San Jose (California) Convention Center and San Jose Marriott
For 37 years, SPIE Advanced Lithography has brought together the lithography community to address challenges presented in fabricating next-generation integrated circuits.
See what you missed in 2013 or
revisit the conference week
with these reports, photos, and
multimedia from technical
sessions and special events.
Photo and video gallery
Thursday 28 February
Wednesday 27 February
Tuesday 26 February
Monday 25 February
Thursday 28 February
An all-around success!
As suitcases appeared in the hallways and conferences began to conclude on Thursday, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2013 was assessed as a success both in quality of papers and in numbers of participants. Attendance was 2,230 for the week, and significant progress reports were given on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, directed self-assembly (DSA), metrology, and other topics.
The event ran 24-28 February in San Jose, and included technical conferences, industry panels, professional development courses, and an exhibition.
|From left, symposium chair
Harry Levinson and symposium
co-chair Mircea Dusa.
"There was much discussion about the continuation of Moore's Law, both in terms of the technical ability to shrink as well as the cost," said symposium chair Harry Levinson (GlobalFoundries). "Achievement of a significant milestone for EUV sources that should enable more rapid progress in EUV lithography was reported, as was the potential for a EUV pellicle -- a welcomed prospect. And EUV extension to higher resolution, where we face many challenges, was the subject of many papers."
Symposium co-chair Mircea Dusa (ASML US) concurred, saying that "In addition to the good news of EUV source power achievements, there were first signs of considerations for EUV adoption in high volume, coming from infrastructure development such as EUV mask actinic inspection, EUV mask OPC, and EUV lithography integration in a full CMOS flow with yield-defectivity investigations."
With well-attended sessions, DSA continued to be a subject of high interest. "What caught my attention in DSA was the modeling developments combined with applicability on real circuits: a major milestone for future potential adoption," Dusa said.
"Many presenters discussed the need to consider chip-design layout concurrently with lithographic solutions," Levinson said. "This was not the only type of technical overlap -- there were many joint sessions this year."
He noted that the large audiences in the Etch conference, in its second year, proved it to be more than a "one-hit wonder."
Dusa said that the largest number of papers and high attendance of the Metrology and Process Control conference demonstrated "good alignment" with technical community interest in process control.
Cover to cover: new books!
With seven new SPIE Press books of interest to lithographers, the SPIE Bookstore was a busy place this week. Above at right, author Uzodinma Okoroanyanwu (GlobalFoundries) signs a copy of "Chemistry and Lithography" for a colleague. Featured new titles for the sector were:
- "Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry," David A. Krohn
- "Field Guide to Lens Design," Julie Bentley and Craig Olson
- "Field Guide to Optomechanical Design and Analysis," Katie Schwertz and Jim Burge
- "Integrated Optomechanical Analysis, Second Edition," Keith B. Doyle, Victor L. Genberg, and Gregory J. Michels
- "Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition," Hong Xiao
- "Maxwell's Equations of Electrodynamics: An Explanation," David W. Ball
- "Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, Third Edition," John C. Stover
Wednesday 27 February
Going strong at midweek
Conferences continued to draw large and even overflow crowds for some sessions, including the opening keynote session in Design for Manufacturability (DFM) through Design-Process (above). After a look into the future of lithography and its impact on design by Chris Mack (lithoguru.com), Jason Cain of Advanced Micro Devices offered the fabless perspective and Luigi Capodieci of GlobalFoundries offered the foundry perspective; audience members pictured here direct their questions to Capodieci.
The exhibition continued to draw as well on the second of its two-day run, as suppliers and developers shared their latest products, designs, and systems with booth visitors. See more photos in the event photo gallery.
Poster papers: filling the hall one more time
Like its counterpart on Tuesday, the second poster session of the week drew approximately 1,000 attendees to an evening reception. The Wednesday event featured papers from conferences on Metrology, Resist Materials and Processing, and Etch Technology, and was hosted by AZ Electronic Materials and TOK America. See more photos in the event photo gallery.
