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Proceedings Paper

Optical spectroscopic characteristics of lactate and mitochondrion as new biomarkers in cancer diagnosis: understanding Warburg effect
Author(s): C.-H. Liu; X. H. Ni; Yang Pu; Y. L. Yang; F. Zhou; R. Zuzolo; W. B. Wang; V. Masilamani; A. Rizwan; R. R. Alfano
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Paper Abstract

Cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis even under normoxia and mostly under hypoxia. Warburg proposed this effect of altered metabolism in cells more than 80 years ago. It is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Optical spectroscopy can be used to explore this effect. Pathophysiological studies indicate that mitochondria of cancer cells are enlarged and increased in number. Warburg observed that cancer cells tend to convert most glucose to lactate regardless of the presence of oxygen. Previous observations show increased lactate in breast cancer lines. The focus of this study is to investigate the relative content changes of lactate and mitochondria in human cancerous and normal breast tissue samples using optical spectroscopic techniques. The optical spectra were obtained from 30 cancerous and 25 normal breast tissue samples and five model components (Tryptophan, fat, collagen, lactate and mitochondrion) using fluorescence, Stokes shift and Raman spectroscopy. The basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and a set of algorithm were used to analyze the spectra. Our analyses of fluorescence spectra showed a 14 percent increase in lactate content and 2.5 times increase in mitochondria number in cancerous breast tissue as compared with normal tissue. Our findings indicate that optical spectroscopic techniques may be used to understand Warburg effect. Lactate and mitochondrion content changes in tumors examined using optical spectroscopy may be used as a prognostic molecular marker in clinic applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 31 January 2012
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 8220, Optical Biopsy X, 82200Y (31 January 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.909249
Show Author Affiliations
C.-H. Liu, The City College of New York (United States)
X. H. Ni, The City College of New York (United States)
Yang Pu, The City College of New York (United States)
Y. L. Yang, The City College of New York (United States)
F. Zhou, The City College of New York (United States)
R. Zuzolo, The City College of New York (United States)
W. B. Wang, The City College of New York (United States)
V. Masilamani, King Saud Univ. (Saudi Arabia)
A. Rizwan, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States)
R. R. Alfano, The City College of New York (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8220:
Optical Biopsy X
Robert R. Alfano; Stavros G. Demos, Editor(s)

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