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Proceedings Paper

Selective, high-optrode-count, artifact-free stimulation with infrared light via intrafascicular Utah slanted optrode arrays
Author(s): Gregory A. Clark; Sylvana L. Schister; Noah M. Ledbetter; David J. Warren; Florian Solzbacher; Jonathon D. Wells; Matthew D. Keller; Steven M. Blair; Loren W. Rieth; Prashant R. Tathireddy
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Paper Abstract

Here we present the first use of intraneural and intrafascicular infrared neural stimulation (INS) with early-generation Utah Slanted Optrode Arrays (USOAs) to produce highly selective, artifact-free stimulation of peripheral nerves. USOAs utilize technology previously developed for Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays, and contain 100 silicon optrodes of 0.5 to 1.5 mm length, spaced 400 μm apart in a 10 x 10 grid. The optrodes penetrate into the nerve and closely abut nerve fibers, thus providing multiple, independent, focal sites of stimulation. We first demonstrated that intraneural (but extrafascicular) infrared (IR) stimulation of cat sciatic nerve with conventional optical fibers coupled to a Lockheed Martin Aculight Capella laser produced stronger and more selective neural and muscle compound action potentials (CAPs) than did extraneural INS. We next tested INS through individual USOA optrodes (e.g., wavelength 1873 nm, 5- ms stimulus pulse, < 1 mJ at optrode tip). In contrast to extraneural INS, intrafascicular INS evoked relatively strong and highly selective, optrode-specific responses. Further, there were no observable stimulus artifacts, thereby allowing adjacent electrical recordings. These initial results indicate that intrafascicular INS via USOAs may provide a more efficient, more selective, high-optrode-count means of activating axons, plus greater access to interior nerve fibers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 February 2012
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 8207, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VIII, 82075I (17 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.907627
Show Author Affiliations
Gregory A. Clark, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Sylvana L. Schister, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Noah M. Ledbetter, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
David J. Warren, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Florian Solzbacher, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Jonathon D. Wells, Lockheed Martin Aculight (United States)
Matthew D. Keller, Lockheed Martin Aculight (United States)
Steven M. Blair, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Loren W. Rieth, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
Prashant R. Tathireddy, The Univ. of Utah (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8207:
Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VIII
Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; Andreas Mandelis; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Nikiforos Kollias; Hyun Wook Kang; Henry Hirschberg M.D.; Melissa J. Suter; Brian Jet-Fei Wong M.D.; Justus F. Ilgner M.D.; Stephen Lam; Bodo E. Knudsen M.D.; Steen Madsen; E. Duco Jansen; Bernard Choi; Guillermo J. Tearney M.D.; Laura Marcu; Haishan Zeng; Matthew Brenner; Krzysztof Izdebski, Editor(s)

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