 4: Luminescence Methods for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 4:00 PM

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Current practices to monitor health and viability of engineered tissue constructs after implantation in patients are either qualitative or destructive. We employed label-free fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy to quantitatively and noninvasively assess tissue constructs manufactured from primary human cells and implanted in a murine model. Optical parameters measured at one-week post-implantation correlated with the pre-implantation health state of the constructs, as assessed by cytokine secretion levels. This relationship was no longer observed at three-weeks post-implantation when constructs developed more robust cellular viability. These results suggest that diagnostic tools based on fluorescence lifetime sensing could noninvasively monitor post-implantation integration of engineered tissues.


Speckle-modulation for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography
Paper 10483-85

Author(s):  Orly, Stanford Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session Sun: Poster Session I: Technology
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is susceptible to coherent speckle noise, which imposes significant limitations on visualizing fine tissue structures. Here we show Speckle-Modulating OCT (SM-OCT), a method which can remove speckle noise, including noise originating from sample multiple back-scattering. SM-OCT accomplishes this by creating and averaging an unlimited number of scans with uncorrelated speckle patterns without compromising spatial resolution. The uncorrelated speckle patterns are created by inserting a moving ground-glass diffuser into the optical path of the sample arm. Using SM-OCT, we reveal small structures in tissues of living animals, such as the mouse pinna, eye and human fingertip skin.


A fiber optoacoustic guide-wire with augmented reality towards precision breast conserving surgery
Paper 10484-20

Author(s):  Lu, Boston Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 6: Acoustics and Ultrasound Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 10:40 AM

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Imaging radiofrequency ablation lesions in the left atrium: toward guidance of atrial fibrillation
Paper 10483-11

Author(s):  Xiaowei, Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 2: Cardiac and Small Animal
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 11:30 AM

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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in the western world. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with catheter based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a frequently performed curative procedure to treat AF. However, the procedure is only guided by indirect information, and suffers from a high recurrence rate. Our previous work has demonstrated that a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) integrated RFA catheter can be used to monitor the ablation of ventricular tissue. As a preliminary study, we ablate porcine left atrial tissue around the pulmonary veins and record tissue structure and changes with bench-top PSOCT.


Motion-compensated optical coherence tomography using envelope-based surface detection and Kalman-based prediction
Paper 10484-24

Author(s):  Kristina, The Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 7: Clinical Applications of Coherence Techniques (OCT)
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 1:30 PM

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We present a swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that effectively compensates unwanted axial motion with micron-scale accuracy. In the SS-OCT system, an envelope-based surface detection algorithm and Kalman-based predictor are applied to the B-scan data for axial motion tracking, and a fixed system-target distance is maintained by a feedback linear motor control. We demonstrate the superior performance of the novel motion-correction technique, which is particularly noticeable when imaging multi-layered tissues, comparing it with earlier, more basic peak- and edge-based surface detection methods and with performing no motion compensation.


Feasibility of ultrahigh speed en face OCT tethered capsule for volumetric mapping of Barrett's Esophagus in non-sedated patients
Paper 10483-22

Author(s):  Kaicheng, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 4: GI/Endoscopic/Catheter
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 4:15 PM

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We report ultrahigh speed en face OCT tethered capsule imaging in non-sedated patients with Barrett’s Esophagus. Imaging was performed at 1 MHz A-scan rate and 300 Hz frame rate, with the capsule pulled back at ~1 cm/s for imaging over 10 cm of the distal esophagus. 13 patients have been imaged thus far, and the procedures were well tolerated. The majority of patients had most of the esophagus well visualized, but a notable few had suboptimal tissue contact on the capsule leading to poor imaging coverage. En face OCT capsule imaging is a promising BE screening and risk stratification modality.


Pathology in a tube: Step 2. Simple, rapid fabrication of curved, circular cross section millifluidic channels for biopsy preparation/3D imaging towards pancreatic cancer diagnosis.
Paper 10491-43

Author(s):  Ronnie, Univ. of Washington (United States), et al.
Conference 10491: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XVI
Session 10: Medical Microsystems II
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 4:20 PM

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Our research team has devised a novel approach to rapidly produce curved, circular cross section millimeter-sized fluidic (i.e., millifluidic) channels to process core needle biopsies for 3D imaging/reconstruction towards pancreatic cancer detection and diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time curved, circular cross section channels have been fabricated with ease as traditional microfabrication/micromachining techniques are time-consuming, costly and in some cases impossible due to the size/geometry of the design which is ideal for pathology laboratory operations. Curved channels permit biopsy transport/imaging in 3D and maximize the capabilities of our credit card-sized devices.


Handheld widefield OCT and OCTA
Paper 10483-121

Author(s):  Gangjun, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon health & Science Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session Mon: Poster Session II: Functional and Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 5:30 PM

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We have developed a high-speed (100-kHz), handheld swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) and demonstrated ultra-widefield 120° ×120° OCT imaging with a single scan in 2 seconds and 20° × 20° OCTA imaging with a single scan in 2 seconds in ROP patients in both neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and operation room (OR).


ultrahigh-resolution diffractive OCT catheter for label-free in vivo pathology of small airways
Paper 10483-28

Author(s):  Wu, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 4: GI/Endoscopic/Catheter
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 5:45 PM

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The earliest pathology occurs in small airways (of a lumen diameter < 2 mm) in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Although conventional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) have had a significant impact on the diagnosis and management of airway diseases, the resolution of these clinically available imaging technologies is insufficient to image the fine structures of small airways in vivo, which are the critical action sites associated with various airway diseases. Here we introduce an ultrahigh-resolution diffractive OCT catheter as an intravital imaging tool that does not have the technical limitations of conventional methods and, as a result, provides unprecedented access to previously unexplored crucial aspects of small airway pathology in vivo. Using the diffractive catheter and an ovine model, we present high-resolution, high-speed images of tissue components and fine structures of small airways and airway wall thickening with perivascular edema, to demonstrate its potential for studying in vivo pathological processes of small airways.


In vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of hollow structures and solid organs in the abdominal cavity in a pig model using a laparoscopy-adaptable applicator probe for evaluating the potential of intraoperative tissue classification
Paper 10484-33

Author(s):  Daqing, Oklahoma State Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 9: Diffuse Reflectance Techniques for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 9:10 AM

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Detection of hollow structures such as ureters and mesenteric vessels is of utmost importance to preventing unintended injury during laparoscopic procedures in the abdomen. The potential of detecting a hollow structure is limited by the device-specific parametric differences between that hollow structure and peripheral tissues including solid organs. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was performed on a number of hollow structures (urinary bladder, ureter, large and small intestines, stomach, gallbladder, and mesenteric vessel) and solid organs (kidney, liver, and ovary) in pigs in vivo by using an applicator-probe with a 10mm source-detector distance that can be mounted on an 8mm laparoscopic instrument.


First in-human intranasal uOCT imaging
Paper 10483-33

Author(s):  Hui Min, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 5: Novel Microscopy
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 9:30 AM

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Here, we present results from successful clinical translation of 1-µm-resolution OCT (µOCT) imaging technology. We developed a clinical grade µOCT console and a semi-flexible intranasal imaging catheter that can be used to perform in vivo imaging of the upper airways of unanesthetized human subjects. Using this technology, a first-in-human intranasal µOCT clinical study of 10 normal and 10 CF volunteers was performed without adverse complications. The acquired images were motion-corrected and analyzed to quantitatively determine functional microanatomy metrics. Preliminary results show that there were substantial differences between intranasal µOCT images and certain quantitative metrics obtained from normal volunteers vs. CF patients.


Angular/longitudinal doppler sensitive optical coherence tomography using vortex beams
Paper 10483-54

Author(s):  Eun Song, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 8: OCT New Technology II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 5:15 PM

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Use of structured light is a topic of interest in the optics community to detect angular movement of a target moving perpendicularly to the beam’s propagation direction. Orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams, with an azimuthal phase variation about the propagation axis, have been used with single wavelength laser sources to detect angular movement. We report the first known technique of applying these beams in a multi-wavelength depth-resolved interferometric imaging scheme. Structured light using a swept source laser results in rapid detection of angular and longitudinal movement given the multitude of wavelengths in comparison to single wavelength approaches reported previously.


Absorption deep-tissue imaging of blood vessels for endoscopic surgery of the intestine
Paper 10489-48

Author(s):  Shirley, The City College of New York (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session Tues: Poster Session
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 6:00 PM

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The Vein-Eye is a near infrared (NIR) medical imaging device developed for phlebotomy and intravenous placement. A monitor displays an image of a patients arm illuminated with polarized light at 850 nm and detected using a cross-polarized filter for enhanced live imaging of superficial or sub-dermal veins. This device is based on teachings in US Patent 091983 Alfano and Demos and Wang. This technology was specifically developed to allow venous access for patients who are known as a “hard stick”, that is, those patients whose veins are difficult to find due to illness, dehydration, skin coloration, or the pediatric population. A related medical challenge is to detect veins and arteries that are hidden from view in endoscopic surgery. Accidental dissection of these vessels is a leading cause of surgical. The goal of this project is to determine the utility of this technology for use in endoscopic surgery. Specifically, to determine the depth of detection for vessels in the intestinal wall. This project has two components. The first is to explore the capability of the technology as it exists now for use in the endoscopic environment. The second is to synthesize an exogenous NIR fluorescence emitting nanoparticle contrast agent to enhance detection, and explore how it can be used to enhance imaging.


In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman microscope
Paper 10489-26

Author(s):  Ji-Xin, Boston Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 5: Applications of Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 9:10 AM

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We report a background-free handheld Stimulated Raman Scattering microscope. By temporally separating the two ultrashort pulses propagating in the fiber and then overlapping them on a sample through a dispersive material, we detected stimulated Raman signal that is 200 times weaker than the non-resonant background. The handheld microscope allowed ambient-light mapping of pesticide on a spinach leaf, cancerous tissue versus healthy brain tissue in a canine model, and cosmetic distribution on live human skin.


Combination absorption and fluorescence for detection of vessels in intestinal sub-mucosa
Paper 10489-30

Author(s):  Stewart, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 6: Applications of Optical Biopsy II
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 11:10 AM

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Injuries to main vascular structures within the sub mucosa present a serious complication during surgery. There is no evidence-based treatment to prevent this type of injury, so detection is critical. Using a combination of absorption and fluorescence imaging we can detect blood vessel phantoms to a depth of 7 mm in intestinal sub-mucosa. Using an illumination source at 850, and reading the cross-polarized reflected signal also at 850 gives the absorption image. Simultaneous excitation of ICG at 785 nm creates a fluorescent response that is used for contrast enhancement.


Bragg grating in micro-scaled optical fiber for cardiac biomarker sensing
Paper 10488-10

Author(s):  Tong, Jinan Univ. (China), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 3: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools II
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 12:10 PM

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A sensitive label-free fiber-optic based immunosensor for quantitative cTn-I testing has been proposed by using a phase-shifted Bragg grating directly inscribed in microfiber. The fine notch signal in the grating spectrum greatly enhances the ability of the sensor in detecting an extremely low concentration of cTn-I (6 pg/mL), which is essential for AMI diagnosis at very early stage. The cTn-I sensor could serve in both buffer and human serum samples due to its high specificity. The proposed sensor is compact and feasible, easy to handle, fabricate and network, and thus has a promising prospect in “point-of-care” test for cardiac biomarkers and preclinical diagnosis.


