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Proceedings Paper

A Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode operating in Geiger mode at infrared wavelengths
Author(s): Mahdi Aminian; Amir Sammak; Lin Qi; Lis K. Nanver; Edoardo Charbon
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Paper Abstract

The Ge APD detectors are fabricated on Si by using a selective chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) epitaxial growth technique. A novel processing procedure was developed for the p+ Ge surface doping by a sequence of pure-Ga and pure-B depositions (PureGaB). Then, PVD Al is used to contact the n-type Si and the anode of p+n Ge diode. Arrays of diodes with different areas, as large as 40×40 μm2, were fabricated. The resulting p+n diodes have exceptionally good IV characteristics with ideality factor of ~1.1 and low saturation currents. The devices can be fabricated with a range of breakdown voltages from a minimum of 9 V to a maximum of 13 V. They can be operated both in proportional and in Geiger mode, and exhibit relatively low dark counts, as low as 10 kHz at 1 V excess reverse bias. The dark current at 1 V reverse bias are as low as 2 pA and 20 pA for a 2×2 μm2 and 2×20 μm2 devices, respectively. Higher IR-induced current than that induced by visible light confirms the sensitivity of Ge photodiodes at room temperature. The 25% peak in Id/Iref at an IR-wavelength of 1100 nm in Geiger mode is measured for excess bias voltages of 3 V and 4 V, where Id refers to the photocurrent of the 2×20 μm2 device at different wavelengths, and Iref is the reference photodiode current. The timing response (Jitter) for the APD when exposed to a pulsed laser at 637 nm and 1 V excess bias is measured as 900 ps at full width of half maximum (FWHM).

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 May 2012
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 8375, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques VI, 83750Q (22 May 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.920561
Show Author Affiliations
Mahdi Aminian, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
Amir Sammak, Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)
Lin Qi, Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)
Lis K. Nanver, Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)
Edoardo Charbon, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8375:
Advanced Photon Counting Techniques VI
Mark A. Itzler, Editor(s)

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