Metrology panel: Business case for disruptive technology
Moderators Alok Vaid (GlobalFoundries), Ben Bunday (Sematech), and Matt Sendelbach (Nova Measuring Instruments) invited Wednesday evening's panelists to analyze three key disruptive solutions identified as potential next-generation metrology and inspection technologies. The panel focused on CD-SAXS, multi-ebeam-based inspection, and He-ion imaging, in their discussion on "Making a Business Case for Disruptive Metrology Technologies: What Should We Invest In?".
Continuing decrease in device dimensions combined with complex disruptive materials and 3D architectures have placed increasing demands on metrology tools, moderators noted. Several innovative solutions have been implemented in the past to alleviate these challenges, but most of them have been incremental rather than revolutionary improvements. While some revolutionary and disruptive measurement techniques have been in the limelight for around a decade, apparent inertia has prevented their being adopted.
Panelists included Mingwei Li (KLA-Tencor), David Lam (Multibeam Corp.), Yuichiro Yamazaki (Toshiba Corp.), Chris Talbot (Applied Materials), Michael Grumski (Intel Corp.), Bipin Singh (Radiation Monitoring Devices), Eric Solecky (IBM Corp.), John Allgair (GlobalFoundries), Asao Nakano (Rigaku Corp.), and Joseph Kline (NIST).
Tuesday 26 February
New results AND real progress
The energy on the exhibition floor at opening Tuesday morning reflected the energy in the conference rooms: a very positive sense of real progress toward delivery beyond research in new technical alternatives such as directed self-assembly or EUV -- and more announcements are expected through the week.
Among developments being reported, progress in DSA is going well from the perspective of IMEC's Kurt Ronse, who said he sees a lot of momentum and very positive progress in current research. IMEC is also presenting several papers at the new etch conference, among others. Ronse said adding the topic was a good move for Advanced Lithography, as "these days, it's not all about lithography only."
Gentleman scientist and Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (JM3) Editor Chris Mack is blogging on Advanced Lithography throughout the week; see links below to his posts and other news coverage.
Booths were busy at the start of the two-day exhibition, as visitors checked out the latest lithography devices, tools, and systems -- see more photos from the exhibition in the event photo gallery.
DSA panel: 'Great art, but great chips?'
A well-attended evening panel discussion on the challenges facing Directed Self Assembly (DSA) produced lively discussion on the future of DSA and what must be overcome for chip makers and designers to accept its viability. The panel also heard strong encouragement from the audience for developers to define a clear path for moving the technology forward.
Moderators Joy Chang of IBM and Will Tong of KLA-Tencor introduced the panel and gave an overview of DSA and its benefits and challenges; panelists, who represented various points in the supply chain, agreed that the challenges facing DSA are many.
For at least some technologies, panelists agreed, a goal of 2018 as an insertion point is both attainable and likely. A show of hands revealing that about half the audience works in DSA led to discussion of defect detectability and the development cost of metrology tools.
A question to the panel about the difference between investing in the necessary tools for DSA's success and investing in power sources for EUV drew one of the biggest laughs of the animated session -- and provided one of several indicators of a DSA preference on the part of many in the audience.
Panelists were Luigi Capodieci (GlobalFoundries), Lars Liebmann (IBM Corp.), Yan Borodovsky (Intel Corp.), Christopher Bencher (Applied Materials), Juan Rey (Mentor Graphics), and Shinichi Ito of Toshiba Corp.
Billed as the "Super Panel," the evening's second discussion explored "The future of lithography: Back to single patterning? Or the rise of DSA/multiple patterning?" The event was sponsored by chairs of conferences on Alternative Technologies, DFM, EUV, Optical Metrology, and Resists.
Panelists included Ralph Dammel (AZ Electronic Materials), Sam Sivakumar (Intel Corp.), Moshe Preil (GlobalFoundries), Kafai Lai (IBM Corp.), Hans Loeschner (IMS Nanofabrication), and Mark Melliar-Smith (Molecular Imprints).
A hall full of poster papers
Papers from conferences on EUV, Alternative Technologies, Metrology, Resists/Materials were featured in the first of the week's two poster receptions. The reception was sponsored by Tokyo Electron. See more photos in the event photo gallery.
