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Proceedings Paper

Modulation Spectroscopy As A Technique For Semiconductor Characterization
Author(s): Fred H. Pollak
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Paper Abstract

In modulation spectroscopy the optical spectra of a solid is modified in some manner by the periodic variation of the measurement condition. This modulated perturbation gives rise to sharp, differential-like optical features in the region of photon energies where optical excitation processes occur. Changes in reflectance or transmittance as small as 10-6 - 10-7 can be observed using phase-sensitive detection. The extensive fundamental experimental and theoretical work done in this area during the past 15 years has provided the necessary framework to develop the technique into a powerful tool for materials, device and processing characterization. In this paper we review a number of the applica-tions of modulation spectroscopy including determination of topographical variations in composition and carrier concentration, the nature of potentials and strains at hetero-junction interfaces, properties of the space-charge region including the semiconductor/ electrolyte interface, ion-implanted (including laser-annealed) semiconductors polariza-tion properties of ferroelectric materials, etc.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 April 1981
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 0276, Optical Characterization Techniques for Semiconductor Technology, (30 April 1981); doi: 10.1117/12.931700
Show Author Affiliations
Fred H. Pollak, Brooklyn College of CUNY (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0276:
Optical Characterization Techniques for Semiconductor Technology
David E. Aspnes; Roy F. Potter; Samuel S. So, Editor(s)

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