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Proceedings Paper

Thin-Film Lens Technology Applied To Integrated Optical Spectrum Analyzers
Author(s): F. S. Hickernell; K. D. Ruehle
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Paper Abstract

Thin-film Luneburg lenses are an alternative to geodesic and grating type lenses for optical microelectronic devices requiring the collimation or focusing of a guided optical wave on a substrate. They have the advantage of circular symmetry and ease of fabrication by semiconductor-type sputtering processes. However, close tolerance levels must be maintained for control of refractive index, loss and scatter, profile and position. These issues have been addressed theoretically, with Luneburg-type lens structures, and experimentally, with films of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) on Ti-indiffused lithium niobate (Ti:LiNb03) planar waveguides. Films with loss levels of 0.5 dB/cm and low in-plane scatter were obtained by using reactive rf sputtering from a niobium target. Refractive indices near 2.29 at X = 0.633 Am can be repeatedly obtained with partial pressure-controlled and gas-analyzed sputter environment. Tolerance levels on refractive index have been theoretically determined and are compared to experimental values. Time-temperature experiments have determined aging and environmental ruggedness. The data indicate that high index thin-film lenses can be reproducibly fabricated that meet inte-grated, optical spectrum analyzer requirements.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 November 1987
PDF: 5 pages
Proc. SPIE 0477, Optical Technology for Microwave Applications I, (1 November 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.942630
Show Author Affiliations
F. S. Hickernell, Motorola Inc., Government Electronics Group (United States)
K. D. Ruehle, Motorola Inc., Government Electronics Group (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0477:
Optical Technology for Microwave Applications I
Shi-Kay Yao, Editor(s)

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