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Proceedings Paper

Study of Titanium Diffusion in Lithium Niobate by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Three Dimensional Profiling
Author(s): Stephan Bar; Hilda Kanber; Martin Lee; Robert Buckley
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Paper Abstract

Titanium diffusion in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is the most prevalent fabrication method for form-ing optical waveguides in this substrate. Three dimensional profiles of the diffused Ti can be used to model diffusion constants of Ti in LiNb03 and to predict optical properties. We have studied Ti diffusion in LiNb03 by image depth profilling mode of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The novel application of SIMS to this substrate has enabled us to construct lateral cross sections at various depths as well as depth profiles. We varied the Ti thickness, Ti strip width, diffusion time and diffusion temperature to determine the diffused profile laterally and vertically. The SIMS depth profiles show that within the temperature range studied, the diffused profile depends strongly on the temperature with a weaker dependence on Ti thickness and diffusion time. Ti lateral cross sections at various depths indicate a concentra-tion dependent lateral diffusion constant. We calculated Ti diffusion constants and activation energies in the vertical dimension based on the SIMS data. The results of our study using this technique are applicable to integrated optics technology

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 February 1990
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 1186, Surface and Interface Analysis of Microelectronic Materials Processing and Growth, (5 February 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.963931
Show Author Affiliations
Stephan Bar, Hughes Aircraft Company (United States)
Hilda Kanber, Hughes Aircraft Company (United States)
Martin Lee, Hughes Aircraft Company (United States)
Robert Buckley, Hughes Aircraft Company (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1186:
Surface and Interface Analysis of Microelectronic Materials Processing and Growth
Leonard J. Brillson; Fred H. Pollak, Editor(s)

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