Photoacoustic/ultrasound dual imaging of human superficial lesions: an initial clinical study
Paper 10487-11

Author(s):  Meng, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (China), et al.
Conference 10487: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:30 PM

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Objective:To develop dual-modality Photoacoustic(PA)/Ultrasound(US) system based on clinical US machine and performed imaging study of in vivo human superficial lesions. Methods:A dual-modality PA/US system was developed based on a high-end clinical US machine with a handheld probe for US/PA dual modality imaging. Twenty-three patients were enrolled consecutively from Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). All the patients underwent PA imaging(PAI) and ultrasound examinations. The color Doppler flow imaging ultrasound (CDFI) and the PA/US dual imaging information of each case were compared. Result:All of the 23 superficial lesions performed surgery with pathology confirmed diagnosis. Our PA/US dual modality imaging system showed high quality dual-modality fusion images. Significant differences exist between PAI and CDFI. PAI proved the ability to image both the peripheral and intra-nodular vessels of lesion, PAI could reveal some blood vessels that were not sensitive for Doppler ultrasound. Conclusion: PAI could provide important complementary information for ultrasound in superficial lesion examination, which has a great potential for clinical diagnosis.


Advanced fiber optic solutions for medical diagnostics and theranostics
Paper 10488-11

Author(s):  Viacheslav, art photonics GmbH (Germany), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 4: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools III
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 1:50 PM

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Review of the latest original results achieved with advanced fiber optic solutions for a broad spectral range of 0,4-16µm: multi-spectral tissue diagnostics to detect malignant tissue ex-vivo and in-vivo, minimal invasive laser angioplasty, inter-corporal InfraRed-imaging of tissue during RFA procedures in heart and the other ways to use fiber optics in intraoperative therapy control. Thus fiber optics enables to fuse diagnostics and therapy procedures in so called "theranostic" applications. Translation of described methods into clinical practice and in so called “digital health” will be discussed in comparison with the other complimentary methods of optical diagnostics and theranostics.


Fibre-optic pressure and temperature measurements using phase-resolved low-coherence interferometry
Paper 10488-13

Author(s):  Joanna, Univ. College London (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 4: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools III
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 2:30 PM

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Percutaneous coronary interventions are widely performed minimally invasive procedures used to treat narrowing of arteries in the heart. We are developing all-optical sensors that provide pressure and temperature measurements. This approach provides miniaturised devices, with simple construction methods and low cost materials. Polymeric structures including membranes and domes are applied to the tips of single-mode optical fibres. The time-varying displacements of these structures are monitored using phase-resolved low-coherence interferometry. In vivo studies in arteries and hearts of sheep and swine indicated that the sensors have sufficient sensitivity and speed for measurement of physiological pressure waveforms in clinical settings.


A microfluidic array for high-content screening at whole-organism resolution
Paper 10491-12

Author(s):  Daniel, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10491: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XVI
Session 3: Applications I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:00 AM

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A main step for the development and the validation of medical drugs is the screening on whole organisms, which gives the systemic information that is missing when using cellular models. Among the organisms of choice, Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil worm which catches the interest of researchers who study systemic physiopathology (e.g. metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases) because: (1) its large genetic homology with humans supports translational analysis; (2) worms are much easier to handle and grow in large amounts compared to rodents, for which (3) the costs and (4) the ethical concerns are substantial. C. elegans is then well suited for large screens, dose-response analysis and target-discovery involving an entire organism. We have developed and tested a microfluidic array for high-content screening, enabling the selection of small populations of its first larval stage in many separated chambers divided into channels for multiplexed screens. With automated protocols for feeding, drug administration and image acquisition, our chip enables the study of the nematodes throughout their entire lifespan. By using a paralyzing agent and a mitochondrial-stress inducer as case studies, we have demonstrated large field-of-view motility analysis, and worm-segmentation/signal-detection for mode-of-action quantification with genetically-encoded fluorescence reporters.


Progress on CD-DVD laser microfabrication method to develop cell culture scaffolds integrating biomimetic characteristics
Paper 10491-14

Author(s):  Mathieu, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico), et al.
Conference 10491: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XVI
Session 3: Applications I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:40 AM

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We present recent progress using a CD-DVD laser microablation platform to develop biomimetic 3D cell culture platforms. Thanks to an excellent control of laser-induced incandescence on the surface of transparent polymers, we show that our method is an excellent alternative for organ-on-chip technology as it may micropattern a variety of cell culture substrates to modify the desired properties of their surface to enhance the chips for a more biomimetic cell culture, as demonstrated in this work with different cell types. In addition to on-demand surface microstructuring, it enables the integration of microfluidics, microelectrodes and even protein patterns on chip.


In situ detection of point mutations and targeted DNA sequencing using mobile phone microscopy
Paper 10485-26

Author(s):  Malte, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden), et al.
Conference 10485: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV
Session 6: Optical Methods in Lab-on-a-Chip and Point of Care Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:20 AM

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We developed a cost-effective multimodal smartphone-based microscopy platform for digital detection of KRAS point mutations by imaging of sequencing reactions based on rolling circle amplification (RCA) in preserved tumor slides. The device contains two compact laser diodes for dual-color fluorescence detection and a white LED for brightfield imaging. Using synthetic or extracted DNA, we demonstrated a detection limit of 1fM target DNA sequence and a sequence depth of 1:1000 (mutant-to-wild type ratio). In patient tumor samples, we demonstrated 100% concordance to clinical NGS (next-generation sequencing) analysis for specific detection of KRAS point mutation using our smartphone-based microscope.


