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Proceedings Paper

Characterization Of Titanium Diffusion During Fabrication Of LiNbO[sub]3[/sub] Optical Waveguides Using Analytical Electron Microscopy
Author(s): Michael A. McCoy; William E. Lee; Norman A. Sanford
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Paper Abstract

Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) has been used to characterize the microstructural evolution of thermally evaporated Ti films on single-crystal LiNbO3 substrates. The microstructural evolution exhibits three primary stages: Ti oxidation which is initially observed at 370°C and is essentially complete by ~500°C; formation of a two-phase microstructure of TiO2 and LiNb3O8 at ~800°C which grows epitaxially with respect to the LiNbO3 substrate; eventual diffusion of both phases occurs at 1000°C to leave only a Ti:LiNbO3 solid solution.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 February 1989
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 0994, Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, (9 February 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.960133
Show Author Affiliations
Michael A. McCoy, The Ohio State University (United States)
William E. Lee, The Ohio State University (United States)
Norman A. Sanford, Polaroid Corporation (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0994:
Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II
Glen M. McWright; Henry J. Wojtunik, Editor(s)

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