Proceedings PaperRecent Developments In Integrated Optics
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Progress in the development of low-loss, high bandwidth, single-mode fibres for optical communication purposes has led to increased effort over the past several years into the development of integrated optical devices and systems. Active devices such as modulators, switches, polarisation controllers have been developed in lithium niobate substrates while passive devices such as junctions, power splitters, wavelength demultiplexers have been formed in glass waveguides. Interconnection of devices to form integrated systems poses special problems and two lines of approach are possible: (i) hybrid systems where devices in different materials are linked by fibres or other coupling methods (ii) monolithic systems where all devices are fabricated in a single substrate material such as GaAs or InP. Increasing effort is being directed towards III-V semiconductors for fabrication of lasers, detectors, waveguides and opto-electronic devices with a view to the design of monolithic integrated optic and opto-electronic systems. In addition to the use of integrated optics in communication systems, important applications are now being found in fibre-optic sensor devices.