'Big, bad glass' ahead at Photomask
The SPIE Photomask Program Committee met here this week to discuss planning for this September's event in Monterey, California. It was announced that this year's keynote speaker will be Michael Mayberry from Intel, who started there in 1984 as a process integration engineer, and after many successful positions, is now Corporate Vice President of the Technology and Manufacturing Group and Director of Components Research at Intel. Also discussed was this year's panel discussion on "Big Bad Glass," where users, tool builders, and mask builders will debate the transition to 450mm wafers and how this may enable EUV, as well as the impact it could have on the industry.
Monday 25 February
The Advanced Lithography community returned to the San Jose Convention Center for the 37th iteration of the annual event. Strong early registration was expected to play out in total attendance by week's end at a level similar to last year's event.
Following a welcome from symposium chair Harry Levinson (GlobalFoundries) and symposium co-chair Mircea Dusa (ASML), the first order of business was recognition for outstanding contributions to the field and to the community.
SPIE President William Arnold (ASML), at left above, presented David Markle (Periodic Structures) with the 2013 SPIE Frits Zernike Award for Microlithography. The Zernike award is given annually to recognize outstanding accomplishments in microlithographic technology, especially those furthering the development of semiconductor lithographic imaging solutions. Arnold noted that Markle's award recognizes the pivotal role he played in the development of numerous lithography tools, including the Perkin-Elmer Micralign and Micrascan tools, and the Ultratech Stepper.
Arnold and Symposium Chair Harry Levinson (GlobalFoundries) also recognized five of 69 newly promoted SPIE Fellows for 2013. Among those honored for their contributions to the Advanced Lithography community and the annual SPIE-sponsored event were Yan Borodovsky (Intel Corp.), Alain Diebold (University at Albany, New York), Kafai Lai (IBM Corp.), Bryan Rice (Sematech North), and Martin Richardson (CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida). (See photos in the event photo gallery.)
The technical program was launched with three plenary talks.
First with a historical overview was Bill Siegle, who presented several lessons learned over 50 years of lithography. Siegle retired from Advanced Micro Devices in 2005, and has served on the boards of SRC and Sematech as well as several public companies.
Siegle began with a photograph of a technician cutting ruby litho for 1X mask production from the early years of 1X contact printing in the 1960s and '70s. Because this was limited by contact masking, this early technology was plagued with defects, which led Siegle to his first lesson: (1) Beware the 1X mask!
This lesson was taken to heart by the industry, which saw the need to move to projection lithography and in the process gain the benefit of demagnification, just like the mask shop practices.
However, Siegle reported, IBM's 5xFLS project failed, leading to his second lesson learned: (2) When in trouble, check your assumptions!
Meanwhile, in 1973, Perkin-Elmer's MicraLign was introduced -- a 1X projection scanner that would buy some time for the industry, as it avoided the defects of contact printing. Steppers then made their way into production in the late '70s and '80s with GCA leading the way, and Nikon and Canon dominating the market by the late '80s. ASML also emerged in the mid '80s, a decade that Siegle called a surprising decade of cooperation, something uncharacteristic of that decade, but what he felt led to the unprecedented advances in the 1990s. Siegle detailed the many cooperations of the '80s: Japan's VLSI project, SRC, Sematech, and the DOD VHSIC program among them. This boom of cooperation led Siegle to his third lesson: (3) Sharing enables faster progress.
The 1990s, he reported, brought wavelength reductions, as chemically amplified resists and excimer lasers enabled the 248-nm systems that became mainstream in the mid '90s. The '80s and '90s also spawned the work that continues today on alternatives to traditional optical lithography, such as e-beam, x-ray lithography, and nano imprint.
Siegle used e-beam as an example for lesson four: (4) It's tough to beat the laws of physics; however, as he showed later on, tricks employed by the industry like OPC and illumination aperture shaping could be used to come close to beating Mother Nature.
X-ray lithography, while progressing nicely in the late '80s to '90s, were blown past by the advances made in traditional optical lithography, giving Siegle his fifth lesson: (5) Don't underestimate the extendability of existing technology.