An applicable approach for extracting human heart rate and oxygen saturation during physical movements using a multi-wavelength illumination optoelectronic sensor system
Paper 10486-27

Author(s):  Samah, Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session 6: NIRS Oximetry Performance Standardization
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:20 AM

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A flexible reflectance multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) able to measure heart rate and oxygen saturation during physical movements has been developed. Green and orange illuminations were found to continue to provide stable signals during physical activity, with both wavelength illuminatiuons exhibiting measurable differences in the absorptions of deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, making them particularly suited to the extraction of oxygen saturation values. To compensate for motion artifacts, a three-axis accelerometer was used to measure subjects’ movements and provide estimates of their effects on OEPS signals. Primary experimental results show no significant difference between the measurements obtained from commercial devices and OEPS.


Translation of Raman spectroscopy for cell identification into clinical laboratories
Paper 10490-18

Author(s):  Christoph, Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien e.V. (Germany), et al.
Conference 10490: Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy 2018: Advances in Research and Industry
Session 4: Further Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:40 AM

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Raman spectroscopy has been successfully applied in the research laboratories to identify single cells. Aims of our recent work were to apply Raman-based techniques for distinction of leukocytes from tumor cells and translate these approaches into clinical laboratories. Our recent progress in this field will be presented. Microhole arrays in cartridges and microfluidic chips were developed for improved cell sample handling. Surface enhanced Raman scattering was applied to reduce the exposure time for high content analysis. A graphical user interface for simplified instrument control and a database for automatic storage of all experimental were developed.


Plasmon-enhanced Raman detection of neuropathogenic proteins
Paper 10488-30

Author(s):  Paolo, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "Nello Carrara" (Italy), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 8: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools VII
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:00 PM

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We present several strategies recently implemented in our lab and based on the combination of plasmonic nanotools and plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies for label-free detection of pathogenic species involved in neurodegenerative diseases. These include: 1) development of disposable supports comprising 3D spots of assembled plasmonic nanostructures for rapid and cost-effective analysis of sample drops; 2) methods for quantitative analysis of trace amounts of molecules in physiological buffer; 3) ultradetection on the nanoscale of amyloid species and discrimination among toxic and non-toxic forms. Overall, these strategies offer potential for development of flexible and reliable sensing diagnostics of different molecular targets in the analytical and biomedical fields.


Raman spectroscopy towards intraoperative assessment of surgical margins in robotic assisted radical prostatectomy
Paper 10484-9

Author(s):  Michael, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 3: Robotics and Light Biopsies for Surgical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 1:50 PM

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Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Surgical excision of the whole prostate through Radical prostatectomy (RP) is an important standard of care for prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a promising technology for surgeons to assess surgical margins during RP insuring the extent of resected cancerous tissue is maximized. We present crucial steps towards clinical translation of RS using a da Vinci surgical robotics platform. In this work, we have gathered RS data from 20 freshly excised whole human prostates following RP and outfitted a da Vinci robot for upcoming in vivo RS measures.


Rigid endoscope for multimodal nonlinear endoscopy
Paper 10490-23

Author(s):  Tobias, Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien e.V. (Germany), et al.
Conference 10490: Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy 2018: Advances in Research and Industry
Session 5: Technical Advances I
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:50 PM

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A rigid endo-microscopic probe has been combined with a compact ultrafast fiber laser and a laserscanning microscope platform enabling surgical guidance during tumor surgery. The instrument uses label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging, specifically coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, to visualize morphology and chemical composition of tissue. The compact device of 2 mm diameter, 180 mm working distance and 250 µm field of view uses gradient index lenses as the optical key elements and all electronic and moving parts are located at the distal end of the probe. Real-time in vivo imaging of tissue with submicron spatial resolution is presented.


Automated intraretinal layer segmentation of optical coherence tomography images using graph-theoretical methods
Paper 10483-102

Author(s):  Priyanka, Univ. of Waterloo (Canada), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session Sun: Poster Session I: Technology
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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An automated intraretinal layer segmentation algorithm for SD-OCT images has been developed. The proposed graph-based algorithm is optimised for accurate delineation of seven retinal boundaries by finding the shortest path between nodes. This clinician-friendly algorithm enables user-initialization of the region-of-interest within an image slice and effectively computes thicknesses of the segmented layers. A sequential description of the methodology along with resulting segmented images from foveal as well as non-foveal slices will be discussed. This new algorithm being concurrently fast (mean segmentation time: 0.93seconds for each image) and reliable, will be highly effective in intraretinal layer segmentation for clinical OCT imaging.


A novel multi-wavelength procedure for blood pressure estimation using opto-physiological sensor at peripheral arteries and capillaries
Paper 10486-39

Author(s):  Francesco Scardulla, Univ. degli Studi di Palermo (Italy), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session Sun: Poster Session
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:30 PM

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In this study, by means of a multi-wavelength illumination opto-electronic patch sensor (MOEPS), the effectiveness of a new method was assessed to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) through the changes in the morphology of pulsatile waveforms extracted from MOEPS signals. SBP was worked out by changing the pressure exerted on an inflatable cuff and the acquisitions were performed both with gold standard and MOEPS on subjects from a multiethnic cohort using four wavelength illuminationson three different measuring sites. This study shows a clear reliability and a good correlation between the variation of the pressure and the corresponding MOEPS signals.


