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Proceedings Paper

Approximate nearest neighbors via dictionary learning
Author(s): Anoop Cherian; Vassilios Morellas; Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
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Paper Abstract

Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) in high dimensional vector spaces is a fundamental, yet challenging problem in many areas of computer science, including computer vision, data mining and robotics. In this work, we investigate this problem from the perspective of compressive sensing, especially the dictionary learning aspect. High dimensional feature vectors are seldom seen to be sparse in the feature domain; examples include, but not limited to Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptors, Histogram Of Gradients, Shape Contexts, etc. Compressive sensing advocates that if a given vector has a dense support in a feature space, then there should exist an alternative high dimensional subspace where the features are sparse. This idea is leveraged by dictionary learning techniques through learning an overcomplete projection from the feature space so that the vectors are sparse in the new space. The learned dictionary aids in refining the search for the nearest neighbors to a query feature vector into the most likely subspace combination indexed by its non-zero active basis elements. Since the size of the dictionary is generally very large, distinct feature vectors are most likely to have distinct non-zero basis. Utilizing this observation, we propose a novel representation of the feature vectors as tuples of non-zero dictionary indices, which then reduces the ANN search problem into hashing the tuples to an index table; thereby dramatically improving the speed of the search. A drawback of this naive approach is that it is very sensitive to feature perturbations. This can be due to two possibilities: (i) the feature vectors are corrupted by noise, (ii) the true data vectors undergo perturbations themselves. Existing dictionary learning methods address the first possibility. In this work we investigate the second possibility and approach it from a robust optimization perspective. This boils down to the problem of learning a dictionary robust to feature perturbations, viz. paving the way for a novel Robust Dictionary Learning (RDL) framework. In addition to the above model, we also propose a novel LASSO based multi-regularization hashing algorithm which utilizes the consistency properties of the non-zero active basis for increasing values of the regularization weights. Even though our algorithm is generic and has wide coverage in different areas of scientific computing, the experiments in the current work are mainly focused towards improving the speed and accuracy of ANN for SIFT descriptors, which are high-dimensional (128D) and are one of the most widely used interest point detectors in computer vision. Preliminary results from SIFT datasets show that our algorithm is far superior to the state-of-the-art techniques in ANN.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 June 2011
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 8058, Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Neural Networks, Biosystems, and Nanoengineering IX, 80581M (3 June 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.887484
Show Author Affiliations
Anoop Cherian, Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities (United States)
Vassilios Morellas, Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities (United States)
Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8058:
Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Neural Networks, Biosystems, and Nanoengineering IX
Harold Szu, Editor(s)

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