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Proceedings Paper

InGaAs/InP negative-feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) and solid state photomultipliers (SSPMs)
Author(s): Xudong Jiang; Mark A. Itzler; Kevin O'Donnell; Mark Entwistle; Krystyna Slomkowski
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Paper Abstract

Due to the inherent positive feedback mechanism involved in the impact ionization avalanche process, InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) have historically exhibited certain shortcomings such as low counting rate and inability to resolve photon number. To overcome some of the performance limitations of regular SPADs, we have developed negative feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) which employ a negative feedback mechanism to regulate the avalanche process. The fabrication process of NFADs is flexible and is based on our design platform used to provide industry-leading SPAD performance. The operation of NFAD devices is also very simple, with only a DC bias is required. Various discrete devices and matrices composed of different elements have been designed, fabricated and characterized. For discrete devices, ~10% photon detection efficiency has been realized consistent with acceptable afterpulsing probability, providing a convenient photon-counting solution for certain applications. The negative feedback mechanism significantly improves the uniformity of the output pulse heights and avalanche charge per detection event, resulting in a low "charge excess noise" factor. We demonstrate that when NFAD devices are configured in a matrix format, they have the ability to resolve photon number and work effectively as solid state photomultipliers (SSPMs) in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region. The InGaAs/InP NFAD SSPMs will have the potential to replace photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultiplier (SiPMs) in applications where single photon sensitivity in the SWIR region beyond ~0.9 μm is critical.

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 May 2012
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 8375, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques VI, 83750U (22 May 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.919074
Show Author Affiliations
Xudong Jiang, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark A. Itzler, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Kevin O'Donnell, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark Entwistle, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Krystyna Slomkowski, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8375:
Advanced Photon Counting Techniques VI
Mark A. Itzler, Editor(s)

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