Cell-based quantification of biomarkers from an ultra-fast microfluidic immunofluorescent staining: application to human breast cancer cell lines
Paper 10491-35

Author(s):  Daniel, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), et al.
Conference 10491: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XVI
Session 8: Optofluidics I
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 11:30 AM

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Immunohistochemistry is one of the main techniques currently used in the clinics for biomarker characterization, diagnosis and therapeutic targeting. It consists in colorimetric labeling with specific antibodies followed by microscopy analysis. Well-known drawbacks of such protocols are their limited accuracy and precision, which prevent the clinicians from having quantitative and robust results. We combined rapid microfluidic immunofluorescent staining with efficient image-based cell segmentation to increase the robustness of both experimental and analytical protocols. As a case study, we applied our method to human breast cancer cell lines, and found a reproducible and well-defined separation for positive and negative controls.


Vena cava filters and thrombolytic therapeutic monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deep vein thrombosis
Paper 10484-29

Author(s):  Boan, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 8: NIR/VIS Spectroscopic Techniques for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 3:40 PM

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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious disease characterized by an increased incidence. Here we attempt to contrast the patients of untreated, vena cava filter implantation and thrombolytic treatment.It was found that Δ[Hb] (deoxy-hemoglobins) fluctuates and even increases in DVT. After vena cava filter implantation, Δ[Hb] increases first, then decreases. However it emerges the rising trend and converge to the curves of normal subjects in thrombolytic treatment. The Δ[HbO2] (oxy- hemoglobins) emerges opposite trend in most paradigms. The findings reveals the potential of fNIRS for monitoring DVT and therapeutic effect evaluation of thrombolytic and vena cava filters.


Design and performance test of NIRS-based spinal cord lesion detector
Paper 10484-31

Author(s):  Nanxi, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 8: NIR/VIS Spectroscopic Techniques for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 4:20 PM

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we have designed a small monitor based on NIRs technology for noninvasive monitoring for spine cord lesions. In terms of hardware, OPT101 is selected as the light source, and the appropriate probe distribution structure is selected according to the simulation result of MCVM. At the same time, the powerful ARM controller is selected as our system’s central processing chip for the circuit design, and the data is transmitted by serial port to the host computer for post processing. Moreover, the host computer is programmed by QT software and data curve is showed in the interface in the process of data transmission. Finally, after verifying the stability, response consistency and sensitivity of the instrument system, we have used the system for clinical testing.


Monte Carlo simulation of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult head models with hair follicles
Paper 10484-38

Author(s):  Boan, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 10: Imaging: Theory and Simulations
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 11:20 AM

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Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure brain activation, which are clinically important. Monte Carlo simulation applied to the near infrared light propagation model in biological tissue, and has the function of predicting diffusion and brain activation. Here, we use Monte Carlo simulation to examine light transmission, absorption, spatial sensitivity distribution (SSD) and brain activation judgement in the presence or absence of the hair follicles. We found that the number of photons transmitted under the scalp decreases dramatically as the density of hair follicles increases. Meanwhile, the light distribution and brain activation have a stable change. The findings indicated hair follicles make influence of NIRS in light distribution and brain activation judgement.


Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm
Paper 10489-22

Author(s):  Zebin, Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 4: Imaging Instrumentation and Designs
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 5:50 PM

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Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of cancer and other immune or genetic disease. However, it always causes cytokine storm. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).


Intrinsic fluorescence based in-vivo detection of cervical precancer with hand held prototype device
Paper 10489-51

Author(s):  Asima, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session Tues: Poster Session
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 6:00 PM

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A prototype device (hand held probe) designed and fabricated in the lab has been tested for cervical precancer detection using intrinsic fluorescence obtained from polarized fluorescence and polarized scattering. Normal biopsy samples can be discriminated from different stages of cervical pre-cancers (CIN I \& CIN II) (CIN: cervical intraepithelial neoplastic) with high sensitivity and specificity. Based on these promising ex-vivo results, in-vivo testing on patients has been initiated in the hospital with the prototype device. This device may be a useful screening tool for in-vivo cervical precancer, using polarized fluorescence.


Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of the oral cavity with enhanced contrast
Paper 10483-68

Author(s):  Julia, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 10: Polarization
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 11:45 AM

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In this study, polarization sensitive OCT (PS OCT) with phase sensitive recording is used for imaging dental and mucosal tissues in the human oral cavity in vivo. The imaging of the polarization parameters retardation, optic axis orientation and depolarization enables a maximum tissue specific contrast for the detailed physical interpretation of oral hard and soft tissues. For the proof-of-principle, imaging of composite restorations and mineralization defects at premolars as well as gingival, lingual and labial oral mucosa under in vivo conditions was performed. The contrast-enhanced results of the investigated oral tissues are evaluated by the comparison with intensity based OCT.


Stimulated Raman instant histology applied to gastro-intestinal cancer detection
Paper 10489-35

Author(s):  Barbara, Institut Fresnel (France), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 7: Spectroscopic Methods I
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 2:30 PM

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We present advances in multiphoton and coherent Raman imaging for gastrointestinal cancer detection. We use stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) combined with second harmonic generation (SHG) to reveal cell nuclei, cytoplasm and collagen simultaneously in human tissues. Cell nuclei, cytoplasm and extra cellular matrix can be visualized in real time with image quality similar to histology.


Near infrared spectroscopy of human muscles
Paper 10489-39

Author(s):  Giuseppe, Sapienza Univ. di Roma (Italy), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 8: Spectroscopic Methods II
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 4:40 PM

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Optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool in many applications. Being rapid, non-invasive and not destructive it is a promising technique for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in medicine. Muscles spectra in the SWIR regions (350-2500) nm were acquired. After pre-processing, PCA was applied and a PLS-DA was utilized to implement discrimination/prediction models. 22 healthy subjects were studied, by acquiring SWIR spectra from the upper limb muscles. Spectroscopy was performed in fixed limb postures (elbow angle approximately 90°). We found that optical spectroscopy can be applied to study human tissues in vivo allowing to distinguish flexors from extensors.


