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Proceedings Paper

Direct graphene growth on MgO(111) by physical vapor deposition: interfacial chemistry and band gap formation
Author(s): J. A. Kelber; S. Gaddam; C. Vamala; S. Eswaran; P. A. Dowben
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Paper Abstract

Graphene can be grown directly on MgO(111) by industrially practical and scalable methods: free radical-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD). Single layer and double layer films can be produced by PVD, with a ~ 2 monolayer (ML) thick film as the apparent limiting thickness. C(1s) x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) indicate that in both layers, carbon atoms are in two different oxidation states. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) data are consistent with this, showing unequal graphene A site/B site intensities for both single and double layer graphene, yielding C3V symmetry. This lifts the A site/B site chemical equivalence in the graphene lattice, and therefore also the HOMO/LUMO degeneracy at the Dirac point. Consistent with this, a band gap of ~ 0.5 -1 eV has been observed for the two layer film. The XPS, LEED and band gap findings indicate that the graphene/MgO interface is commensurate, and that the MgO surface layer is reconstructed, resulting in carbon→MgO charge transfer. In addition, graphene growth by PVD is self-limiting at 2 monolayers thickness. These findings have implications for graphene growth on other (111) oxide surfaces. The ability to grow MgO(111) films on Si(100)-reported in the literature- points to a direct path to the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (FETs) and spin-FETs on MgO(111)/Si(100).

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 September 2011
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 8100, Spintronics IV, 81000Y (15 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.895457
Show Author Affiliations
J. A. Kelber, Univ. of North Texas (United States)
S. Gaddam, Univ. of North Texas (United States)
C. Vamala, Univ. of North Texas (United States)
S. Eswaran, Univ. of North Texas (United States)
P. A. Dowben, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8100:
Spintronics IV
Henri-Jean M. Drouhin; Jean-Eric Wegrowe; Manijeh Razeghi, Editor(s)

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