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Proceedings Paper

Light's infinitely variable energy velocities in view of the constant speed of light
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Paper Abstract

The discovery of Einstein's hidden variables was presented at the previous "Nature of Light" meeting, and revealed that Max Planck's famous quantum formula was incomplete. The complete quantum formula revealed a previously hidden energy constant for light, 6.626 X 10-34 J/osc (the energy quantum of a single oscillation of light) and a measurement time variable. The "photon" is a time-based collection of sub-photonic elementary particles, namely single oscillations of light. An understanding of the constant speed of light as well as the relative and additive velocities of light's energy quantum is now possible. What emerges is a remarkably fresh and yet classical perspective. Einstein's three-dimensional light-quantum model applied to the recently discovered energy constant suggests the constant energy of an oscillation of light is distributed along its wavelength and is absorbed and emitted as a whole quantum. In a vacuum, light's oscillations travel at the constant speed of light (Lorentzian) regardless of their wavelength. The time-rate (velocity) with which the whole energy quantum of an oscillation is absorbed or emitted varies with its wavelength. The longer the wavelength, the longer it takes for the entire oscillation energy to be absorbed. Light's infinitely variable energy velocities are consistent with the Galilean principle of relative and additive velocities. A realistic mechanism for superluminal absorption and emission becomes apparent and a new corollary is found: Light propagates from every transmitter at the same speed, but reaches receivers at different frequencies, depending on the relative difference between the speed of the transmitter and receiver.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 September 2011
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 8121, The Nature of Light: What are Photons? IV, 812112 (28 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.893548
Show Author Affiliations
Juliana H. J. Mortenson, General Resonance, LLC (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8121:
The Nature of Light: What are Photons? IV
Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri; Andrei Yu. Khrennikov; Al F. Kracklauer, Editor(s)

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