Micro-engineering a novel platform to reconstruct physiology and functionality of the human brain microvasculature in vitro
Paper 10491-23

Author(s):  Yasaman, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States), et al.
Conference 10491: Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XVI
Session 5: Applications II
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 3:00 PM

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We introduce a new fabrication method for mimicking 3D multi-layered brain vasculature in vitro. Our technique involves a sequence of hydrogel casting and thermal gelation steps using a coaxial micromolding platform. The method supports the culture of multiple cell types including human astrocytes, pericytes, and brain endothelial cells. The platform eliminates rigid polymeric surfaces from the cell surroundings and thus provides a physiologically relevant mechanical microenvironment. Our model offers spatially heterogeneous elastic moduli and enables co-culturing of multiple types and densities of cells. The technique could be applied to fundamental studies of the blood-brain barrier and to pharmaceutical development.


Characterisation of a novel transmission Raman spectroscopy platform for non-invasive detection of breast micro-calcifications
Paper 10490-13

Author(s):  Adrian G. , Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10490: Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy 2018: Advances in Research and Industry
Session 3: Women's Health
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 9:30 AM

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The aim of this research was to develop a Transmission Raman Spectroscopy (TRS) platform to probe non-invasively the chemical specific composition of inorganic chemicals buried deep in biological samples. The approach could be beneficial to chemical identification of the breast calcifications detected during mammographic screening and not available from X-ray imaging. The chemical composition of a breast calcification reflects the pathology of the surrounding tissue, malignant or benign. Here we present, for the first time, a design of a deep Raman instrument and demonstrate its capability to detect calcium hydroxyapatite at depths of around 40 mm in phantom tissue.


A multifunctional endoscope for imaging, fluid delivery and fluid extraction
Paper 10488-29

Author(s):  James M. , Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom), et al.
Conference 10488: Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII
Session 7: Sensors Detectors and Treatment Tools VI
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 11:30 AM

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We present a multifunctional endoscope capable of imaging, fluid delivery and fluid sampling in the alveolar space. The endoscope consists of an imaging fibre bundle fabricated from cost effective optical fibre preforms and two fluid channels for delivery and extraction. We demonstrate the use of our endoscope for alveolar imaging in ex-vivo human lungs.


Automated pre-processing and multivariate vibrational spectra analysis software for rapid results in clinical settings
Paper 10489-9

Author(s):  Tanmoy T. , Univ. do Vale do Paraíba (Brazil), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 2: Towards Mid-Infrared Optical Biopsy II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 11:35 AM

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Vibrational spectroscopy has shown enormous potential in disease diagnosis. In the next step, large-scale multi-center studies need to be undertaken for efficient translation; However, it will result in enormous amount of data, posing the need for analytical methods, including user-friendly software to process data and obtain results in real time. This study reports a MATLAB based script that can automatically import, preprocess and analyse data with a single click to provide results for a dataset of 300 spectra within 0.01 s. Such a software will be vital to obtain rapid results when the spectroscopy-based tools get translated into clinics.


Smartphone confocal microscopy of human skin in vivo
Paper 10485-3

Author(s):  Esther E. , Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10485: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV
Session 1: Smartphone Based Optical Instruments
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 9:20 AM

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We present a low-cost smartphone confocal microscopy device that can visualize cellular details of human skin in vivo. The smartphone confocal microscope uses all passive confocal optics composed of an inexpensive LED, slit apertures, and diffraction gratings. The smartphone confocal microscope achieved lateral resolution of 1 µm and axial resolution of 5 µm. In vivo confocal images of human skin obtained in Uganda visualized characteristic cellular features, including keratinocytes, melanocytes, and dermal papillae.


Image processing and machine learning techniques to automate diagnosis of Lugol's iodine cervigrams for a low-cost point-of-care digital colposcope
Paper 10485-7

Author(s):  Mercy N. , Duke Univ (United States), et al.
Conference 10485: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV
Session 2: Machine Learning in Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 11:20 AM

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Visual inspection with Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) is recommended for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. Unfortunately, VILI suffers from subjectivity and inter-observer discordance, which could lead to inaccurate diagnosis and adverse outcomes for the patient. We have developed an image processing algorithm using machine learning techniques to extract diagnostically useful information from cervix images (cervigrams) with Lugol’s Iodine contrast towards automated diagnosis. Initial training and testing of the algorithm on 134 cervigrams demonstrates diagnostic accuracy on par with expert physicians, thus enabling expert colposcopy in low resource settings.


Endoscopic hyperspectral imaging: light guide optimization for spectral light source
Paper 10487-16

Author(s):  Craig M. , Univ. of South Alabama (United States), et al.
Conference 10487: Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII
Session 3: Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Saturday, January 27, 2018, 3:10 PM

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Hyperspectral imaging is a developing application in the medical field, allowing viewable definition of a substrate’s specific molecular composition. This technique is the forerunner for a new imaging modality in endoscopy. Colorectal cancer is the 3rd leading in severity due to high miss rate of flat lesions. A 16 high-powered LED working prototype light source is in testing. The solid light guide used in the system has a high transmission loss (~99%) prohibiting video rate and imaging. We report on experimental and theoretical optimization of the lightpipe using raytrace modeling to increase the optical output.


Visible-light optical coherence tomography: seeing retinal functions and beyond
Paper 10486-20

Author(s):  Hao F. , Northwestern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10486: Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies XI
Session 5: OCT Imaging Systems
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 8:10 AM

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Visible-light OCT (Vis-OCT) is a functional OCT imaging technique that take advantage of improved tissue contrast within the visible-light spectral range. It is currently the only OCT technology capable of combining both high-resolution structural imaging (~ 1 µm) with precise measurements of metabolic activity, such as retinal oxygen saturation and retinal blood flow. Using dual band scanning with visible light and NIR light wavelengths, Vis-OCT represents a next generation functional OCT tool with the potential to fundamentally change how ophthalmologist use OCT in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of numerous major ocular disorders.


