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Proceedings Paper

Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications
Author(s): D. Habs; S. Gasilov; C. Lang; P. G. Thirolf; M. Jentschel; R. Diehl; C. Schroer; C. P. J. Barty; N. V. Zamfir
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Paper Abstract

The upcoming γ facilities MEGa-Ray (Livermore) and ELI-NP (Bucharest) will have a 105 times higher γ flux F0 = 1013/s and a ~30 times smaller band width (ΔEγ/Eγ = BW ≈ 10-3) than the presently best γ beam facility. They will allow to extract a small γ beam of about 30 - 100 μm radius 1 m behind the γ production point, containing the dominant γ energy band width. One can collimate the γ beam down to ΘBW = √ BW/ γe , where γe = Ee/ mec2 is a measure of the energy Ee of the electron beam, from which the γ beam is produced by Compton back-scattering. Due to the γ energy - angle correlation, the angular collimation results at the same time in a reduction of the γ beam band width without loss of "good" γ quanta, however, the primary γ flux F0is reduced to about Fcoll ≈ F0 · 1.5 · ΔEγ/Eγ. For γ rays in the (0.1-100) MeV range, the negative real part δ of the index of refraction n = 1- δ + iβ from coherent Rayleigh scattering (virtual photo effect) dominates over the positive δ contributions from coherent virtual Compton scattering and coherent virtual pair creation scattering (Delbrück scattering). The very small absolute value |δ| ≈ 10-6 - 10-9 of the index of refraction of matter for hard X-rays and γ-rays and its negative sign—in contrast to usual optics—results in a very different γ-ray optics, e.g. focusing lenses become concave and we use stacks of N optimized lenses. It requires very small radii of curvature of the γ lenses and thus very small γ beam radii. This leads to a technical new solution, where the primary γ beam is subdivided into M γ beamlets, which do not interfere with each other, but contribute with their independent intensities. We send the γ beamlets into a two-dimensional array of closely packed cylindrical parabolic refractive lenses, where N ≈ 103 lenses with very small radius of curvature are stacked behind each other, leading to contracted beam spots in one dimension. With a second 1D lens system turned by 900, we can obtain small spots for each of the beamlets. While focusing the beamlets to a much smaller spot size, we can bend them effectively with micro wedges to e.g. parallel beamlets. We can monochromatize these γ beamlets within the rocking curve of a common Laue crystal, using an additional angle selection by a collimator to reach a strongly reduced band width of 10-4 - 10-6. We propose the use of a further lens/wedge arrays or Bragg reflection to superimpose the beamlets to a very small total γ beam spot. Many experiments gain much from the high beam resolution and the smaller focal spot. This new γ optics requires high resolution diagnostics, where we want to optimize the focusing, using very thin target wires of a specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) isotope to monitor the focusing for the resonance energy. With such beams we can explore new nuclear physics of higher excited states with larger level densities. New phenomena, like the transition from chaotic to regular nuclear motion, weakly-bound halo states or states decaying by tunneling can be studied. The higher level density also allows to probe parity violating nuclear forces more sensitively. This γ optics improves many applications, like a more brilliant positron source, a more brilliant neutron source, higher specific activity of medical radioisotopes or NRF micro-imaging.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 May 2011
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 8075, Harnessing Relativistic Plasma Waves as Novel Radiation Sources from Terahertz to X-Rays and Beyond II, 807507 (11 May 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.891512
Show Author Affiliations
D. Habs, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. München (Germany)
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik (Germany)
S. Gasilov, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. München (Germany)
C. Lang, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. München (Germany)
P. G. Thirolf, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. München (Germany)
M. Jentschel, Institut Laue Langevin (France)
R. Diehl, Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
C. Schroer, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)
C. P. J. Barty, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
N. V. Zamfir, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8075:
Harnessing Relativistic Plasma Waves as Novel Radiation Sources from Terahertz to X-Rays and Beyond II
Dino A. Jaroszynski, Editor(s)

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