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Proceedings Paper

Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis
Author(s): Arend H. J. Kolk; Ngoc A. Dang; Sjoukje Kuijper; Tim Gibson; Richard Anthony; Mareli M. Claassens; Erwin Kaal; Hans-Gerd Janssen
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Paper Abstract

The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 May 2011
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 8029, Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine, Disaster Response, and Environmental Monitoring; and Biometric Technology for Human Identification VIII, 802903 (16 May 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.883848
Show Author Affiliations
Arend H. J. Kolk, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen (Netherlands)
Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Ngoc A. Dang, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Sjoukje Kuijper, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen (Netherlands)
Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Tim Gibson, T&D Technology (United Kingdom)
Richard Anthony, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen (Netherlands)
Mareli M. Claassens, Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa)
Erwin Kaal, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
ATAS GL International (Netherlands)
Hans-Gerd Janssen, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Unilever N.V. (Netherlands)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8029:
Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine, Disaster Response, and Environmental Monitoring; and Biometric Technology for Human Identification VIII
B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar; Sárka O. Southern; Kevin N. Montgomery; Salil Prabhakar; Arun A. Ross; Carl W. Taylor; Bernhard H. Weigl, Editor(s)

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