Development and characterization of a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter for the determination of cervical cancer risk in the low resource setting
Paper 10485-33

Author(s):  Jessica C. , Florida International Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10485: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV
Session 7: Emerging Technologies
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:50 PM

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Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, with an estimated half a million new cases and 260,000 deaths each year. Developing countries suffer about 84% of the global burden of disease and 80% of the mortality due to a lack of effective screening programs. Low-cost optical technologies are being proposed as an alternative to the costly Papanicolaou test to the determination of cancer risk. Here we illustrate a low-cost Mueller Matrix Imaging (MMI) system based on a snapshot approach with Savart plates. A full set of sixteen images necessary to reconstruct the Mueller Matrix can be obtained in less than one second. The parameter of retardation has been shown to prove effective diagnostic of CIN 2 and CIN 3 cervical cancer.


An oxygen-sensing phosphorescent liquid bandage for post-operative flap monitoring
Paper 10484-13

Author(s):  Haley L. , Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 4: Luminescence Methods for Clinical Applications
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 3:40 PM

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Oxygenation is critical in the assessment of wound healing and graft monitoring; however, currently used techniques either provide indirect information or are cumbersome. We demonstrate how a phosphorescent liquid bandage, when painted on the flap skin paddle of women undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy, can be used to visualize tissue oxygenation using a simple commercial DSLR camera. Photographs of the bandage were acquired for 48 hours post-operatively, and preliminary results show that the relative phosphorescence intensity reported by the liquid bandage inversely correlates with the StO2 values, as expected, while being substantially less obtrusive and enabling visualization of the flap beneath.


Determination of cervical cancer risk with a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter in Mysore India
Paper 10485-38

Author(s):  Jessica C. , Florida International Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10485: Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV
Session 8: Computational Imaging and Sensing
Date and Time: Sunday, January 28, 2018, 5:00 PM

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Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Developing countries bear about 84% of the global burden of the disease. Cytology-based screening is both expensive and difficult to implement in lower income countries. Mueller Matrix imaging (MMI) is capable of up to 83% sensitivity and specificity in separating Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia stages. We have developed a low cost portable Mueller Matrix imaging colposcope that can be deployed in a low resource setting. The device was used in the evaluation of cervical cancer risk in a pilot study of twenty-two volunteers in Mysore, India.


Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR)
Paper 10483-5

Author(s):  Kelsey C. , Vanderbilt Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 1: Ophthalmic New Technology I
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 9:30 AM

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We present handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR) for multimodality en face and cross-sectional imaging. We implemented a custom scan lens using a novel double-pass geometry, which halves the size of 4-f optical relays and allowed us to reduce the footprint of our SECTR scan-head by a factor of >2.7x (volume) over our previous design. In vivo human ophthalmic images in the anterior and posterior eye were acquired at 350 frames-per-second using a 400 kHz swept-source engine. Handheld SECTR may benefit point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostics in patients who are unable to be imaged on conventional slit-lamp based systems.


Intraoperative imaging device for real-time identification of critical structures during surgery
Paper 10484-18

Author(s):  Shona D. , ChemImage Corp. (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 5: Surgical Guidance Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 9:30 AM

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Visualization and identification of critical structures such as blood vessels and tumor margins during surgery can often be difficult. We are developing an intraoperative device which will provide surgeons with the ability to visualize specified anatomic structures in real-time and without the use of labels (i.e. reagents). This imaging tool employs Molecular Chemical Imaging (MCI), a technology combining molecular spectroscopy and digital imaging for non-invasive, non-contact and reagentless evaluation of human tissues. In this paper, we will present results demonstrating the capabilities and performance of a proof-of-concept intraoperative MCI surgical device.


Evaluating surgical treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) with a portable near-infrared spectroscopic system
Paper 10484-19

Author(s):  Christopher J. , Columbia Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 5: Surgical Guidance Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 9:50 AM

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A portable diffuse optical spectroscopic device has been developed to monitor disease progression in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. To evaluate the device, a clinical study monitoring PAD before and up to one year after surgical intervention has been employed. Results from this on-going longitudinal study are presented.


Optimizing signal output: effects of viscoelasticity and difference frequency on vibroacoustic radiation of tissue-mimicking phantoms
Paper 10484-21

Author(s):  Nikan K. , Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States), et al.
Conference 10484: Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI
Session 6: Acoustics and Ultrasound Technologies
Date and Time: Monday, January 29, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Vibroacoustography (VA) is an imaging technology that utilizes the acoustic response of tissues to a localized, low frequency radiation force to generate a spatially resolved, high contrast image. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of VA for tissue and margin delineation in cancer ablation surgeries. In order to better characterize the tissue composition, an assessment of the VA amplitude produced with varying tissue mimicking phantoms was performed and elastic moduli recorded.


Circulating tumor cells enrichment and phenotyping by combining dielectrophoresis and metasurface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy
Paper 10489-2

Author(s):  Gennady B. , Cornell Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 1: Towards Mid-Infrared Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 8:25 AM

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There is an urgent need to develop reliable and accurate methods of detection and identification of low concentrations of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The main challenges are their low abundance and heterogeneity. The latter translates into a lack of reliable cell marker and impedes antibody-based capture and analysis. Dielectrophoresis can attract CTCs to and repel the leucocytes from an AC electrode. At the same time, metasurface enhanced infrared spectroscopy can be used for phenotyping the captured CTCs. We present the first experimental demonstration of the combined electrode/metasurface that captures the cells and carries out spectroscopic label-free cytopathology.


