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Proceedings Paper

Radiometry rocks
Author(s): James E. Harvey
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Paper Abstract

Professor Bill Wolfe was an exceptional mentor for his graduate students, and he made a major contribution to the field of optical engineering by teaching the (largely ignored) principles of radiometry for over forty years. This paper describes an extension of Bill’s work on surface scatter behavior and the application of the BRDF to practical optical engineering problems. Most currently-available image analysis codes require the BRDF data as input in order to calculate the image degradation from residual optical fabrication errors. This BRDF data is difficult to measure and rarely available for short EUV wavelengths of interest. Due to a smooth-surface approximation, the classical Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theory cannot be used to calculate BRDFs from surface metrology data for even slightly rough surfaces. The classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory has a paraxial limitation and only provides a closed-form solution for Gaussian surfaces. Recognizing that surface scatter is a diffraction process, and by utilizing sound radiometric principles, we first developed a linear systems theory of non-paraxial scalar diffraction in which diffracted radiance is shift-invariant in direction cosine space. Since random rough surfaces are merely a superposition of sinusoidal phase gratings, it was a straightforward extension of this non-paraxial scalar diffraction theory to develop a unified surface scatter theory that is valid for moderately rough surfaces at arbitrary incident and scattered angles. Finally, the above two steps are combined to yield a linear systems approach to modeling image quality for systems suffering from a variety of image degradation mechanisms. A comparison of image quality predictions with experimental results taken from on-orbit Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) data is presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 October 2012
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 8483, Tribute to William Wolfe, 848305 (15 October 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.930557
Show Author Affiliations
James E. Harvey, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8483:
Tribute to William Wolfe
Mary G. Turner, Editor(s)

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