And as Siegle described latest advances in EUV lithography, such as ASML's NXE3300, he cautioned that these machines still have yet to make their way into production, yielding his final lesson: (6) It's impossible to predict 10 years ahead.
View the multimedia presentation.
Howard Ko of Synopsys followed with a presentation that amplified Siegle's third rule about cooperation.
Cooperation, stated Ko, would speed progress in this industry. But while most collaborations have been one-to-one partnerships, Ko championed systemic cooperations that would incorporate foundries, fabs, and other players in the full development process.
With the wide array of end products, from camcorders to aviation and mobile devices to automobiles, the demand for data access is growing profoundly, and this demand is driving systemic complexity. Lithographic scaling to chase Moore's Law is also driving complexity. These factors are increasing time-to-market pressure; however, simultaneously, Ko said, functional verification costs are exploding and power is a growing problem, making the chip development costs increase. Mask complexity costs are also growing, and OPC file sizes are reaching the TB realm, so the pace of complexity is not decreasing.
Ko presented some of the ways industry has been trying to manage the complexity increases, including the use of silicon IP subsystems and prototyping to bring earlier software development. Ko then presented three examples of where systemic collaboration is needed: multiple patterning, FinFETs, and addressing the yield ramp.
View the multimedia presentation.
Patent law changes
Charles Szmanda, principal partner at the Patent Practice of Szmanda and Shelnut, spoke on technicalities of a differend kind, outlining changes in U.S. patent law that will go into effect in the middle of this month. He called the new law "a massive change," meant to improve the quality of patents, and offering both new challenges and opportunities.
The new law will bring U.S. practices more in law with other countries' patent laws, with the patent award determined on the basis of first-to-file rather than first-to-invent, Szmanda said. Noting that what the patent grants is "the right to say 'no'" to others wanting to use the invention, he illustrated the importance of developing a strategy for using the invention, publishing a description, and applying for patent.
"Publication is more important now than ever," Szmanda said, as it establishes a claim for being able to continue using the invention even if it is later patented by another entity. A publication strategy may be defensive or offensive, he said. The timing is important, but the particular publication is not. In the case of an important invention, a strategy might even include publishing in a more obscure journal, or filing a series of provisional patents, he said.
Keep notebooks and other records, Szmanda advised, and train scientists and engineers who will be working with the invention to do so as well.
View the multimedia presentation.
The plenary session (above) and conference rooms throughout the convention center drew the large audiences for which Advanced Lithography is known.
Below, Sam Sivakumar of Intel addresses a standing-room-only crowd in a talk on "EUV in HVM: prospects and challenges," in the EUV Lithography conference. EUV is among the week's hot topics, along with directed self-assembly (DSA), metrology for multiple patterning, imprint, e-beam direct write, and 450mm wafer technology.
Ask the panel
The first of several panels during the week discussed "Approaching the limits of 3D metrology: are there any solutions beyond 14nm?". Panelists (from left) were Joe Kline (NIST), Karey Holland (FEI), Jason Osborne (Bruker Nano), Alok Waid (GlobalFoundries), Larry Muray (Agilent), Ofer Adan (Applied Materials), Andrei Shchegrov (KLA-Tencor) and Adam Schafer (Intel). Moderators were Ben Bunday of Sematech and Bryan Barnes and Rick Silver of NIST.
Among points of discussion, panelists noted that the continued success of semiconductor scaling is not only dependent upon three-dimensional device integration but also upon new developments in dimensional metrology techniques to enable measurements of complex 3-D structures. Quantitative measurements of 5 nm defects, sub-10 nm critical dimensions and near atomic film thickness in FinFETs, trigates, and nanowire transistors demands significant innovation.
The panel of experts evaluated potential metrology solutions capable of breaking through imminent measurement resolution and imaging limits while achieving acceptable throughput. The panel discussed combined high resolution TEM and FIB, advanced optical methods, small angle x-ray scattering, and multibeam electron solutions and techniques such as 3-D SEM or AFM.to evaluate their potential in meeting the key metrology needs of this new sub-10 nm 3-D landscape.