Metasurface enhanced infrared reflection spectroscopy: a new tool for differentiating between normal and cancerous cells
Paper 10489-5

Author(s):  Gennady B. , The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 1: Towards Mid-Infrared Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 9:40 AM

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All-optical approaches to distinguishing between live normal and cancerous cells can have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. The examples include intraoperative detection of tumor margins and rapid development of new personalized therapies. Of particular interest is the mid-IR spectroscopic cytology approach, where vibrational fingerprints of the cells are used for cell phenotyping. We demonstrate that, by attaching cultured cells to plasmonic metasurfaces fabricated on top of an IR-transparent substrate, we can spectroscopically differentiate between normal and cancerous colon cell lines. Treatment outcomes from different chemotherapy cocktails on cat sarcoma cells will also be shown to be spectroscopically distinguishable.


Resolution and throughput optimized intraoperative spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (iSECTR) for multimodal imaging during ophthalmic microsurgery
Paper 10483-41

Author(s):  Joseph D. , Vanderbilt Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 7: Ophthalmic New Technology II
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 1:30 PM

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Limited visualization of semi-transparent structures in the eye remains a critical barrier to improving clinical outcomes and developing novel surgical techniques. While increases in imaging speed has enabled intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) imaging of surgical dynamics, several critical barriers to clinical adoption remain. Our previous development of microscope-integrated multimodal imaging technologies to address these limitations lacked the resolution and optical throughput for in vivo retinal imaging. Here, we present an optimized intraoperative spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (iSECTR) system. Using this system, we demonstrate in vivo multimodal ophthalmic imaging through a surgical microscope.


Colorectal cancer detection by hyperspectral imaging using fluorescence excitation scanning
Paper 10489-19

Author(s):  Silas J. , Univ. of South Alabama (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 4: Imaging Instrumentation and Designs
Date and Time: Tuesday, January 30, 2018, 4:50 PM

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Hyperspectral imaging technologies have shown great promise for biomedical applications. Unfortunately, hyperspectral imaging technologies have been slow to translate to clinical devices – likely due to increased cost and complexity of the technology as well as long acquisition times often required to sample a spectral image. We report feasibility results from using a new hyperspectral imaging approach – excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging – to screen pairs of fresh tumoral and nontumoral colorectal tissues. Initial data indicate that this approach may be a viable detection approach, but that larger patient sample sizes need to be evaluated and the effects of inter-patient variability studied.


Stain-free slide-free histopathology using supercontinuum for optical biopsy
Paper 10489-25

Author(s):  Stephen A. , Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 5: Applications of Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 8:40 AM

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Widely-coherent fiber supercontinuum generation with tailored and programmable pulse-shaping has enabled fast stain-free slide-free in vivo histopathology of animal tumor models in the laboratory, as well as real-time intraoperative imaging of freshly resected human breast tissue specimens to discover a wide variety of image-based cancer biomarkers. A clear translational path toward multimodal multiphoton imaging during surgery, during needle-biopsy procedures, and in the pathology laboratory can be envisioned to help surgeons and pathologists improve upon the diagnosis and management of cancer patients.


New advances in RCM-OCT imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection and therapy guidance
Paper 10489-27

Author(s):  Nicusor V. , Physical Sciences Inc. (United States), et al.
Conference 10489: Optical Biopsy XVI: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Session 5: Applications of Optical Biopsy I
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 9:30 AM

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In this paper we report new advances in the development of a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT)/ reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) probe, which now enables the simultaneous mosaic acquisitions of RCM and OCT images at improved resolution and imaging speed. The rapid mosaic imaging allows for rapid investigation of large areas of the skin and thus for precise delineation of lateral and deep margins of non-melanoma skin cancers. This capability improves clinician's ability for both selecting the appropriate therapy and determining laser parameters when laser ablation is selected as the most suitable therapy approach.


A technique for fully resolving the optic axis in PS-OCT and its use in assessing airway smooth muscle function
Paper 10483-65

Author(s):  David C. , Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 10: Polarization
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 11:00 AM

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Understanding and observing airway smooth muscle function (ASM) is fundamental to forming a complete understanding of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. As we have previously demonstrated, the ability to assess ASM using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is made possible when the partially-resolved optic axis (OA) of the sample is incorporated into the analysis. In this presentation we will demonstrate a novel approach for obtaining fully-resolved sample OA data in endoscopic PS-OCT datasets. Using fully-resolved OA data we demonstrate how this information can be used to further enhance our ability to assess ASM function in vivo.


Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography
Paper 10483-71

Author(s):  Hao F. , Northwestern Univ. (United States), et al.
Conference 10483: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXII
Session 11: Visible Light OCT
Date and Time: Wednesday, January 31, 2018, 2:00 PM

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We investigated measuring oxygen saturation (sO2) in the retinal circulation of healthy volunteers using visible light optical coherence tomography. To improve sO2 measurement accuracy, we developed a statistical model for OCT signal extraction and used it to retrieve true attenuation spectrum of blood immersed in a moderate amount of random noise. Using our model, we were able to quantify sO2 with minimal light exposure, relieving the safety and comfort concern of visible light illumination in humans. We demonstrated the oxygenation differences between arteries and veins close to the optic nerve head and showed that statistical fitting reduced measurement error.


Important Dates

Abstracts Due
17 July 2017

Author Notification
25 September 2017

Manuscripts Due
See Individual Conferences


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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Journal of Biomedical OpticsPublishes peer-reviewed papers that utilize modern optical technology for improved health care and biomedical research.