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Proceedings Paper

Wafer Flatness: An Overview Of Measurement Considerations And Equipment Correlation
Author(s): David C. Guidici
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Paper Abstract

The trend toward smaller device geometries to afford more die per wafer and the advances in photolithographic technology have resulted in the evergrowing use of projection printing systems which can routinely produce two micron lines. Image distortion has become critical and because it is difficult to compensate for a lack of flatness by either mechanical or optical means, wafer flatness has been afforded increasing importance as a silicon material parameter. This paper will offer an overview of the most typical wafer flatness test methods. It will demonstrate the importance of contamination considerations, show how flatness measurements are affected by vacuum chuck geometries, inches of mercury of clamping vacuum and review currently available equipment. Also, principles of operation are described and the scanning, and laser interferometric testing systems.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 July 1979
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 0174, Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography IV, (17 July 1979); doi: 10.1117/12.957188
Show Author Affiliations
David C. Guidici, Siltec Corporation (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0174:
Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography IV
James W. Dey, Editor(s)

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